Argentine War of Independence
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution; the territory of modern Argentina was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with its capital city in Buenos Aires, seat of government of the Spanish viceroy. Modern Uruguay and Bolivia were part of the viceroyalty, began their push for autonomy during the conflict, becoming independent states afterwards; the vast area of the territory and slow communications led most populated areas to become isolated from each other. The wealthiest regions of the viceroyalty were in Upper Peru. Salta and Córdoba had closer ties with Upper Peru than with Buenos Aires. Mendoza in the west had closer ties with the Captaincy General of Chile, although the Andes mountain range was a natural barrier.
Buenos Aires and Montevideo, who had a local rivalry, located in the La Plata Basin, had naval communications allowing them to be more in contact with European ideas and economic advances than the inland populations. Paraguay was isolated from all other regions. In the political structure most authoritative positions were filled by people designated by the Spanish monarchy, most of them Spanish people from Europe known as peninsulares, without strong compromises for American problems or interests; this created a growing rivalry between the Criollos, white people born in Latin America, the peninsulares, Spanish people who arrived from Europe. Despite the fact that all of them were considered Spanish, that there was no legal distinction between Criollos and Peninsulares, most Criollos thought that Peninsulares had undue weight in political matters; the ideas of the American and French Revolutions, the Age of Enlightenment, promoted desires of social change among the criollos. The full prohibition imposed by Spain to trade with other nations was seen as damaging to the viceroyalty's economy.
The population of Buenos Aires was militarized during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, part of the Anglo-Spanish War. Buenos Aires was captured in 1806, liberated by Santiago de Liniers with forces from Montevideo. Fearing a counter-attack, all the population of Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms was arranged in military bodies, including slaves. A new British attack in 1807 captured Montevideo, but was defeated in Buenos Aires, forced to leave the viceroyalty; the viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte was deposed by the criollos during the conflict, the Regiment of Patricians became a influential force in local politics after the end of the British threat. The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil generated military concern, it was feared that the British would launch a third attack, this time allied with Portugal. However, no military conflict took place, as when the Peninsular War started Britain and Portugal became allies of Spain against France; when the Spanish king Ferdinand VII was captured, his sister Carlota Joaquina sought to rule in the Americas as regent, but nothing came out of it because of the lack of support from both the Spanish Americans and the British.
Javier de Elío created a Junta in Montevideo and Martín de Álzaga sought to make a similar move by organizing a mutiny in Buenos Aires, but the local military forces intervened and thwarted it. Spain appointed a new viceroy, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, Liniers handed the government to him without resistance, despite the proposals of the military to reject him; the military conflict in Spain worsened by 1810. The city of Seville had been invaded by French armies, which were dominating most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Junta of Seville was disestablished, several members fled to Cádiz, the last portion of Spain still resisting. They established a Council of Regency, with political tendencies closer to absolutism than the former Junta; this began the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, as soon. Several citizens thought that Cisneros, appointed by the disestablished Junta, did not have the right to rule anymore, requested the convening of an open cabildo to discuss the fate of the local government.
The military gave their support to the request. The discussion ruled the removal of viceroy Cisneros and his replacement with a government junta, but the cabildo attempted to keep Cisneros in power by appointing him president of such junta. Further demonstrations ensued, the Junta was forced to resign immediately, it was replaced by the Primera Junta. Buenos Aires requested the other cities in the viceroyalty to acknowledge the new Junta and send deputies; the precise purpose of these deputies, join the Junta or create a congress, was unclear at the time and generated political disputes later. The Junta was resisted by all the main locations around Buenos Aires: Córdoba, Montevideo and the Upper Peru. Santiago de Liniers came out of his retirement in Córdoba and organized an army to capture Buenos Aires, Montevideo had naval supremacy over the city, Vicente Nieto organized the actions at the Upper Peru. Nieto proposed to José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, viceroy of the Viceroyalty of Peru at the North, to annex the Upper Peru to it.
