Aztec slavery, within the structure of the Aztec or Mexica society, where slaves constituted an important class. Tlacotin were distinct from war captives, slavery in the Aztec Empire was very different from what Europeans of the same period established in their colonies. Aztec slavery was personal, not hereditary, the slave could have possessions and even own other slaves. Slaves could buy their liberty, and could be set if they were able to show they had been mistreated or if they had children with or were married to their masters. Typically, upon the death of their owner, slaves who had performed outstanding services were freed and they would be washed, provided with new clothes not owned by the master, and declared free. As any person who was not a relative of the master could be declared a slave for trying to prevent a slaves escape, if, one slave was not behaving it would be considered death. Orozco y Berra reports that a master could not sell a slave without the slaves consent, incorrigible slaves were made to wear a wooden collar, affixed by rings at the back.
The collar was not merely a symbol of bad conduct, it was designed to make it harder to run away through a crowd or through narrow spaces, when buying a collared slave, one was informed of how many times that slave had been sold. A slave who was three times as incorrigible could be sold to be sacrificed, those slaves commanded a premium in price. However, if a collared slave managed to present him- or herself in the palace or in a temple. An Aztec could become a slave as a punishment, a murderer sentenced to death could instead, upon the request of the wife of his victim, be given to her as a slave. A father could sell his son into slavery if the son was declared incorrigible by an authority and those who did not pay their debts could be sold as slaves. People could sell themselves as slaves and they could stay free long enough to enjoy the price of their liberty, about twenty blankets, usually enough for a year, after that time they went to their new master. Usually this was the destiny of gamblers and of old ahuini, motolinía reports that some war captives, future victims of human sacrifice, were treated as slaves with all the rights of an Aztec slave until the time of their sacrifice.
It was not clear how they were kept running away. Genízaros La civilización azteca Thomas Ward “Expanding Ethnicity in Sixteenth-Century Anahuac, Ideologies of Ethnicity and Gender in the Nation-Building Process. ”
Slavery in ancient Greece
Slavery was a very common practice in Ancient Greece, as in other places of the time. Some ancient writers considered slavery natural and even necessary and this paradigm was notably questioned in Socratic dialogues, the Stoics produced the first recorded condemnation of slavery. Modern historiographical practice distinguishes chattel slavery from land-bonded groups such as the penestae of Thessaly or the Spartan helots, the chattel helot is an individual deprived of liberty and forced to submit to an owner, who may buy, sell, or lease them like any other chattel. The academic study of Slavery in Ancient Greece is beset by significant methodological problems, documentation is disjointed and very fragmented, focusing primarily on Athens. No treatises are specifically devoted to the subject, and jurisprudence was interested in slavery only inasmuch as it provided a source of revenue and tragedies represented stereotypes while iconography made no substantial differentiation between slaves and craftsmen.
The ancient Greeks had several words for slaves, which leads to ambiguity when they are studied out of their proper context. In Homer and Theognis of Megara, the slave was called δμώς / dmōs, the term has a general meaning but refers particularly to war prisoners taken as booty. During the classical period, the Greeks frequently used ἀνδράποδον / andrapodon, as opposed to τετράποδον / tetrapodon, quadruped, or livestock. The most common word is δοῦλος / doulos, used in opposition to free man, the verb δουλεὐω can be used metaphorically for other forms of dominion, as of one city over another or parents over their children. Finally, the term οἰκέτης / oiketēs was used, meaning one who lives in house, other terms used were less precise and required context, θεράπων / therapōn – At the time of Homer, the word meant squire, during the classical age, it meant servant. ἀκόλουθος / akolouthos – literally, the follower or the one who accompanies, the diminutive ἀκολουθίσκος, used for page boys. παῖς / pais – literally child, used in the way as houseboy.
σῶμα / sōma – literally body, used in the context of emancipation, slaves were present through the Mycenaean civilization, as documented in numerous tablets unearthed in Pylos 140. Two legal categories can be distinguished and slaves of the god, slaves of the god are always mentioned by name and own their own land, their legal status is close to that of freemen. The nature and origin of their bond to the divinity is unclear, the names of common slaves show that some of them came from Kythera, Lemnos or Halicarnassus and were probably enslaved as a result of piracy. The tablets indicate that unions between slaves and freemen were common and that slaves could work and own land and it appears that the major division in Mycenaean civilization was not between a free individual and a slave but rather if the individual was in the palace. · There is no continuity between the Mycenaean era and the time of Homer, where social structures reflected those of the Greek dark ages, the terminology differs, the slave is no longer do-e-ro but dmōs.
