Manakau is a settlement in the Horowhenua District, at the boundary of the Manawatu-Wanganui and Wellington regions of New Zealand's North Island. It lies 8 km north of Otaki and 12 km south of Levin, is connected to both via State Highway 1, which skirts Manakau's western edge; the township 5 km inland from the coast of the Tasman Sea. The name Manakau comes from kau; the name refers to an invasion of the district by notable tribal leader Te Rauparaha, who subdued the area on the strength of his prestige alone, with the local residents putting up no resistance. The streets are named after Māori members of Parliament. In 1886, Manakau became the first place to have a railway station on the newly completed Wellington-Manawatu railway line; the line is now part of the North Island Main Trunk Line, but the station itself has long been closed. Industries in the area include horticulture, there are several plant nurseries in or close to the township.4 Manakau has two marae, affiliated with local hapū from the Ngāti Raukawa iwi.
Tūkorehe Marae and its meeting house of the same name are affiliated with the hapū of Ngāti Tūkorehe.
Auckland Southern Motorway
The Auckland Southern Motorway is the major route south out of the Auckland Region of New Zealand. It is part of State Highway 1; the motorway is 45 kilometres in length, with 28 junctions including termini. It runs from the Central Motorway Junction in central Auckland, through Manukau City and Drury, before terminating onto the Waikato Expressway at the top of the Bombay Hills; the Southern Motorway starts just north of the Central Motorway Junction on the west side of central Auckland. The motorway is a direct extension of the Northern Motorway, which changes to the Southern Motorway just south of exits 424C and 424D. For the first kilometre, the road is two lanes each way due to the constraints of the Victoria Park Viaduct to the north; the motorway delves deep into the Central Motorway Junction, turning eastward to form a southern boundary to the Auckland CBD, the turning south-eastwards as it leaves the junction. There are several exits northbound only through the junction, connecting to the city centre and the Northwest Motorway.
South of the junction is the busiest section of the motorway, busiest section of road in New Zealand carrying an average of 200,000 vehicles per day, to cope with this, the short section between Khyber Pass Road and Gillies Avenue is five lanes wide each way. A large volume of traffic leaves at Gillies Ave to head for Auckland International Airport; the motorway crosses the narrow Newmarket Viaduct, before turning to follow the North Auckland Rail Line to Ellerslie. At Ellerslie, the motorway leaves the railway line and skirts around Penrose, heading in a south-easterly direction towards Hamlins Hill where there are junctions with the South-Eastern Highway and the Mt Wellington Highway. After the Mt Wellington Highway interchange, the motorway curves south to head towards the Tamaki River. After crossing the Tamaki River, the motorway forms a boundary between the suburbs of Papatoetoe to the west and Otara to the east. At Manukau City Centre, the motorway has a major junction with the South-Western Motorway and bypasses Manurewa to the east.
The motorway curves towards the south-westerly direction where it crosses Great South Road at the Takanini interchange. The motorway once bypasses Papakura to the west. At Drury, the motorway has a junction with State Highway 22, before heading south towards the Bombay Hills. At the Bombay interchange, the motorway becomes the Waikato Expressway and continues on south towards the Waikato; the first section of the Southern Motorway opened on 16 July 1953, between Ellerslie-Panmure Highway and Mount Wellington Highway. It was extended southwards in 1955 to Redoubt Road to provide a higher-capacity and faster alternative to Great South Road between Ellerslie and Wiri. In 1963, the motorway was extended at both ends, the northern terminus was moved north to Green Lane East and the southern terminus was moved south to Takanini to allow traffic to bypass Manurewa. Both ends were extended again in 1965, the northern end to St Marks Road at the southern end of the Newmarket Viaduct, the southern end to Great South Road at Runciman, just south of the current Drury interchange.
In 1966, the Newmarket Viaduct was opened, the northern terminus was extended to Khyber Pass Road, bypassing Newmarket. An extension was opened for northbound traffic to Symonds Street. In 1969, the motorway was extended to Wellesley Street, allow traffic in both directions to access the central city. A Symonds Street on-ramp for southbound traffic opened in 1971. Much of the mid-1970s construction on the Southern Motorway involved building on-ramps and off-ramps in the Central Motorway Junction. Ramps to the western side of the CBD at Nelson Street and Hobson Street opened for southbound traffic in 1973 and northbound traffic in 1977. Ramps to Grafton Road, allowing access to the Port of Auckland, opened to southbound traffic in 1975 and northbound traffic in 1978. In 1978, the southern end was extended to Great South Road at St Stephens on the northern side of the Bombay Hills and the northern end was extended to the Northern Motorway at Cook Street/Wellington Street, allowing continuous motorway travel from Tristam Avenue on the North Shore to St Stephens.
