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Maple syrup

Maple syrup is a syrup made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their roots before winter. Maple trees are tapped by drilling holes into their trunks and collecting the exuded sap, processed by heating to evaporate much of the water, leaving the concentrated syrup. Most trees produce 20 to 60 litres of sap per season. Maple syrup was first made and used by the indigenous peoples of North America, the practice was adopted by European settlers, who refined production methods. Technological improvements in the 1970s further refined syrup processing; the Canadian province of Quebec is by far the largest producer, responsible for 70 percent of the world's output. Maple syrup is graded according to the Canada, United States, or Vermont scales based on its density and translucency. Sucrose is the most prevalent sugar in maple syrup. In Canada, syrups must be made from maple sap to qualify as maple syrup and must be at least 66 percent sugar.

In the United States, a syrup must be made entirely from maple sap to be labelled as "maple", though states such as Vermont and New York have more restrictive definitions. Maple syrup is used as a condiment for pancakes, French toast, oatmeal or porridge, it is used as an ingredient in baking and as a sweetener or flavouring agent. Culinary experts have praised its unique flavour, although the chemistry responsible is not understood. Three species of maple trees are predominantly used to produce maple syrup: the sugar maple, the black maple, the red maple, because of the high sugar content in the sap of these species; the black maple is included as a subspecies or variety in a more broadly viewed concept of A. saccharum, the sugar maple, by some botanists. Of these, the red maple has a shorter season because it buds earlier than sugar and black maples, which alters the flavour of the sap. A few other species of maple are sometimes used as sources of sap for producing maple syrup, including the box elder or Manitoba maple, the silver maple, the bigleaf maple.

Similar syrups may be produced from walnut, birch or palm trees, among other sources. Indigenous peoples living in northeastern North America were the first groups known to have produced maple syrup and maple sugar. According to aboriginal oral traditions, as well as archaeological evidence, maple tree sap was being processed into syrup long before Europeans arrived in the region. There are no authenticated accounts of how maple syrup production and consumption began, but various legends exist. Other stories credit the development of maple syrup production to Nanabozho, Glooskap, or the squirrel. Aboriginal tribes developed rituals around sugar-making, celebrating the Sugar Moon with a Maple Dance. Many aboriginal dishes replaced the salt traditional in European cuisine with maple syrup; the Algonquians recognized maple sap as a source of nutrition. At the beginning of the spring thaw, they made V-shaped incisions in tree trunks; the maple sap was concentrated either by dropping hot cooking stones into the buckets or by leaving them exposed to the cold temperatures overnight and disposing of the layer of ice that formed on top.

In the early stages of European colonization in northeastern North America, local Indigenous peoples showed the arriving colonists how to tap the trunks of certain types of maples during the spring thaw to harvest the sap. André Thevet, the "Royal Cosmographer of France", wrote about Jacques Cartier drinking maple sap during his Canadian voyages. By 1680, European settlers and fur traders were involved in harvesting maple products. However, rather than making incisions in the bark, the Europeans used the method of drilling tapholes in the trunks with augers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, processed maple sap was used as a source of concentrated sugar, in both liquid and crystallized-solid form, as cane sugar had to be imported from the West Indies. Maple sugaring parties began to operate at the start of the spring thaw in regions of woodland with sufficiently large numbers of maples. Syrup makers first bored holes in the trunks more than one hole per large tree; the buckets were made by cutting cylindrical segments from a large tree trunk and hollowing out each segment's core from one end of the cylinder, creating a seamless, watertight container.

Sap filled the buckets, was either transferred to larger holding vessels mounted on sledges or wagons pulled by draft animals, or carried in buckets or other convenient containers. The sap-collection buckets were returned to the spouts mounted on the trees, the process was repeated for as long as the flow of sap remained "sweet"; the specific weather conditions of the thaw period were, still are, critical in determining the length of the sugaring season. As the weather continues to warm, a ma

Collaborative translation

Collaborative translation is a translation technique, created or enabled by modern translation technology where multiple participants can collaborate on the same document generally sharing a computer-assisted translation interface that includes tools for collaboration. Collaborative translation should not be confused with crowdsourcing: the two are different, although the techniques can be used together. Collaborative translation techniques are confused with crowdsourcing techniques by managers who work in translation industry. Collaborative translation refers to the technique of having multiple translation participants with varying tasks participate in a collaborative workspace with shared resources, it is a new technique made possible by cloud computing. The purpose of collaborative translation is to reduce the total time of the translation lifecycle, improve communications between translator and non-translator participants, eliminate many management tasks. Crowdsourcing refers to the practice of assigning translation tasks to a group of individuals via a "flexible open call".