In the Iliad, slaves are mainly women taken as booty of war, in the Odyssey, the slaves seem to be mostly women
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour. The work may be light or hard, depending on the context, forms of sentence involving penal labour have included involuntary servitude, penal servitude and imprisonment with hard labour. The term may refer to several related scenarios, labour as a form of punishment, the system used as a means to secure labour. These scenarios can be applied to those imprisoned for political, war, large-scale implementations of penal labour include labour camps, prison farms, penal colonies, penal military units, penal transportation, or aboard prison ships. Punitive labour, known as labour, prison labour. Punitive labour encompasses two types, productive labour, such as work, and intrinsically pointless tasks used as primitive occupational therapy. Sometimes authorities turn prison labour into an industry, as on a farm or in a prison workshop. On the other hand, for example in Victorian prisons, inmates commonly were made to work the treadmill, in some cases, similar punishments included turning the crank machine or carrying cannonballs.
Semi-punitive labour included oakum-picking, teasing apart old tarry rope to make caulking material for sailing vessels, section 1 of the Penal Servitude Act 1891 makes provision for enactments which authorise a sentence of penal servitude but do not specify a maximum duration. It must now be subject to section 1 of the Criminal Justice Act 1948. Sentences of penal servitude were served in prisons and were controlled by the Home Office. After sentencing, convicts would be classified according to the seriousness of the offence of which they were convicted, first time offenders would be classified in the Star class, persons not suitable for the Star class, but without serious convictions would be classified in the intermediate class. Habitual offenders would be classified in the Recidivist class, care was taken to ensure that convicts in one class did not mix with convicts in another. Penal servitude included hard labour as a standard feature, notable recipients of hard labour under British law include Oscar Wilde and John William Gott.
In Inveraray Jail from 1839 prisoners worked up to ten hours a day, most male prisoners made herring nets or picked oakum, those with skills were often employed where the skills could be used, such as shoemaking, tailoring or joinery. Female prisoners picked oakum, knitted stockings or sewed, forms of labour for punishment included the treadmill, shot drill, and the crank machine. Prisoners had to six or more hours a day, climbing the equivalent of 5,000 to 14,000 vertical feet. While the purpose was mainly punitive, the mills could have used to grind grain, pump water
A peon is a person subject to peonage, a type of involuntary servitude of laborers having little control over their employment conditions. Peonage existed historically during the period, especially in Latin America. The English words peon and peonage were derived from the Spanish word, in this sense, peon can be used in either a derogatory or self-effacing context. However, the term has a basis and usage related to much more severe conditions of forced labor. American English, in a historical and legal sense, peon generally referred to someone working in a labor system. The word often implied debt bondage or indentured servitude, there are other usages in contemporary cultures, English language varieties spoken in South Asian countries, a peon is an office boy, an attendant, or an orderly, a person kept around for odd jobs. Computing slang, a peon is an unprivileged user—a person without special privileges on a computer system The other extreme is superuser, financial trading slang, a peon is a market participant who trades in small quantities or a small account.
The origin of form of involuntary servitude goes back to the Spanish conquest of Mexico when conquistadors forced natives to work for Spanish planters. Peonage was prevalent in Latin America especially in the countries of Mexico, Ecuador and it remains an important part of social life, as among the Urarina of the Peruvian Amazon. After the American Civil War of 1861–1865, peonage developed in the Southern United States, poor white farmers and formerly enslaved African Americans known as freedmen who could not afford their own land would farm another persons land, exchanging labor for a share of the crops. This was called sharecropping and initially the benefits were mutual, the land owner would pay for the seeds and tools in exchange for a percentage of the money earned from the crop and a portion of the crop. As time passed, many began to abuse this system. The landowner would force the tenant farmer or sharecropper to buy seeds and tools from the land owner’s store, as sharecroppers were often illiterate, they had to depend on the books and accounting by the landowner and his staff.