In 1988, ramps opened to allow direct motorway access between the Southern Motorway and the Northwestern Motorway. In 1993, the southern end of the motorway was extended near Bombay; the extension bypassed the traffic light-controlled crossroads at St Stephens, known to be an accident blackspot and causing delays of up to two hours during holiday periods. Accompanying the extension was the building of the first part of the Waikato Expressway, which allowed traffic from the Southern Motorway to have a clear run as far as the State Highway 2 interchange on the south side of the Bombay Hills. In 2010 the interchange between the Southwestern Motorway and Southern Motorway at Manukau became operational. On 29 January 2012 the replacement Newmarket Viaduct was opened to northbound traffic; the 7-lane bridge replaced the existing 6-lane structure by moving. The remaining ancillary parts of the project are due for completion in 2013. SH1-20 east–west corridor linking the southern and western motorways between East Tamaki and Onehunga – The Eastern Transport Corridor is a route, reserved for a new motorway to the fast-growing business and residential suburbs of east and south-east Auckland.
Strong political opposition meant. Instead, the focus shifted to public transport improvements. AMETI c
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The Auckland Council is the local government council for the Auckland Region in New Zealand. The governing body consists of 20 councillors, elected from 13 wards. There are 149 members of 21 local boards who make decisions on matters local to their communities, it is the largest council in Oceania, with a $3 billion annual budget, $29 billion of ratepayer equity, 9,870 full-time staff as of 30 June 2016. The council began operating on 1 November 2010, combining the functions of the previous regional council and the region's seven city and district councils into one "super council" or "super city"; the Council was established by a number of Acts of Parliament, an Auckland Transition Agency created by the central government. Both the means by which the Council was established and its structure came under repeated criticism from a broad spectrum during the establishment period; the initial Council elections in October 2010 returned a centre-left council with Len Brown as mayor. Brown was re-elected in October 2013, again with a supportive council.
The 2016 mayoral election was won by Labour MP Phil Goff, who had a landslide victory with his nearest rivals, Victoria Crone in second place, followed by Chlöe Swarbrick. The Auckland Council took over the functions of the Auckland Regional Council and the region's seven city and district councils: Auckland City Council, Manukau City Council, Waitakere City Council, North Shore City Council, Papakura District Council, Rodney District Council and most of Franklin District Council; the Auckland Regional Council was formed in 1989. One of the mainstays of its work was expanding the parks network, it brought into the Auckland Council 26 regional parks with more than 40,000 hectares, including many restored natural habitats and sanctuaries developed in co-operation with the Department of Conservation and volunteers. A variety of public transport-focused projects like the Northern Busway as well as significant rail and public transport investments were realised through the Auckland Regional Transport Authority, much of it supported by retaining Ports of Auckland in public hands to fund the improvements with the dividends.
Until 2010, the Auckland Region had seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority. In the late 2000s, New Zealand's central government and parts of Auckland's society felt that this large number of Councils, the lack of strong regional government were hindering Auckland's progress, that a form of stronger regional government, or an amalgamation under one local council, would be beneficial. Others pointed to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, reduced local participation in politics, with editorialists pointing out that the proponents of the'super city' have not made any promises of savings in light of past rises in rates and utilities bills. In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission on Auckland Governance to report on what restructuring should be done; the report was released on 27 March 2009 and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20–30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010, though it changed some key recommendations of the Royal Commission.
Some recommendations of the Royal Commission which have not been adopted or implemented: 6A The Auckland Council should include a vision for the region in its spatial plan. 6B The Mayor of Auckland's annual "State of the Region" address should describe progress towards the attainment of the vision. 19C: "Leadership support and development programmes for elected councillors should be strengthened." 21D: Auckland Council CCOs and their statements of intent should be subject to performance review by the proposed Auckland Services Performance Auditor. 21A 22A Two Māori members should be elected to the Auckland Council by voters who are on the parliamentary Māori Electoral Roll. 22B There should be a Mana Whenua Forum, the members of which will be appointed by mana whenua from the district of the Auckland Council. 22D The Auckland Council should ensure that each local council has adequate structures in place to enable proper engagement with Māori and consideration of their views in the local councils’ decision-making processes.
