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Map projection

A map projection is a way to flatten a globe's surface into a plane in order to make a map. This requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane. All projections of a sphere on a plane distort the surface in some way and to some extent. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; every distinct map projection distorts by definition. The study of map projections is the characterization of these distortions. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections. Projections are a subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry, projective geometry, manifolds. However, "map projection" refers to a cartographic projection. Despite the name's literal meaning, projection is not limited to perspective projections, such as those resulting from casting a shadow on a screen, or the rectilinear image produced by a pinhole camera on a flat film plate.

Rather, any mathematical function that transforms coordinates from the curved surface distinctly and smoothly to the plane is a projection. Few projections in practical use are perspective. Most of this article assumes; the Earth and other large celestial bodies are better modeled as oblate spheroids, whereas small objects such as asteroids have irregular shapes. The surfaces of planetary bodies can be mapped if they are too irregular to be modeled well with a sphere or ellipsoid. Therefore, more a map projection is any method of flattening a continuous curved surface onto a plane. A model globe does not distort surface relationships the way maps do, but maps can be more useful in many situations: they are more compact and easier to store; these useful traits of maps motivate the development of map projections. Many properties can be measured on the Earth's surface independent of its geography: Area Shape Direction Bearing DistanceMap projections can be constructed to preserve some of these properties at the expense of others.

Because the curved Earth's surface is not isometric to a plane, preservation of shapes leads to a variable scale and non-proportional presentation of areas. Vice versa, an area-preserving projection can not be conformal, resulting in shapes and bearings distorted in most places of the map; each projection compromises, or approximates basic metric properties in different ways. The purpose of the map determines; because many purposes exist for maps, a diversity of projections have been created to suit those purposes. Another consideration in the configuration of a projection is its compatibility with data sets to be used on the map. Data sets are geographic information. Different datums assign different coordinates to the same location, so in large scale maps, such as those from national mapping systems, it is important to match the datum to the projection; the slight differences in coordinate assignation between different datums is not a concern for world maps or other vast territories, where such differences get shrunk to imperceptibility.

Carl Friedrich Gauss's Theorema Egregium proved that a sphere's surface cannot be represented on a plane without distortion. The same applies to other reference surfaces used as models for the Earth, such as oblate spheroids and geoids. Since any map projection is a representation of one of those surfaces on a plane, all map projections distort; the classical way of showing the distortion inherent in a projection is to use Tissot's indicatrix. For a given point, using the scale factor h along the meridian, the scale factor k along the parallel, the angle θ′ between them, Nicolas Tissot described how to construct an ellipse that characterizes the amount and orientation of the components of distortion. By spacing the ellipses along the meridians and parallels, the network of indicatrices shows how distortion varies across the map. Many other ways have been described for characterizing distortion in projections. Like Tissot's indicatrix, the Goldberg-Gott indicatrix is based on infinitesimals, depicts flexion and skewness distortions.

Rather than the original infinitesimal circle as in Tissot's indicatrix, some visual methods project finite shapes that span a part of the map. For example, a small circle of fixed radius. Sometimes spherical triangles are used. In the first half of the 20th century, projecting a human head onto different projections was common to show how distortion varies across one projection as compared to another. In dynamic media, shapes of familiar coastlines and boundaries can be dragged across an interactive map to show how the projection distorts sizes and shapes according to position on the map. Another way to visualize local distortion is through grayscale or color gradations whose shade represents the magnitude of the angular deformation or areal inflation. Sometimes both are shown by blending two colors to create a bivariate map; the problem of characterizing distortion globally across areas instead of at just a single point is that it involves choosing priorities to reach a compromis

Apus in Chinese astronomy

The modern constellation Apus is not included in the Three Enclosures and Twenty-Eight Mansions system of traditional Chinese uranography because its stars are too far south for observers in China to know about them prior to the introduction of Western star charts. Based on the work of Xu Guangqi and the German Jesuit missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell in the late Ming Dynasty, this constellation has been classified as one of the 23 Southern Asterisms under the name Exotic Bird; the name of the western constellation in modern Chinese is 天燕座, meaning "the heaven swallow constellation". The map of Chinese constellation in constellation Apus area consists of: Chinese astronomy Traditional Chinese star names Chinese constellations 香港太空館研究資源 中國星區、星官及星名英譯表 天象文學 台灣自然科學博物館天文教育資訊網 中國古天文 中國古代的星象系統

Robersonville, North Carolina

Robersonville, incorporated in 1872, is a town located in Martin County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 1,488 at the 2010 census. Robersonville is located in North Carolina's Inner Banks region, it is home to the East Carolina Motor Speedway. Robersonville is located at 35°49′30″N 77°15′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all of it land. According to the 2000 census, there were 1,731 people, 720 households, 467 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,448.7 people per square mile. There were 785 housing units at an average density of 657.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 36.80% White, 61.53% African American, 0.46% Asian, 0.58% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.68% of the population. Out of 720 households, 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 22.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families.