Since the tenant farmers could not offset the costs, they were forced into labor due to the debts they owed the land owner. After the U. S. Civil War, the South passed Black Codes, vagrancy laws were included in these Black Codes. Homeless or even unemployed African Americans who were between jobs, most of whom were slaves were arrested and fined as vagrants. Usually lacking the resources to pay the fine, the vagrant was sent to county labor or hired out to a private employer, the authorities tried to restrict the movement of freedmen between rural areas and cities, to between towns. Under such laws, local officials arbitrarily arrested tens of thousands of freedmen and charged them with fines, white merchants and business owners could pay their debts and the prisoner had to work off the debt
This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants. The main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Muslim slavery market in North Africa and the Middle East. In that period Algiers and Tripoli came under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, similar raids were undertaken from Salé and other ports in Morocco. Corsairs captured thousands of ships and repeatedly raided coastal towns, as a result, residents abandoned their former villages of long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy. The raids were such a problem coastal settlements were seldom undertaken until the 19th century, from the 16th to 19th century, corsairs captured an estimated 800,000 to 1.25 million people as slaves. Some corsairs were European outcasts and converts such as John Ward, Hayreddin Barbarossa and Oruç Reis, Turkish Barbarossa Brothers, who took control of Algiers on behalf of the Ottomans in the early 16th century, were notorious corsairs.
The European pirates brought advanced sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, the effects of the Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century. However, the ships and coasts of Christian states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15, European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs entirely and the threat was largely subdued. Occasional incidents occurred, including two Barbary wars between the United States and the Barbary States, until terminated by the French conquest of Algiers in 1830. Piracy by Muslim populations had been known in the Mediterranean since at least the 9th century, in the 14th century Tunisian corsairs became enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in 1390, known as the Barbary Crusade. The Barbary pirates had long attacked English and other European shipping along the North Coast of Africa and they had been attacking English merchant and passengers ships since the 1600s.
Regular fundraising for ransoms was undertaken generally by families and local church groups, the government did not ransom ordinary persons. The English became familiar with captivity narratives written by Barbary pirates prisoners and ransomed captives, during the American Revolution the pirates attacked American ships. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U. S. s oldest non-broken friendship treaty with a foreign power, in 1778 Morocco became the first nation to recognize the new United States. As late as 1798, an islet near Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians, throughout history, geography was on the pirates side on the Northern coast of Africa. The coast was ideal for their wants and needs, with natural harbours often backed by lagoons, it provided a haven for guerrilla warfare, such as attacks on shipping vessels venturing through their territory. On the coast, mountainous areas provided ample reconnaissance for the corsairs as well, ships were spotted from afar, the pirates had time to prepare their attacks and surprise the ships
A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against his or her will. Scholars use the generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour. However – and especially under slavery in broader senses of the word – slaves may have some rights and/or protections, Slavery began to exist before written history, in many cultures. A person could become a slave from the time of their birth, while slavery was institutionally recognized by most societies, it has now been outlawed in all recognized countries, the last being Mauritania in 2007. Nevertheless, there are still more slaves today than at any point in history. The most common form of the trade is now commonly referred to as human trafficking. Chattel slavery is still practiced by the Islamic State of Iraq.
An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo to strip a slain enemy, there is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than slave, should be used when describing the victims of slavery. Chattel slavery, called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought, although it dominated many societies in the past, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is very rare today. Even when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the system of any internationally recognized government. Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage is a form of labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, and their duration, debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their parents debt. It is the most widespread form of slavery today, debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia.
This may include institutions not commonly classified as slavery, such as serfdom, Human trafficking primarily involves women and children forced into prostitution. And is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India, Brazil, in 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. A forced marriage may be regarded as a form of slavery by one or more of the involved in the marriage
Barbary slave trade
The Ottoman provinces in North Africa were nominally under Ottoman suzerainty, but in reality they were mostly autonomous. The North African slave markets were part of the Arab slave trade, European slaves were acquired by Barbary pirates in slave raids on ships and by raids on coastal towns from Italy to the Netherlands, as far north as Iceland and east into the Mediterranean. The Ottoman eastern Mediterranean was the scene of intense piracy, as late as the 18th century, piracy continued to be a consistent threat to maritime traffic in the Aegean. For centuries, large vessels on the Mediterranean relied on galley slaves supplied by North African and Ottoman slave traders, Davis estimates that 1 million to 1. Sixteenth- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbuls additional slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700, the Kingdom of Morocco had already suppressed piracy and recognized the United States as an independent country in 1776.