Where appropriate, current structures and/or memoranda of understanding should be transferred to local councils. 24F Auckland Council should consider creating an Urban Development Agency, to operate at the direction of the Auckland Council, with compulsory acquisition powers. The Auckland Council should determine the extent to which responsibilities for the delivery of stormwater services are shared between local councils and Watercare Services Limited. 26I Watercare Services Limited should be required by legislation to promote demand management. 26M Watercare Services Limited should be required to prepare a stormwater action plan. 27D The Auckland Council should prepare an e-government strategy as an intrinsic part of its proposed unified service delivery and information systems plan. 28A The Auckland Council should work with consumers, the industry, central government agencies to develop a climate change and energy strategy for the region, including monitoring and reviewing electricity security of supply performance, industry planning and regulation impacting the Auckland region.
30A The Auckland Council should develop a Regional Waste Management Strategy, including strategies for management of organic waste and integration o
New Zealand State Highway 20
State Highway 20 known as the Southwestern Motorway, is a New Zealand state highway linking State Highway 1 at Manukau City Centre with State Highway 16 in Point Chevalier, via Mangere and Onehunga. Along with its spurs, State Highway 20A and 20B, the state highway serves Auckland Airport, the country's largest, therefore making State Highway 20 a key arterial route connecting the airport to the wider Auckland region and most of the upper North Island; the route forms the southern part of the Western Ring Route, a 48 kilometres motorway route bypassing central Auckland. It is the only New Zealand State Highway, motorway. SH 20 stretches from the Auckland Southern Motorway at Manukau to SH 16 at Point Chevalier. From south to north the motorway passes through, or adjacent to, the suburbs of Wiri, Onehunga, Mount Roskill, Mount Albert and Point Chevalier; the final terminus is Northwest Motorway via the Waterview Connection which opened in July 2017. SH 20, SH 20A, SH 20B form an triangular shape between the Puhinui Interchange of the Southwestern Motorway, Auckland International Airport, the SH 20/SH 20A motorway junction.
The Southwestern Motorway bypasses Auckland International Airport, with spurs SH 20A from the north and SH 20B from the east both providing airport access. SH 20A leaves the Southwestern Motorway in Mangere and travels south along an additional stretch of motorway referred to as the "Airport Motorway"; the motorway passes underneath Kirkbride Road at a grade separated intersection which until 2017 was the former terminus for the motorway. The motorway continues south and terminates at the intersection with Verissimo and Landing Drives where SH 20A terminates. From there the road continues south, along George Bolt Memorial Drive, to the airport. SH 20B leaves SH 20 at the Cavendish Dr/Puhinui Rd/Roscommon Rd Interchange of the Southwestern Motorway and travels west along Puhinui Road to the airport terminating at the intersection with Orrs Road; the first section of what would become the Southwestern Motorway was the Onehunga Bypass from Queenstown Road in Hillsborough to Neilson Street in Onehunga, but the start of the motorway proper was not completed until 1983 when the bypass was connected through the new Mangere Bridge to Coronation Road in Mangere.
The northern section was extended first to Hillsborough Road to Hayr Road to Maioro Street, the last section opening on 15 May 2009. The southern section was extended to Puhinui Road in 1997, along with the extensions SH 20A and SH 20B connecting to Auckland International Airport; the final southern section connecting Puhinui Road to State Highway 1 at Manukau was completed in 2010. A duplication of Mangere Bridge, with future provision for rail, was opened in 2010; the final section of the Southwestern Motorway, the Waterview Connection, connecting Maioro Street with State Highway 16 at the Great North Road Interchange commenced construction in 2012 and opened to traffic in July 2017. List of New Zealand state highways List of motorways and expressways in New Zealand
New Zealand State Highway 1
State Highway 1 is the longest and most significant road in the New Zealand road network, running the length of both main islands. It appears on road maps as SH 1 and on road signs as a white number 1 on a red shield, but it has the official designations SH 1N in the North Island, SH 1S in the South Island. SH 1 is 2,033 kilometres long, 952 km in the South Island. For the majority of its length it is a two-lane single carriageway, with at-grade intersections and property accesses, in both rural and urban areas; these sections have some passing lanes. Around 220 km of SH 1 is of motorway or expressway standard as of October 2017: 191 km in the North Island and 28 km in the South Island. Current road construction will see an extra 102 km in the North Island and 6 km in the South Island upgraded to motorway or expressway standard by 2022. SH 1 starts at Cape Reinga, at the northwestern tip of the Aupouri Peninsula, since April 2010 has been sealed for its entire length. From Waitiki Landing south of Cape Reinga, SH 1 travels down the central-eastern side of the peninsula to Kaitaia, New Zealand's northernmost town, before turning south-east across the Northland Peninsula on to Kawakawa in the Bay of Islands, south to the city of Whangarei, the largest urban area in Northland.
