A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or fictional, without regard to context or scale, such as in brain mapping, DNA mapping, or computer network topology mapping; the space being mapped may be two dimensional, such as the surface of the earth, three dimensional, such as the interior of the earth, or more abstract spaces of any dimension, such as arise in modeling phenomena having many independent variables. Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a long tradition and exist from ancient times; the word "map" comes from the medieval Latin Mappa mundi, wherein mappa meant napkin or cloth and mundi the world. Thus, "map" became the shortened term referring to a two-dimensional representation of the surface of the world.
Cartography or map-making is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface, one who makes maps is called a cartographer. Road maps are the most used maps today, form a subset of navigational maps, which include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the British Ordnance Survey: a civilian government agency, internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work. In addition to location information, maps may be used to portray contour lines indicating constant values of elevation, rainfall, etc; the orientation of a map is the relationship between the directions on the map and the corresponding compass directions in reality. The word "orient" is derived from Latin oriens.
In the Middle Ages many maps, including the T and O maps, were drawn with east at the top. The most common cartographic convention, is. Maps not oriented with north at the top: Maps from non-Western traditions are oriented a variety of ways. Old maps of Edo show the Japanese imperial palace as the "top", but at the centre, of the map. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head. Medieval European T and O maps such as the Hereford Mappa Mundi were centred on Jerusalem with East at the top. Indeed, prior to the reintroduction of Ptolemy's Geography to Europe around 1400, there was no single convention in the West. Portolan charts, for example, are oriented to the shores. Maps of cities bordering a sea are conventionally oriented with the sea at the top. Route and channel maps have traditionally been oriented to the waterway they describe. Polar maps of the Arctic or Antarctic regions are conventionally centred on the pole.
Typical maps of the Arctic have 0° meridian towards the bottom of the page. Reversed maps known as Upside-Down maps or South-Up maps, reverse the North is up convention and have south at the top. Ancient Africans including in Ancient Egypt utilised this orientation, as some maps in Brazil do today. Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion maps are based on a projection of the Earth's sphere onto an icosahedron; the resulting triangular pieces may be arranged in any orientation. Many maps are drawn to a scale expressed as a ratio, such as 1:10,000, which means that 1 unit of measurement on the map corresponds to 10,000 of that same unit on the ground; the scale statement can be accurate when the region mapped is small enough for the curvature of the Earth to be neglected, such as a city map. Mapping larger regions, where curvature cannot be ignored, requires projections to map from the curved surface of the Earth to the plane; the impossibility of flattening the sphere to the plane without distortion means that the map cannot have constant scale.
Rather, on most projections the best that can be attained is accurate scale along one or two paths on the projection. Because scale differs everywhere, it can only be measured meaningfully as point scale per location. Most maps strive to keep point scale variation within narrow bounds. Although the scale statement is nominal it is accurate enough for most purposes unless the map covers a large fraction of the earth. At the scope of a world map, scale as a single number is meaningless throughout most of the map. Instead, it refers to the scale along the equator; some maps, called cartograms, have the scale deliberately distorted to reflect information other than land area or distance. For example, this map of Europe has been distorted to show population distribution, while the rough shape of the continent is still discernible. Another example of distorted scale is the famous London Underground map; the basic geographical structure is respected but the tube lines are smoothed to clarify the relationships between stations.
Near the center of the map stations are spaced out more than near the edges of map. Further inaccuracies may be deliberate. For example, cartographers may omit military installations or remove features in order to enhance the clarity of the map. For example, a road map
Dario Toninelli is an Italian footballer who plays for Como. Born in Milan, Toninelli played for A. C. Milan's Berretti under-18 team. In August 2010 Toninelli left for Serie B club Varese on free transfer, losing to Roma in the final of the under-20 reserve league. At the start of 2011–12 season, Toninelli left for Italian third division club Latina. After the club signed Lorenzo Burzigotti, Toninelli was moved to Bassano in temporary deal. On 12 July 2012 Toninelli and Federico Furlan were signed by Bassano in co-ownership deal. In June 2013 the co-ownership were renewed. In June 2014 the co-ownership deal was renewed, he started all 3 promotion playoffs for Bassano in 2014–15 season, including a penalty shootout against Reggiana in semi-finals.. On 25 July 2018, he extended his contract with Bassano until 2016. In 2016, he was signed by Livorno. On 23 August 2018, he signed with Serie D club Como. Following Como's promotion to Serie C, he signed a new 2-year contract with the club on 28 June 2019.
Football.it Profile FIGC Dario Toninelli at Soccerway
In Greek mythology, the Sons of Aegyptus were the fifty progeny of the king of Egypt, Aegyptus. They married the fifty daughters of Danaus, twin brother of Aegyptus. In the most common version of the myth, they were all killed except one, saved by his wife Hypermnestra on their wedding night; the list in the Bibliotheca preserves not only the names of brides and grooms, but those of their mothers. A lot was cast among the sons of Aegyptus to decide which of the Danaids each should marry except for those daughters born to Memphis who were joined by their namesakes, the sons of Tyria. According to Hippostratus, Aegyptus had these progeny by a single woman called Eurryroe, daughter of Nilus. Gaius Julius Hyginus' list is corrupt and some of the names are nearly illegible, it is evident that this catalogue has nothing in common with that of Pseudo-Apollodorus. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies.
Online version at the Topos Text Project. John Tzetzes, Book of Histories, Book VII-VIII translated by Vasiliki Dogani from the original Greek of T. Kiessling's edition of 1826. Online version at theio.com Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website