The slave trade had existed in North Africa since antiquity, with a supply of African slaves arriving through trans-Saharan trade routes, the towns on the North African coast were recorded in Roman times for their slave markets, and this trend continued into the medieval age. The Barbary Coast increased in influence in the 15th century, when the Ottoman Empire took over as rulers of the area, coupled with this was an influx of Sephardi Jews and Moorish refugees, newly expelled from Spain after the Reconquista. With Ottoman protection and a host of immigrants, the coastline soon became reputed for piracy. Crews from the ships were either enslaved or ransomed. Between 1580 and 1680, there were in Barbary around 15,000 renegades, Christian Europeans who converted to Islam, some of them were slaves that converted to Islam but most had probably never been slaves and had come to North Africa looking for opportunity. Without a large central authority and its laws, the pirates themselves started to gain much influence.
In 1785 when Thomas Jefferson and John Adams went to London to negotiate with Tripolis envoy, Ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman, pirate raids for the acquisition of slaves occurred in towns and villages on the African Atlantic seaboard, as well as in Europe. It is estimated that between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by pirates and sold as slaves in Tunis, the slave trade in Europeans in other parts of the Mediterranean is not included in this estimation. The attack was led by a Dutch captain, Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, Janszoon led the 1627 raid on Iceland. Such raids in the Mediterranean were so frequent and devastating that the coastline between Venice to Malaga suffered widespread depopulation, and settlement there was discouraged, in fact, it was said that this was largely because there was no one left to capture any longer. The power and influence of these pirates during this time was such that nations including the United States of America paid tribute in order to stave off their attacks, supplies from the Black Sea appear to have been even larger.
A compilation of statistics and patchy estimates indicates that a little fewer than 2 million Russians, Ukrainians. Additionally, there were slaves from the Caucasus obtained by a mixture of raiding and trading, 16th- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbuls slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700
Arab slave trade
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, Southeast Africa, the Horn of Africa and Europe. This barter occurred chiefly between the era and the early 21st century. The trade was conducted through slave markets in areas, with the slaves captured mostly from Africas interior. These traders captured Bantu peoples from the interior in present-day Kenya and Tanzania, the slaves gradually assimilated in the rural areas, particularly on the Unguja and Pemba islands. The captives were sold throughout the Middle East and this trade accelerated as superior ships led to more trade and greater demand for labour on plantations in the region. Eventually, tens of thousands of captives were being taken every year, the Indian Ocean slave trade was multi-directional and changed over time. Slave labor in East Africa was drawn from the Zanj, Bantu peoples that lived along the East African coast, the Zanj were for centuries shipped as slaves by Arab traders to all the countries bordering the Indian Ocean.
The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs recruited many Zanj slaves as soldiers and, as early as 696 and it grew to involve over 500,000 slaves and free men who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq. The Zanj who were taken as slaves to the Middle East were often used in agricultural work. As the plantation economy boomed and the Arabs became richer, the resulting labor shortage led to an increased slave market. To 5°S. to which the name was applied, wealthy proprietors had received extensive grants of tidal land on the condition that they would make it arable. Sugar cane was prominent among the products of their plantations, particularly in Khūzestān Province, Zanj worked the salt mines of Mesopotamia, especially around Basra. Their jobs were to clear away the topsoil that made the land arable. The working conditions were considered to be extremely harsh and miserable. Many other people were imported into the region, besides Zanj, historian M. A.
Shaban has argued that rebellion was not a slave revolt, but a revolt of blacks. In his opinion, although a few runaway slaves did join the revolt, if the revolt had been led by slaves, they would have lacked the necessary resources to combat the Abbasid government for as long as they did. These slaves were captured mainly from seaside villages from Italy, Spain and more distant places like France or England. They were taken from ships stopped by the pirates, the effects of these attacks were devastating, France and Spain each lost thousands of ships
Mamluk is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to Muslim slave soldiers and these were mostly enslaved Turkic peoples, Egyptian Copts, Circassians and Georgians. Many Mamluks were of Balkan origin, over time, the mamluks became a powerful military knightly caste in various societies that were controlled by Muslim rulers. Particularly in Egypt, but in the Levant, Mesopotamia, in some cases, they attained the rank of sultan, while in others they held regional power as emirs or beys. Most notably, mamluk factions seized the sultanate centered on Egypt and Syria, the Mamluk Sultanate famously defeated the Ilkhanate at the Battle of Ain Jalut. They had earlier fought the western European Christian Crusaders in 1154-1169 and 1213-1221, effectively driving them out of Egypt, in 1302 the mamluks formally expelled the last Crusaders from the Levant, ending the era of the Crusades. While mamluks were purchased as property, their status was above ordinary slaves, in a sense they were like enslaved mercenaries.