He thought that the revolution could be contained in Buenos Aires, before launching a definitive attack. Buenos Aires was declared a rogue city by the Council of Regency, which appointed Montevideo as capital of the viceroyalty
Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva was an Argentine politician and journalist, president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. Avellaneda's main projects while in office were banking and education reform, leading to Argentina's economic growth; the most important events of his government were the Conquest of the Desert and the transformation of the City of Buenos Aires into a federal district. Born in San Miguel de Tucumán, his mother moved with him to Bolivia after the death of his father, Marco Avellaneda, during a revolt against Juan Manuel de Rosas, he studied law without graduating. Back at Tucumán he founded El Eco del Norte, moved to Buenos Aires in 1857, becoming director of the El Nacional and editor of El Comercio de la Plata, he finished his studies at Buenos Aires. Sarmiento helped him to become teacher of economy at the University of Buenos Aires, he wrote "Estudio sobre las leyes de tierras públicas", proposing to give the lands to producers that make production from them. This system, similar to the one employed at the United States, suggested to reduce bureaucracy and pointed that this would allow stable populations and population growth.
He was a member of the house of representatives in 1859 and Minister of Government of Adolfo Alsina in the Buenos Aires province in 1866. During Domingo Faustino Sarmiento's presidency, he was Minister of Education, he implemented the educational reform, defining of his government. Avellaneda attained the presidency in 1874 but had its legitimacy contested by Bartolomé Mitre and supported by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. Mitre was defeated by Julio Argentino Roca. Mitre was held prisoner and judged by military justice, but Avellaneda indulted him in order to promote pacification, he included Rufino de Elizalde and José María Gutiérrez, supporters of Mitre, as members of his cabinet. In line with people like Alberdi or Sarmiento, who thought that European immigration was crucial to the Argentine development, he promoted the "Avellaneda law" that allowed European farmers ease to get terrains; the immigration numbers were doubled in a few years. Having won the revolution and bringing peace to the country, Avellaneda faced the serious economic crisis, centering his efforts on the control of the land with the Conquest of the Desert and expanding the railroads, the cereal and meat exports, the European immigration, specially to Patagonia.
During his presidency, the economy of Argentina was affected by the European crisis putting the country on the edge of debt default. Deciding to take Argentina from its debts, he said that "there are two million Argentines who would economize to their hunger and thirst to fulfill the promises of our public commitments in the foreign markets", he applied a weak protectionism. The crisis was fixed with the growing exports of refrigerated meat to Europe, a new developing industrial method of the time. A prolific writer, his works have been published in 12 volumes. Aged 37, he was the youngest Argentine president elected, he had served in the Argentine Senate for five months in 1874 and returned to the Senate in 1883 until his death. He died on a ship returning from medical treatment in France. Mendelevich, Pablo. El Final. Buenos Aires: Ediciones B. ISBN 978-987-627-166-0. Nicolás Avellaneda at Find a Grave
José Figueroa Alcorta
José Maria Cornelio Figueroa Alcorta was President of Argentina from 12 March 1906 to 12 October 1910. Figueroa Alcorta was born in Córdoba as the son of Teodosia Alcorta, he was elected a National Deputy for Córdoba before becoming Provincial Governor in 1895. In 1898 he returned to the Argentine Congress as a Senator. In 1904 he in 1906 succeeded Manuel Quintana as President, he was an active Freemason. He is the only Argentine President to date to have held office in - and presided - the three powers of democratic government: Legislative, as Deputy and Senator. Works by or about José Figueroa Alcorta at Internet Archive
Antonio González de Balcarce
Antonio González de Balcarce was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century. González de Balcarce was born in Buenos Aires, he joined the armed forces as a cadet in 1788. In the battle for Montevideo in 1807, he was taken to England. After his release, he fought in the service of Spain during the Peninsular War against the Emperor Napoleon. Returning to Buenos Aires, he participated in the May Revolution in 1810. Subsequently, he was named second commander for the military campaign of the independentist forces in the Viceroyalty of Perú, where he won the Battle of Suipacha on November 7, 1810, the first victory over the Spanish royal forces, he was called back and became the Governor of Buenos Aires Province in 1813. In 1816, he served as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ad interim, became the Major General of the armed forces the following year under the government of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. According to historian William Denslow, Antonio Balcarce was a member of the well-known masonic lodge Lautaro.