33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.07. 23.7% of the population was under the age of 18, 6.7% were from 18 to 24, 23.4% were from 25 to 44, 24.1% were from 45 to 64, 22.1% were 65 or older. The median age was 42. For every 100 females, there were 75.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 69.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $23,384, the median income for a family was $28,565. Males had a median income of $21,250 versus $19,375 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,431. About 26.2% of families and 30.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.2% of those under age 18 and 24.4% of those age 65 or over. The earliest known citizens of the Robersonville area were the Tuscarora and Morotock Native Americans. However, according to various deeds, family bibles and church records, settlers arrived many years before the Revolutionary War.

One of the earliest known churches of the area was Flat Swamp Primitive Baptist Church, founded in 1776. Among the early settlers of this area was the family of Henry Robason, said to have been born in 1710 in England; the family name became "Roberson" and the family tree grew throughout the region. Before the Civil War, George O. Roberson and his father, owned a store located on the northwest corner of what is now known as Railroad and Roberson Streets; the local militia trained at this store during the Civil War. After returning from the war, George built a store across the street from the original one; when the town was incorporated February 16, 1872, it became the first town in Martin County not located on the Roanoke River. Instead, the railroad was the main artery of trade; the town was named after Henry and George Roberson. Of the 3 brothers, Henry D. Roberson is considered to the "Father of Robersonville." He served as director and one of the foremost promoters of the railroad that ran from Williamston to Tarboro.

It was first known as the Williamston and Tarboro R. R. but, the name was soon changed to Seaboard and Raleigh R. R. the Albemarle and Raleigh R. R. and is now part of the Atlantic Coast Line system. Although the Seaboard and Raleigh Railway Company would not be incorporated until late 1873, town founders envisioned it as a prominent trading center and market for western Martin County. Growing during its first decade, after the railroad’s completion in October 1882, the town had eleven general stores, two physicians, a number of industries by 1884; the population was 400 residents, with an influx of farm families and ambitious young men moving here because of various entrepreneurial and social opportunities. The first mayor was William W. Roberson; the original town commissioners were Henry D. Roberson, Staton Everett, Eli Askew. Vance L. Roberson served the longest tenure of public service of any Robersonville citizen. Henry Staton Everett served longer than any other mayor. Postal Service began on July 1874 with Wilson T. Outterbridge as the first postmaster.

Mrs. Geneva Weaver served the longest term of any Robersonville postmaster; the first electric plant was built around 1914 and was owned and operated. Around 1940, the town contracted to buy current from Greenville. After World War II, a contract was negotiated with Virginia Power. Carolina Power & Light was used. At one time, J. S. Simpson supervised the distribution and maintenance of electricity, under the direction of Town Manager James E. Gray and Clerk Alice Briley. Today, the town has a contract with Inc.. The water and sewage disposal system was installed in 1924; the Robersonville Primitive Baptist Church was founded in 1883. The land was given for the sole purpose of building a house of public school; the original church was dismantled in 1883 and the present sanctuary completed the same year. The building was restored in the 1990s by Dr. Everette James and is now home to the St. James Place Museum, one of the oldest buildings in town; this restored historical landmark serves as a fascinating museum of southern folk art.

The late, clapboard Gothic-revival architecture church building now houses original furnishings, folk art, antique duck decoys. More than 100 North Carolina quilts, including 42 African-American examples, hundreds of pieces of North Carolina pottery are exhibited; this museum located on the corner of old U. S. 64 an

Cork City Fire Brigade

The Cork City Fire Brigade is the local authority fire and rescue service for Cork City and its surrounding suburbs. It is a branch of Cork City Council. There are three fire stations manned by Cork City Fire Brigade; the Cork City Fire Brigade is staffed by 153 active personal, making it the second-biggest fire service in Ireland after the Dublin Fire Brigade. In addition to its main purpose of firefighting, the Cork City Fire Brigade deals with floods, road traffic collisions, trapped-in-lift releases, other incidents such as those involving hazardous materials or major transport accidents, it conducts emergency planning in conjunction with other emergency services such as the Garda Síochána and performs fire safety inspections and education. It does not provide an ambulance service as this function is carried out in Cork City by the HSE National Ambulance Service, although all firefighters are trained in first aid and all of its fire engines carry first aid equipment. Organised Insurance Fire Brigades were established in the city following the Fire of Cork in 1622.