In the Middle Ages, the Mamlukes took up the practice of furusiyya chivalry although Mamluk knights were slaves until their service ended, the Arabic term for a knight was fāris, The faris and the notion of furusiyya originated in pre-Muslim Persian brotherhoods. Within the Muslim world, the fursān became prized as ideal warriors and they were trained in wrestling, and their martial skills were honed first on foot as piéton and perfected when as mounted warriors. They were popularly used as heavy knightly cavalry by a number of different Islamic kingdoms and empires, including the Ayyubid dynasty, the origins of the mamluk system are disputed. Historians agree that a military caste such as the mamluks appeared to develop in Islamic societies beginning with the ninth-century Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad. When in the century has not been determined. Up until the 1990s, it was believed that the earliest mamluks were known as ghilman and were bought by the Abbasid caliphs. By the end of the 9th century, such warrior slaves had become the dominant element in the military, conflict between these ghilman and the population of Baghdad prompted the caliph al-Mutasim to move his capital to the city of Samarra, but this did not succeed in calming tensions.
The caliph al-Mutawakkil was assassinated by some of these slave-soldiers in 861, adult slaves and freemen both served as warriros. The mamluk system developed later, after the return of the caliphate to Baghdad in the 870s and it included the systematic training of young slaves in military and martial skills. The Mamluk system is considered to have been an experiment of al-Muwaffaq. This recent interpretation seems to have been accepted, after the fragmentation of the Abbasid Empire, military slaves, known as either mamluks or ghilman, were used throughout the Islamic world as the basis of military power
History of slavery in the Muslim world
Two rough estimates by scholars of the number of slaves held over twelve centuries in Muslim lands are 11.5 million and 14 million. Under Sharia, children of slaves or prisoners of war could become slaves, Manumission of a slave was encouraged as a way of expiating sins. Many early converts to Islam, such as Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi, were the poor, in theory, slavery in Islamic law does not have a racial or color component, although this has not always been the case in practice. Throughout Islamic history, slaves served in social and economic roles. Slaves were widely employed in irrigation, pastoralism, but the most common use was as soldiers, Some rulers relied on military and administrative slaves to such a degree that the slaves were sometimes in the position to seize power. Among black slaves, there were two females to every one male. The Arab slave trade was most active in West Asia, North Africa, in the early 20th century, slavery was gradually outlawed and suppressed in Muslim lands, largely due to pressure exerted by Western nations such as Britain and France.
However, slavery claiming the sanction of Islam is documented presently in the predominantly Islamic countries of Chad, Niger, Slavery was widely practiced in pre-Islamic Arabia, as well as in the rest of the ancient and early medieval world. The minority were white slaves of foreign extraction, likely brought in by Arab caravaners stretching back to biblical times, native Arab slaves had existed, a prime example being Zayd ibn Harithah, to become Muhammads adopted son. Arab slaves, usually obtained as captives, were generally ransomed off amongst nomad tribes, the slave population increased by the custom of child abandonment, and by the kidnapping, or, the sale of small children. Whether enslavement for debt or the sale of children by their families was common is disputed, free persons could sell their offspring, or even themselves, into slavery. Enslavement was possible as a consequence of committing certain offenses against the law, two classes of slave existed, a purchased slave, and a slave born in the masters home.