The purpose of crowdsourcing in the translation industry is to simplify the translation assignment phase of the lifecycle, reduce translation rates, in some implementations, get translation for free. For example, a crowdsourced document translation could be accepted by ten individuals in a crowd, each of whom has been assigned a piece of the larger document. Parsing a document, in itself, is not collaborative translation, because there is no real collaboration happening. However, when those ten individuals use collaborative translation technology to work and communicate amongst themselves and with other collaborators like subject matter experts, proofreaders, etc. it becomes collaborative translation. Cloud computing introduced collaborative translation. Managers and proofreaders, who had traditional CAT tools installed on their desktops, could now login to the same system at the same time, sharing translation memory resources in real-time and collaborating via communication features available in the workspace.

Traditional translation workflows were lock-step affairs, where the document first went to A where it was translated to B where it was proofread, maybe to C where a subject matter expert might review it. Questions and answers were handled by the translation manager. However, by allowing all the participants to share resources and work in a single, cloud-based workspace, the lifecycle was shortened and quality increased; some Translation management systems can split a single source file into a number of translation bundles. The bundles can be assigned to multiple translators who can all work on their own part of the file at the same time as the translation corrector. Combining simultaneous translation workflows with collaborative translation helps limit the time required to translate high volume publications

Burney Collection of Newspapers

The Burney Collection consists of over 1,270 17th-18th century newspapers and other news materials, gathered by Charles Burney, most notable for the 18th-century London newspapers. The original collection, totalling 1 million pages, is held by the British Library. Key objects in the collection include: The financial scandal of the 1720s, the South Sea bubble, with reports in the Weekly Journal or Saturday’s Post of how Parliament decided that if they left the country, the directors of the South Sea company "shall suffer death as a felon without benefit of clergy and forfeit to the King all his Lands and Chattels whatsoever." First advertisement for The Memoirs of Fanny Hill in the Whitehall Evening Post, 6 March 1750, in the issue of 17 March, a report of how the publisher was taken into custody and all copies were seized. Insight into English attitudes to contemporary events, such as when the English Chronicle, or, Universal Evening Post used the unusual device of a headline – FRENCH REVOLUTION!! – for a whole page article on 18 of July 1789.

It reported sympathetically on the fall of the Bastille four days earlier, including how the officers were decapitated in ‘a sad but necessary spectacle...a solemnity worthy of the highest admiration.’ The collection begins with Parliamentary papers from 1603, newspapers from the early 1620s. 18th-century London newspapers are the richest part of the collection. The following is an incomplete list of titles covering some of the most popular. Parliamentary papers from 1603 London Newspapers The Daily Courant *, the first daily newspaper published in London The London Gazette * from 1665 London Chronicle * London Evening Post * Lloyd's Evening Post and British Chronicle * Evening Post * Daily Post * Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser * National papers The Era Periodicals Tatler Spectator English provincial titles from 1712 The Stamford Mercury of 1728, The Leeds Mercury * The Exeter Flying Post * Irish newspapers from 1691 The Dublin Intelligence of 1691 The Belfast News–Letter * Scottish newspapers from 1708 The Aberdeen Journal * The Caledonian Mercury * The Echo or Edinburgh Weekly Journal * Many 18th-century American newspapers, including: The New England Courant, on which Benjamin Franklin worked British Journal * Daily Gazetteer * General Advertiser * Lounger * Mirror * St James' Chronicle or British Evening Post * Whitehall Evening Post or London Intelligencer * Daily News Morning Chronicle Illustrated Police News The Chartist* These items are available as part of the online collection.

Due to rapid deterioration of the collection, a decision was made to microfilm the collection and restrict access to physical copies. The success of the microfilm project led to many other book collections being preserved on film; the Joint Information Systems Committee provides free online access to the collection for all UK Further and Higher Education institutions. History of British newspapers JISC Digitisation Programme List of online newspaper archives List of newspapers in the United Kingdom Hartmut Walravens, International newspaper librarianship for the 21st century, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 92–93, ISBN 978-3-598-21846-0 Terras, Melissa M. Digital images for the information professional, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 114, ISBN 978-0-7546-4860-4 Studer, Historical corpus stylistics: media and change, Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 29, ISBN 978-0-8264-9430-6

Military Revolution

The Military Revolution is the theory that a series of radical changes in military strategy and tactics during the 16th and 17th centuries resulted in major lasting changes in governments and society. The theory was introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s as he focused on Sweden 1560–1660 searching for major changes in the European way of war caused by introduction of portable firearms. Roberts linked military technology with larger historical consequences, arguing that innovations in tactics and doctrine by the Dutch and Swedes 1560–1660, which maximized the utility of firearms, led to a need for more trained troops and thus for permanent forces. Armies grew more expensive; these changes in turn had major political consequences in the level of administrative support and the supply of money and provisions, producing new financial demands and the creation of new governmental institutions. "Thus, argued Roberts, the modern art of war made possible—and necessary—the creation of the modern state".