Acts passed in 1714 and 1715 made it mandatory for Church of Ireland parishes to provide'small and large fire engines', but it was not until 1799 that the first effective fire engines were located in Cork. These were maintained by the privately-run brigade of the Royal Exchange Assurance Company, two more insurance brigades were established - those of the Atlas and West of England; these brigades declined in the 19th century, leaving the city in need of a dedicated fire service. This led to Cork Corporation forming Cork Fire Brigade in 1877. One of the most notable chapters in Cork Fire Brigade's history occurred in 1920, during the Irish War of Independence, with the Burning of Cork by British forces who hindered attempts to fight the conflagration and wounded four firefighters with gunfire; the fire destroyed over 40 business premises and 300 residential properties, amounting to over five acres of the city. The Brigade entered into a new chapter of its history in 1923 with its first motor-pump being put into service leading to complete mechanization of the fleet and the withdrawal of the old horse-drawn equipment.

Further changes occurred throughout the 20th century, including the opening of the brigade's present headquarters on Anglesea Street in 1975 and improvements in fire-fighting equipment and vehicles. Following the 2019 Cork boundary change, Cork City Fire Brigade saw the addition of another station at Ballincollig and a increased area of responsibility. Cork City Fire Brigade operates two full-time fire stations. Both stations operate in four watches. Cork City Fire Brigade firefighters work in a shift pattern of 9am to 6pm and 6pm to 9am on weekdays with 24 hours shifts on the weekends. In addition to these stations, the brigade operates from a retained fire station at Ballincollig, manned by 9 firefighters; the brigade is at the scene of 89% of fires within ten minutes and has the best performance overall in Ireland, with just over 1% of fires taking more than 20 minutes to reach. Dublin Fire Brigade Garda Síochána List of fire departments Civil Defence Ireland Irish Coast Guard Pat Poland; the First Five Years: The Auxiliary Fire Service.

Pat Poland. Fire Call! Cork Fire Brigade Centenary Review. Pat Poland. For Whom the Bells Tolled: A History of Cork's Fire Services 1622-1900. ISBN 9781845889869. Pat Poland; the Old Brigade: the Rebel City's Firefighting Story 1900-1950. Cork City Fire Brigade

Population Zero

Population Zero is a 2016 found footage crime thriller film, directed by Adam Levins. The movie was shot in the documentary style and had its world premiere at the Newport Beach International Film Festival on April 26, 2016; the filmmakers were inspired to make the movie after learning of the existence of the "Zone of Death", a small portion of Yellowstone National Park, that under the Sixth Amendment's Vicinage Clause, would enable "The Perfect Crime". The Zone was first written about in a Georgetown Law Journal article, "The Perfect Crime," by Michigan State University law professor Brian C. Kalt; the film is a "mockumentary" examining the history of a suspected murderer. In 2009, Nelson confessed to shooting three men to death in Yellowstone National Park and despite his confession being detailed, he was not convicted of the crimes because the crime occurred in an uninhabited area and as such, there is no chance of finding a jury to hear the trial. Years Julian T. Pinder examines the crimes and the legal loophole that allowed Nelson to walk free.

As the film progresses Pinder begins to receive strange and frightening items, evidence of Nelson's crime. In its opening week in Canada, the film grossed C$3841 from 15 theatres; the Hollywood Reporter said that although the film was uneven in places it was "creatively eerie". Shock Till You Drop praised the movie, commenting that "Knowing that POPULATION ZERO is a hypothetical scenario played out is immaterial; the question of whether the film is real or not is not the point. The point is that the federal government recognizes that there is a “Zone of Death” in one of its National Parks, making this film far more unsettling and disturbing than anything to spring from one’s imagination." For the People season 2 episode 2 "This is America" uses a similar concept, but with a character named Arthur Covington murdering his wife in the park Population Zero on IMDb Population Zero at Rotten Tomatoes

Oreophryne brachypus

Oreophryne brachypus is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to the island of New Britain, in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea. Common name Gazelle cross. Adult males measure 19–22.5 mm and adult females 21.5–24 mm in snout–vent length. The snout rounded but approaching truncate in dorsal view; the eyes are prominent. The tympanum is small; the fingers and the toes have grooved terminal disks. The fingers have basal webbing, the toes are maximally half-webbed; the dorsum is smooth. The ground colour is dusky brown. There are indistinct and darker markings, which include a narrow transocular bar and a W-shaped patch behind the head; the male advertisement call is a long "squeak", lasting about four seconds and consisting of a single note. Oreophryne brachypus is an arboreal species that occurs in lowland rainforests, degraded forests, gardens at elevations up to about 350 m above sea level higher. Males call from trees at night. Development is direct, without free-living tadpole stage.

It is an abundant species. It might be locally impacted by logging, it is not known from any protected areas