The Marañón River is the principal or mainstem source of the Amazon River, arising about 160 km to the northeast of Lima and flowing through a eroded Andean valley in a northwesterly direction, along the eastern base of the Cordillera of the Andes, as far as 5° 36′ southern latitude. Although the term "Marañon River" was applied to the river all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, nowadays the Marañon River is thought to end at the confluence with the Ucayali River, after which most cartographers label the ensuing waterway the Amazon River; the Marañón River is Peru's second longest river according to a 2005 statistical publication by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. The Marañon River was considered the source of the Amazon River starting with the 1707 map published by Padre Samuel Fritz, who indicated the great river “has its source on the southern shore of a lake, called Lauricocha, near Huánuco." Fritz's reasoning was based on the fact that the Marañon River is the largest river branch one encounters when journeying upstream, something evident on his map.
For most of the 18th–19th centuries and into the 20th century, the Marañon River was considered the source of the Amazon. The Marañon River continues to claim the title of the "mainstem source" or "hydrological source" of the Amazon due to its contribution of the highest annual discharge rates; the initial section of the Marañon contains a plethora of pongos, which are gorges in the jungle areas with difficult rapids. The Pongo de Manseriche is the final pongo on the Marañon located just before the river enters the flat Amazon basin, it is 5 km long and located between the confluence with the Rio Santiago, the village of Borja. According to Captain Carbajal, who attempted ascent through the Pongo de Manseriche in the little steamer "Napo," in 1868, it is a vast rent in the Andes about 600 m deep, narrowing in places to a width of only 30 m, the precipices "seeming to close in at the top." Through this canyon the Marañón leaps along, at the rate of 20 km/h. The pongo is known for wrecking many drownings.
Downstream of the Pongo de Manseriche the river has islands, there is nothing visible from its low banks but an immense forest-covered plain known as the selva baja or Peruvian Amazonia. It is home to indigenous peoples such as the Urarina of the Chambira Basin, the Candoshi, the Cocama-Cocamilla peoples. A 552 km section of the Marañon River between Puente Copuma and Corral Quemado is a class IV raftable river, similar in many ways to the Grand Canyon of the United States and has been labeled the "Grand Canyon of the Amazon". Most of this section of the river is in a canyon, up to 3000 m deep on both sides – over twice the depth of the Colorado's Grand Canyon, it is in dry desert-like terrain, much of which receives only 250–350 mm/rain per year with parts such as from Balsas to Jaén known as the hottest "infierno" area of Peru. The Marañon Grand Canyon section flows by the village of Calemar, where Peruvian writer Ciro Alegría based one of his most important novels: La serpiente de oro. One of the first popular descents of the Marañon River occurred In 1743 the Frenchman Charles Marie de La Condamine, who journeyed from the Chinchipe confluence all the way to the Atlantic Ocean.
La Condamine did not descend the initial section of the Marañon by boat due to the plethora of pongos. From where he began his boating descent at the Chiriaco confluence, La Condamine still had to confront several pongos, including the Pongo de Huaracayo and the Pongo de Manseriche; the upper Marañon River has seen a number of descents. An attempt to paddle the river was made by Herbert Rittlinger in 1936. Sebastian Snow was an adventurer who journeyed down most of the river by trekking to Chiriaco River starting at the source near Lake Niñacocha. In 1976 and/or 1977 Laszlo Berty descended the section from Chagual to the jungle in raft. In 1977, a group composed of Tom Fisher, Steve Gaskill, Ellen Toll, John Wasson spent over a month descending the river from Rondos to Nazareth with kayaks and a raft. In 2004, Tim Biggs and companions kayaked the entire river from the Nupe River to Iquitos. In 2012, Rocky Contos descended the entire river with various companions along the way; the Marañon River may supply 20 hydroelectric mega-dams planned in the Andes, it has been speculated that most of the power is destined for export to Brazil, Chile or Ecuador.