In the 1990s the concept was modified and extended by Geoffrey Parker, who argued that developments in fortification and siege warfare caused the revolution. Parker argues that the military revolution in Europe gave European powers a distinct advantage, making it possible for the small European powers to conquer the Americas, as well as large parts of Africa and Asia. Parker's argument has been criticized by Cambridge University political scientist Jason Sharman; the concept of a military revolution during this time has received a mixed reception among historians. Noted military historians Michael Duffy and Jeremy Black criticized the theory and have described it as misleading and simplistic. Roberts first proposed the concept of a military revolution in 1955. On 21 January of that year he delivered a lecture before the Queen's University of Belfast. Though historians challenge Roberts' theory, they agree with his basic proposal that European methods of warfare changed profoundly somewhere around or during the Early Modern Period.

Roberts placed his military revolution around 1560–1660 as the period in which linear tactics were developed to take advantage of the effective gunpowder weapons. Ayton and Price have remarked on the importance of the "Infantry Revolution" taking place in the early 14th century, David Eltis has pointed out that the real change to gunpowder weapons and the elaboration of a military doctrine according to that change took place in the early 16th century, not, as Roberts defended, in the late 16th century. Others have defended a period for the military change, thus Jeremy Black thinks that the key time period was that of 1660–1710, which saw an exponential growth in the size of European armies, while Clifford J. Rogers has developed the idea of successive military revolutions at different periods, first an "infantry revolution" in the 14th century, secondly an "artillery revolution" in the 15th century, thirdly a "fortifications revolution" in the 16th, fourth a "fire weapons" revolution between 1580 and 1630, a fifth revolution, the increase in size of European armies, between 1650 and 1715.

Geoffrey Parker has extended the period of the military revolution from 1450 to 1800, the period in which Europeans achieved supremacy over the rest of the world. Some scholars have questioned the revolutionary character of an evolution through four centuries. Clifford Rogers has suggested that the military revolution can best be compared with the concept of "punctuated equilibrium evolution", meaning short bursts of rapid military innovation followed by longer periods of relative stagnation. Shallow formations are ideally suited for defensive deployments, but they are clumsy in offensive missions: the longer the frontage, the more difficult to maintain order and cohesion, or to perform any maneuver wheeling. Gustavus Adolphus understood well that far from being slow and ponderous, the assault columns like those used by Tilly were in fact faster and more flexible, the Swedish King made use of them when required, like in the battle of Alte Veste. Armies did start to use thinner formations, but in a slow evolution, subjected to tactical considerations.

Firearms were not so effective as to determine the deployment of troops, other considerations were observed, like units' experience, assigned mission, terrain, or the need to meet a required frontage with an understrength unit. The debate of line vs column was carried through the 18th Century up to Napoleonic times, with a temporary reverse to deep columns in the campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars. Depth reduction in cavalry formations was a more permanent change introduced by Gustavus Adolphus. In conjunction with less reliance on pistol fire it had the net effect of favouring shock action over firepower, contrary to the tendency defended by Roberts. Roberts' linear tactics concept had an early critic in the younger historian Geoffrey Parker, who asked why the outdated Spanish tercios defeated the Swedish linear formations at the battle of Nördlingen in 1634. Parker instead suggested that the key development was the appearance of the trace italienne fortifications in early modern Europe. In this view, the difficulty of taking such fortifications resulted in a profound change in military strategy.

"Wars became a series of protracted sieges", Parker suggests, open-pitch battles became "irrelevant" in regions where the trace italienne

Archduke Ernest of Austria

Archduke Ernest of Austria was an Austrian prince, the son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maria of Spain. Born in Vienna, he was educated with his brother Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, in the court of Spain. In 1573 and 1587, he was a candidate for the throne of Poland. From 1576 onwards, he was governor in the Archduchy of Austria, where he promoted the counterreformation. In 1590, he became governor of Inner Austria as regent for his young cousin Ferdinand, from 1594 to 1595 he served as governor of the Spanish Netherlands, he died in Brussels in 1595

Someone (McDermott novel)

Someone: A Novel, is the seventh book of fiction by American author Alice McDermott. Published by Farrar and Giroux in 2013, it was a finalist for both the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award. Writing in the New York Times, Janet Maslin praised the novel, stating “Someone” is a wonderfully modest title for such a fine-tuned, beautiful book filled with so much universal experience, such haunting imagery, such urgent matters of life and death.” Maslin named Someone to her best of 2013 books list. Publishers Weekly called the book a “… deceptively simple tour de force.” The Los Angeles Times claimed, “Just as McDermott manages to write lyrically in plain language, she is able to find the drama in uninflected experience.”