He took part of the crossing of the Andes to Chile and was San Martin's second-in-command during the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipu. He fell ill in Chile and had to return to Buenos Aires, where he died in 1819
The Argentine Confederation was the last predecessor state of modern Argentina. It was the name of the country from 1831 to 1852, when the provinces were organized as a confederation without a head of state; the governor of Buenos Aires Province managed foreign relations during this time. Under his rule, the Argentine Confederation resisted attacks by Brazil, Uruguay and the UK, as well as other Argentine factions during the Argentine Civil Wars. Rosas was ousted from power in 1852 after the battle of Caseros. Urquiza convened the 1853 Constituent Assembly to write a national constitution. Buenos Aires resisted Urquiza and seceded from the Confederation in 1852, becoming the State of Buenos Aires. Modern Argentina is a small subset of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a colony of Spain which included present day Bolivia, part of Peru and most of Paraguay. Long after attaining independence, Argentina conquered large areas of indigenous land; the May Revolution in Buenos Aires began the Argentine War of Independence, the country was renamed the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
Modern Bolivia and Paraguay became new states. Uruguay was invaded and annexed by Brazil in 1816, until the Thirty-Three Orientals led an insurrection to rejoin the United Provinces; this began the Cisplatine War, which ended with the Treaty of Montevideo that made Uruguay a new state. When Argentine forces returned to Buenos Aires, Juan Lavalle led a military coup against governor Manuel Dorrego, he executed him and began a campaign against all federals, supported by José María Paz in Córdoba, who deposed Juan Bautista Bustos and took similar measures against federals. The rancher Juan Manuel de Rosas organized the resistance against Lavalle, forcing him out of government and restoring the Legislature. Paz organized the Unitarian League with the provinces that joined him, Rosas signed the Federal Pact with Entre Ríos and Santa Fe. All the unitarian provinces were defeated and joined the Pact, became the Argentine Confederation. Rosas declined a new term as governor after the victory over the unitarian league.
Rosas left Buenos Aires and waged the first campaign in the desert in the south, to prevent further malones from the indigenous peoples. The campaign combined military actions and negotiations, succeeded in preventing malones for several years. Despite being absent, the political influence of Rosas in Buenos Aires was still strong, his wife Encarnación Ezcurra was in charge of keeping good relations with the people of the city. On October 11, 1833, the city was filled with announcements of a trial against "The restorer of laws". A large number of gauchos and poor people instigated the Revolution of the Restorers, a demonstration at the gates of the legislature, praising Rosas and demanding the resignation of Governor Juan Ramón Balcarce; the troops who were organized to fight the demonstration instead joined it. The legislature gave up the trial, a month ousted Balcarce and replaced him with Juan José Viamonte. Still, the social unrest led many people to believe that only Rosas could secure order, that Viamonte or Manuel Vicente Maza would be unable to do so.
The murder of Facundo Quiroga in Córdoba increased this belief, so the legislature appointed him governor in 1835, with the sum of public power. Rosas faced a difficult military threat during first years of his second administration. First, the Peru–Bolivian Confederation in the North declared the War of the Confederation against Argentina and Chile. France made diplomatic requests which were denied by Rosas, subsequently imposed a naval blockade as a result. France invaded Martín García island and deposed the Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe, appointing instead the loyal Fructuoso Rivera, who declared war on Argentina in support of France. Domingo Cullen, from Santa Fe, promoted the secession of all provinces, leaving Buenos Aires alone in the conflict. Berón de Astrada, from Corrientes, opposed Rosas as well, Juan Lavalle organized an army to take Buenos Aires; the ranchers organized the "Freemen of the South" militia. Rosas overcame all these threats; the Peru–Bolivian Confederation was defeated by Chile and ceased to exist.