Over the latter the master had complete rights of ownership, though slaves were unlikely to be sold or disposed of by the master. Female slaves were at times forced into prostitution for the benefit of their masters, the historical accounts of the early years of Islam report that slaves of non-Muslim masters. Sumayyah bint Khayyat is famous as the first martyr of Islam, Abu Bakr freed Bilal when his master, Umayya ibn Khalaf, placed a heavy rock on his chest in an attempt to force his conversion. A system of labor, much like that which would emerge in the Americas, developed early on. Moreover, the need for labor, in an Islam with large peasant populations, was nowhere near as acute as in the Americas. Slaves in Islam were mainly directed at the service sector - concubines and cooks, the most telling evidence for this is found in the gender ratio, among black slaves traded in Islamic empire across the centuries, there were roughly two females to every male
Slavery in antiquity
Masters could free slaves, and in many cases such freedmen went on to rise to positions of power. This would include children born into slavery but who were actually the children of the master of the house. Their father would ensure that his children were not condemned to a life of slavery, the institution of slavery condemned a majority of slaves to agricultural and industrial labor and they lived hard lives. The Sumerian Code of Ur-Nammu includes laws relating to slaves, written circa 2100 –2050 BCE, the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, dating to c.1700 BCE, makes distinctions between the freeborn and slave. Hittite texts from Anatolia include laws regulating the institution of slavery, in Ancient Egypt, slaves were mainly obtained through prisoners of war. Other ways people could become slaves was by inheriting the status from their parents, one could become a slave on account of his inability to pay his debts. Slavery was the result of poverty. People sold themselves into slavery because they were peasants and needed food.
The lives of slaves were better than that of peasants. Slaves only attempted escape when their treatment was unusually harsh, for many, being a slave in Egypt made them better off than a freeman elsewhere. Young slaves could not be put to work, and had to be brought up by the mistress of the household. Not all slaves went to houses, some sold themselves to temples, or were assigned to temples by the king. Slave trading was not very popular in Ancient Egypt. Afterwards, slave trades sprang up all over Egypt, there was barely any worldwide trade. Rather, the individual seem to have approached their customers personally. Only slaves with special traits were traded worldwide, prices of slaves changed with time. Slaves with a special skill were more valuable than those without one, slaves had plenty of jobs that they could be assigned to. Some had domestic jobs, like taking care of children, brewing, some were gardeners or field hands in stables
Slavery in 21st-century Islamism
Quasi-state-level Islamist groups, including Boko Haram and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, have captured and enslaved women and children, often for sexual slavery. In 2014, both groups were reported to have kidnapped large numbers of girls and younger women, According to Islamism expert Jonathan N. C. Hill, Boko Haram began kidnapping large numbers of girls and young women for use in 2014. The attacks echoed kidnappings of girls and young women for use by Algerian Islamists in the 1990s and early 2000s. Any time they go for an operation and one of the fighters is killed they will force the woman to marry another one. Eventually she becomes a sex slave. The Economist reports that ISIS has taken as many as 2,000 women and children captive, yazidi are a small minority who practice a religion based on a mix of Christian and ancient Mesopotamian beliefs. According to reports endorsed as credible by The Daily Telegraph, virgins among the women were selected. According to a story on the list in Bloomberg, the lists authenticity was established by UN researchers whod gathered anecdotes on similar slave markets in Islamic State-controlled areas.
The captives are non-Muslim minorities, mostly Arab Christians and Yazidis who have refused to convert to Islam, bidders for the captive women and children include the groups own fighters and wealthy Middle Easterners. Female slavery was common during the medieval Arab slave trade, where prisoners of war captured in battle from non-Arab lands often ended up as concubines, in 1899, Winston Churchill wrote about the Islamic slave trade. all, without exception, were hunters of men. To the great markets of Jeddah a continual stream of negro captives has flowed for hundreds of years. The invention of gunpowder and the adoption by the Arabs of firearms facilitated the traffic. The warlike Arab tribes fought and brawled among themselves in ceaseless feud, the negroes trembled in apprehension of capture, or rose locally against their oppressors. The Lieber Code of 1863 codified the protection of civilians and stated that all rape, prohibited under the penalty of death and subsequent laws of war and humanitarian law have made maltreatment of civilians criminal.
Slavery was formally abolished in all countries in the mid 20th century. Earlier in the 20th century, Islamist authors declared slavery outdated without actually clearly affirming and promoting its abolition and this has caused at least one scholar to bemoan the notable evasions and silences of Muhammad Qutb. and the dogged refusal of Mawlana Mawdudi to give up on slavery. The letter accuses the group of instigating fitna – sedition – by instituting slavery under its rule in contravention of the consensus of the Islamic scholarly community. He contrasted the adultery and that most odious form of casual sex that are found in Europe, with that clean