Dam survey crews have drafted construction blueprints and the Environmental Impact Statements have been available since November 2009 for the Veracruz dam and since November 2011 the Chadin2 dam. A 2011 law stated "national demand" for the hydroelectric energy, while in 2013 Peruvian president Ollanta Humala explicitly made a connection with mining. Construction of the 406 MW dam in Chaglla District started in 2012. Opposition arose because the dams are expected to disrupt the major source of the Amazon, alter normal silt deposition into the lower river, damage habitat and migration patterns for fish and other aquatic life, displace thousands of residents along the river, damage a national treasure "at least as nice as the Grand Canyon in the USA". Residents have launched efforts to halt the dams along the river with conservation groups such as SierraRios and International Rivers. Potential ecological impacts of 151 new
"Posthumous Forgiveness" is a song by Australian psychedelic music project Tame Impala. It is the fourth track on the 2020 album The Slow Rush, was released as a promotional single on 3 December 2019; the song was written by Kevin Parker, who vocals. The single peaked at number eight on Billboard's Hot Rock Songs chart; the song was called a "reckoning with Parker's now-deceased father", as well as a cathartic rumination on their complicated relationship and Parker now being a celebrity. Pitchfork thought that the riff in the first part of "Posthumous Forgiveness" sounded like something Jimmy Page would have played; the A. V. Club thought that the "mildly trippy effects" in the song "saps poignance" during the first two minutes
The foramen spinosum is one of two foramina located in the base of the human skull, on the sphenoid bone. It is situated just anterior to the spine of the sphenoid bone, just lateral to the foramen ovale; the middle meningeal artery, middle meningeal vein, the meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve pass through the foramen. The foramen spinosum is used as a landmark in neurosurgery, due to its close relations with other cranial foramina, it was first described by Jakob Benignus Winslow in the 18th century. The foramen spinosum is a foramen through the sphenoid bone situated in the middle cranial fossa, it is one of two foramina in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The foramen ovale is one of these two cranial foramina, situated directly anterior and medial to the foramen spinosum; the spine of sphenoid falls posterior to the foramen. Lateral to the foramen is the mandibular fossa, posterior is the Eustachian tube; the foramen spinosum varies in location. The foramen is absent unilaterally, in which case the middle meningeal artery enters the cranial cavity through the foramen ovale.
It may be incomplete, which may occur in half of the population. Conversely, in a minority of cases, it may be duplicated when the middle meningeal artery is duplicated; the foramen may pass through the sphenoid bone at the apex of the spinous process, or along its medial surface. In the newborn, the foramen spinosum is about 2.25 mm long and in adults about 2.56 mm. The width of the foramen extends from 1.05 mm to about 2.1 mm in adults. The average diameter of the foramen spinosum is 2.63 mm in adults. The earliest perfect ring-shaped formation of the foramen spinosum was observed in the eighth month after birth and the latest seven years after birth in a developmental study of the foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and foramen spinosum; the majority of the foramina in the skull studies were round in shape. The sphenomandibular ligament, derived from the first pharyngeal arch and attached to the spine of the sphenoid bone, may be found attached to the rim of the foramen. In other great apes, the foramen spinosum is found not in the sphenoid bone but in parts of the temporal bone such as the squamous part, found at the sphenosquamosal suture, or absent.
The foramen spinosum permits the passage of the middle meningeal artery, middle meningeal vein, the meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve. Due to its distinctive position, the foramen is used as an anatomical landmark during neurosurgery; as a landmark, the foramen spinosum reveals the positions of other cranial foramina, the mandibular nerve and trigeminal ganglion, foramen ovale, foramen rotundum. It may be relevant in achieving haemostasis during trauma surgery; the foramen spinosum was first described by the Danish anatomist Jakob Benignus Winslow in the 18th century. It is so-named because of its relationship to the spinous process of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. However, due to incorrectly declining the noun, the literal meaning is "hole full of thorns"; the correct, but unused name would, in fact, be foramen spinae. Foramina of skull This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 150 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:22:os-0902 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Osteology of the Skull: Internal Surface of Skull" Anatomy figure: 27:02-03 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Schematic view of key landmarks of the infratemporal fossa."
Anatomy of the Skull – 27. Foramen spinosum
Ken Akamatsu is a Japanese manga artist from Tokyo. After success with A. I. Love You from 1994–1997, he wrote Love Hina from 1998 to 2001, his longest work to date has been Negima! Magister Negi Magi from 2003 to 2012, his current serial, UQ Holder!, is a sequel to Negima. Akamatsu is the creator of the J-Comi website, a free digital distributor of out-of-print manga. Sailor Moon was his introduction to manga fandom. In his teens, Akamatsu applied himself to Film Study, he became famous as an illustrator at the Comiket. He used the pen name Awa Mizuno. Akamatsu, still in college proceeded to win the Weekly Shōnen Magazine award twice. Soon after he graduated, his Hito Natsu no Kids Game was awarded the coveted 50th Shōnen Magazine's Rookie Award. After a big hit with A. I. Love You, he made a grand success with his manga, Love Hina; the series appeared in Weekly Shōnen Magazine and has been collected in eleven volumes, which have sold over 6 million copies in Japan, received the Kodansha Manga Award for shōnen in 2001.