SH 1 skirts the south-western Whangarei Harbour, nearing the coast at Ruakaka, before proceeding down to wind through the Brynderwyn Hills before approaching the upper reaches of the Kaipara Harbour. The highway crosses into the Auckland Region, passes through Wellsford and Warkworth, again heading for the east coast. Near Puhoi, on the Hibiscus Coast, SH 1 widens to a four-lane motorway known as the Auckland Northern Motorway; the first 7.5 km of the motorway is an automated toll road. At Orewa, the motorway becomes toll-free, crossing farmland to the North Shore of Auckland; the road crosses through suburbs to the Waitematā Harbour, which it follows before crossing it by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. The motorway comes off the bridge into Auckland's city centre, forms its western boundary as SH 1 proceeds to the Central Motorway Junction. At this junction, SH 1 becomes the Auckland Southern Motorway, after sweeping around the southern end of central Auckland, proceeds in a south-easterly direction.
The motorway continues in a broadly southeast direction across the Auckland isthmus through Manukau and Papakura to the top of the Bombay Hills, just short of the Auckland/Waikato boundary. At Bombay, SH 1 becomes a four-lane dual-carriageway expressway; the expressway takes the highway down the Bombay Hills to Mercer, where SH 1 meets the Waikato River, which it broadly follows for the next 220 km. The Waikato Expressway temporarily ends at Longswamp and becomes a three-laned dual carriageway, resuming at Te Kauwhata before reverting to single carriageway just south of Ohinewai. SH 1 runs as a single carriageway through Huntly to Taupiri; the expressway ends in north-western Hamilton. The highway bypasses the city centre to the west, before crossing to the east side and proceeding south-east out of the city; the expressway resumes at Tamahere, bypassing Cambridge to the north before reverting to a single carriageway east of the town. The highway continues eastward to the town of Tirau, where it turns south to pass through Putaruru and Tokoroa and the surrounding exotic pine plantation forest area.
At Wairakei, SH 1 takes an eastern route to bypass Taupo and meet the Lake Taupo shoreline south of the town near the airport. SH 1 follows the eastern shore of the lake for 50 km to Turangi, at the southern end of the lake. Turning southwards again, SH 1 leaves Turangi and ascends onto the North Island Volcanic Plateau, passing through the fringes of the Tongariro National Park and into the Rangipo Desert, passing the volcanoes of Ruapehu and Tongariro; the road between Rangipo and Waiouru is known as the Desert Road. SH 1 enters the Manawatu-Wanganui Region, descends through an army training area to the end of the Desert Road at Waiouru. From Waiouru, the highway follows tributaries of the Rangitikei River through Taihape to meet the main river at Utiku, it follows the western bank of the Rangitikei through Ohingaiti and Hunterville to Bulls. At Bulls, SH 1 turns southeast to cross the river, turning southwest again 5 km down the road at Sanson. SH 1 crosses the Manawatu Plain, it passes before reaching the end of the plain at Levin.
From Levin, SH 1 follows the narrowing western coastal plain southwards. The highway crosses before passing through Otaki. At Peka Peka, SH 1 widens to a four-lane dual carriageway known as the Kapiti Expressway; the highway bypasses the Kapiti conurbation of Waikanae and Raumati, narrowing again to a two-lane single carriageway south of Mackays Crossing and passing through Paekakariki. Between Paekakariki and Pukerua Bay, SH 1 and the North Island Main Trunk rail line travel along a narrow strip of land between the hills and the sea; the Centennial Highway, as it is known, is a narrow two-lane road, accident prone until a centreline wire rope crash barrier was installed. Travelling through Pukerua Bay, the road becomes dual carriageway once more to Plimmerton, narrowing to single carriageway through the northern suburbs of Porirua to Paremata. At Paremata, SH 1 resumes as dual carriageway along the edge of the Porirua Harbour to Porirua city centre. At Porirua, the highwa