Cullen was defeated and shot, Astrada was defeated by Justo José de Urquiza. The ranchers were defeated as well; the diplomat Manuel Moreno channeled the protests of the British merchants in Buenos Aires who were impacted by the blockade. France lifted the blockade with the Mackau-Arana treaty. Lavalle sought to continue the conflict anyway, he retreated before reaching Buenos Aires, without starting any battles, escaped to the North. He was chased by Oribe, now in charge of Argentine armies, died in unclear circumstances. Despite the French defeat, Uruguay was still an open war theater. Manuel Oribe claimed to be the rightful president of Uruguay, waged the Uruguayan Civil War against Rivera. Rosas supported Oribe in the conflict. Oribe laid siege to Montevideo. Britain and France joined forces with Rivera, captured the Argentine navy, began a new naval blockade against Buenos Aires. Giuseppe Garibaldi helped to secure the Uruguay river, aided by Italian soldiers. A new expedition tried to
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
First Triumvirate (Argentina)
The First Triumvirate was the executive body of government that replaced the Junta Grande in the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. It started its functions on September 23, 1811, was replaced on October 8, 1812. After the defeat of the patriotic forces at the Battle of Huaqui on June 20, 1811, the damaged prestige of the Junta Grande received a fatal blow; the Junta's President, Cornelio Saavedra, decided to take responsibility of the Army of the North so he left office to be in charge of the Army. His departure gave room to the faction that supported liberal Mariano Moreno to take advantage of his absence and try to force the dissolution of the Junta. A Triumvirate was chosen to wield the executive power. However, this Triumvirate was controlled by a Junta Conservadora, composed by the members of the dissolved Junta; this government took actions of great transcendence. Some of which are: Declaration of the Freedom of Press. Approving of the Law of Individual Security. Creation of the Chamber of Appeals.
Regulation of the Institution and Administration of Justice. Created on January 13, 1812 the Intendency of the Buenos Aires Province. Ordered Manuel Belgrano to lead troops to protect Rosario from naval attacks dispatched by Spaniards from Montevideo. Approved the use of the White and Cerulean Blue Insignia by the Army on February 18, 1812. On the same day ordered Belgrano to take charge of the Army of the North. Ordered Lieutenant Colonel José de San Martín the formation of a special cavalry corp which would be known as Granaderos a Caballo. Commission of Immigration: Founded on September 4, 1812 and constituted the first established entity to foment immigration and colonization of the territory; the Wars of Independence impeded its functionality, but it was reactivated by Bernardino Rivadavia when in charge of the government of Buenos Aires, on 1824. Dissolved on August 20, 1830 by Juan Manuel de Rosas; the actions of its members was limited by successive struggles of power. With this government the morenistas neutralized their opposition, but the internal struggles, the menace of an invasion from Brazil and the military misadventures of Manuel Belgrano in the north undermined their power.
José de San Martín, with the members of the Logia Lautaro and the Sociedad Patriótica, formed by morenistas coincided on giving privilege to the organization of a liberation army and declaration of Independence. It was when the destitution of the Triumvirate members and to return to the line of action impulsed by the Society; the Lautaro Lodge, on the other hand, mobilized its troops and the Patriotic Society recurred to public petitions and mobilization of the population. The triumvirate was replaced by the Second Triumvirate. Feliciano Chiclana, Juan José Paso and Manuel de Sarratea. Secretaries without right to vote: Bernardino Rivadavia, Julián Pérez and Vicente López y Planes. Busaniche, José Luis. Historia argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Solar. Lozier Almazán, Bernardo. Martín de Álzaga. Buenos Aires: Ed. Ciudad Argentina. Mitre, Bartolomé. Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana. Buenos Aires: Ed. Eudeba. Segreti, Carlos S. A.. La aurora de la Independencia - Memorial de la Patria. Buenos Aires: Ed.
La Bastilla. Sierra, Vicente D.. Historia de la Argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Garriga. Ternavasio, Marcela. Gobernar la Revolución. Buenos Aires: Ed. Siglo Veintiuno. Bra, Gerardo. "El Motín de las Trenzas". Revista Todo es Historia. Fernández, Alejandro E.. "Un golpe militar en el camino hacia la independencia". Revista Todo es Historia. Heredia, Edmundo. "Expediciones reconquistadoras españolas al Río de la Plata". Revista Todo es Historia