Akamatsu had added elements of his own life experiences to the story, this was said to have induced a unique feeling to the manga for Western readers, whose lack of familiarity with Japanese culture for the most part added to the effect. The series, published in America in 2002, was well received in many overseas countries - Akamatsu was surprised that foreign readers found Love Hina to be "cute" and to their liking. Akamatsu appears as a character in the Love Hina anime, in episode 14, the Christmas and Spring specials, he is married to'Kanon' Akamatsu, a singer/idol. His series, Negima! Magister Negi Magi, his longest running manga so far with 355 chapters, like Love Hina made into an anime. A second independent retelling of Negima was made called Negima!?. The first anime adaption was produced by Xebec, the second retelling was produced by Shaft. Shaft produces all of the OVAs for Magical Teacher Negima! and made a new Negima! OVA, Negima! Magister Negi Magi ~Shiroki Tsubasa Ala Alba~, a newer series of OVAs, Maho Sensei Negima!
Mo Hitotsu no Sekai ~Another World~. Along with working on the Negima manga, he was helping with the live action Negima! series. He has no task-based daily schedule for his manga work; when he was younger he could draw one chapter each week, but nowadays he draws 18 pages every 9 days. Thus, he has time to take a week-long break on four-week intervals while maintaining his weekly publishing schedule. In November 2010, he announced he would start a free manga download site for out-of-print titles called J-Comi, announced that all 14 volumes of Love Hina will be its first release; the service is free and without any time restrictions or commissions, with authors receiving payment based on site ads. The comics will be distributed as PDFs without any type of DRM, he expects other manga artists to take advantage of the service. He started a new manga, UQ Holder!, in Weekly Shōnen Magazine. Hito Natsu no Kids Game A. I. Love You Itsudatte My Santa! Love Hina Negima! Magister Negi Magi Ground Defense Force!
Mao-chan UQ Holder! Love Hina Ground Defense Force! Mao-chan Negima! Magister Negi Magi Uta Kata Itsudatte My Santa! Hayate the Combat Butler! Heaven Is a Place on Earth UQ Holder! Ken Akamatsu's personal site J-Comi Ken Akamatsu at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Ken Akamatsu on IMDb
The Theodore W. Richards House is a National Historic Landmark at 15 Follen Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Built in 1900, it was the home until his death of Theodore William Richards, the first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Richards was a leading experimental chemist of his day, measuring the atomic weights of a large number of elements, he was responsible for the growth of Harvard University's graduate chemistry program to one of the finest in the nation. The house was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976; the Richards House was nominally designed by Warren, Smith & Biscoe of Boston, but Richards made specific demands in the design. It is a two-story structure, using steel beams as one of Richards' requests; the ground floor exterior walls consist of five courses of brick, with seaweed sandwiched between the courses in a bid to provide improved insulation to the structure. The second floor of the house is clad in shingles; the main facade is three bays wide, with a symmetrical appearance.
The main entry is accessed by a walk lined with brick walls the join to the house walls. The entry, recessed into the brick wall, is flanked by sidelight windows; the outside of the recess is framed by pilasters and topped by an entablature and a segmented-arch pediment. Above the entrance is a Palladian window, which rises into an eyebrow gable on the modillioned roofline; the first-floor bays flanking the entry are both projecting polygonal bays with four sash windows, there are paired sash windows above them on the second floor. Two decoratively corbelled chimneys pierce the roof; the house interior follows a typical central-hall plan. Theodore Richards was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania in 1868, educated at home, at Haverford College and Harvard University, where he received his PhD in chemistry in 1888. From an early time he was interested in the question of atomic weights, a subject that he would study for most of his professional career. After his graduation he became an instructor at Harvard gaining promotion to full professor in 1901.
He recalculated the atomic weights of a number of chemical elements, developing methodology and apparatus along the way. Richards became the first American to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1914, in recognition for this work. Richards' teaching was important, as he trained new generations of chemists in the practices and methods he used. Harvard established an honorary chemistry professorship in his name in 1925. Richards' house, occupied by him until his death in 1928, his widow until hers in 1941, was designated a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976, it is a contributing element to the Follen Street Historic District, listed in 1986. List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts
The Land of Eupen or Eupen Land, corresponding to the Canton of Eupen, is the northern part of the German-speaking Community of Belgium, lying on the border with Germany. Eupen is the capital of this region. To the south lies the Canton of Sankt Vith, which makes up the rest of the German-speaking Community. In the Land of Eupen, the spoken languages are German and the dialect Ripuarian, spoken in the neighbouring part of Germany and a couple of municipalities in Dutch Limburg, like Kerkrade and Vaals. Eupen Kelmis Lontzen Raeren Land of Herve Voerstreek East Cantons