Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. A shaman is someone, regarded as having access to, influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who enters into a trance state during a ritual, practices divination and healing; the word "shaman" originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. According to ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen, "the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms" such as Negidal, Udehe/Orochi, Ilcha, Orok and Ulcha, "nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning'shaman' derives from Proto-Tungusic" and may have roots that extend back in time at least two millennia; the term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552. The term "shamanism" was first applied by Western anthropologists as outside observers of the ancient religion of the Turks and Mongols, as well as those of the neighbouring Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking peoples.
Upon observing more religious traditions across the world, some Western anthropologists began to use the term in a broad sense. The term was used to describe unrelated magico-religious practices found within the ethnic religions of other parts of Asia, Africa and completely unrelated parts of the Americas, as they believed these practices to be similar to one another. Mircea Eliade writes, "A first definition of this complex phenomenon, the least hazardous, will be: shamanism ='technique of religious ecstasy'." Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness; the shaman enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements.
The shaman operates within the spiritual world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment. Beliefs and practices that have been categorized this way as "shamanic" have attracted the interest of scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, including anthropologists, historians, religious studies scholars and psychologists. Hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal being devoted to the study of shamanism. In the 20th century, many Westerners involved in the counter-cultural movement have created modern magico-religious practices influenced by their ideas of indigenous religions from across the world, creating what has been termed neoshamanism or the neoshamanic movement, it has affected the development of many neopagan practices, as well as faced a backlash and accusations of cultural appropriation and misrepresentation when outside observers have tried to represent cultures to which they do not belong.
The word shamanism derives from the Manchu-Tungus word šaman, meaning'one who knows'. The word "shaman" may have originated from the Evenki word šamán, most from the southwestern dialect spoken by the Sym Evenki peoples; the Tungusic term was subsequently adopted by Russians interacting with the indigenous peoples in Siberia. It is found in the memoirs of the exiled Russian churchman Avvakum; the word was brought to Western Europe in the late 17th century by the Dutch traveler Nicolaes Witsen, who reported his stay and journeys among the Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking indigenous peoples of Siberia in his book Noord en Oost Tataryen. Adam Brand, a merchant from Lübeck, published in 1698 his account of a Russian embassy to China; the etymology of the Evenki word is sometimes connected to a Tungus root ša- "to know". This has been questioned on linguistic grounds: "The possibility cannot be rejected, but neither should it be accepted without reservation since the assumed derivational relationship is phonologically irregular."
Other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, as such would be the only used English word, a loan from this language. However, Mircea Eliade noted that the Sanskrit word śramaṇa, designating a wandering monastic or holy figure, has spread to many Central Asian languages along with Buddhism and could be the ultimate origin of the Tungusic word; this proposal has been critiqued since 1917. Ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen regards it as an "anachronism" and an "impossibility", nothing more than a "far-fetched etymology."21st-century anthropologist and archeologist Silvia Tomaskova argues that by the mid-1600s, many Europeans applied the Arabic term shaitan to the non-Christian practices and beliefs of indigenous peoples beyond the Ural Mountains. She suggests that shaman may have entered the various Tungus dialects as a corruption of this term, been told to Christian missionaries, explorers and colonial administrators with whom the people had increasing contact for centuries.
Ethnolinguists did not develop as a discipline nor achieve contact with these communities until the late 19th century, may have mistakenly "read backward" in time for the origin of this word. A shamaness is somet
The scarlet ibis is a species of ibis in the bird family Threskiornithidae. It inhabits islands of the Caribbean. In form it resembles most of the other twenty-seven extant species of ibis, but its remarkably brilliant scarlet coloration makes it unmistakable, it is one of the two national birds of Tobago. This medium-sized wader is a hardy and prolific bird, it has protected status around the world, its IUCN status is Least Concern. The legitimacy of Eudocimus ruber as a biological classification, however, is in dispute. Traditional Linnaean taxonomy classifies it as a unique species, but some scientists have moved to reclassify it as a subspecies of a more general American ibis species, along with its close relative, the American white ibis; the species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Given the binomial nomenclature of Scolopax rubra, the species was designated Guara rubra and Eudocimus ruber. Biologically the scarlet ibis is closely related to the American white ibis and is sometimes considered conspecific with it, leaving modern science divided over their taxonomy.
The two birds each have the same bones, beaks, feather arrangements and other features – their one marked difference lies in their pigmentation. Traditional taxonomy has regarded the two as distinct. Early ornithological field research revealed no natural crossbreeding among the red and white, lending support to the two-species viewpoint. More recent observation, has documented significant crossbreeding and hybridization in the wild. Researchers Cristina Ramo and Benjamin Busto found evidence of interbreeding in a population where the ranges of the scarlet and white ibises overlap along the coast and in the Llanos in Colombia and Venezuela, they observed individuals of the two species mating and pairing, as well as hybrid ibises with pale orange plumage, or white plumage with occasional orange feathers, have proposed that these birds be classified as a single species. Hybridization has been known to occur in captivity. However, the two color forms persist in the wild despite overlapping ranges and hybrid offspring having a distinctive color type, so according to the cohesion species concept they would be functionally different species.
Some biologists now wish to pair them with Eudocimus albus as two subspecies of the same American ibis. Others define both of them as one and the same species, with ruber being a color variation of albus. Adult plumage is all scarlet; the feathers may show various tints and shades, but only the tips of their wings deviate from their namesake color. A small but reliable marking, these wingtips are a rich inky black and are found only on the longest primaries – otherwise the birds' coloration is "a vivid orange-red luminous in quality." Scarlet ibises have red bills and feet however the bill is sometimes blackish toward the end. They have a long, decurved bill, their legs and neck are long and extended in flight. A juvenile scarlet ibis is a mix of grey and white; as it grows, a heavy diet of red crustaceans produces the scarlet coloration. The color change begins with the juvenile's second moult, around the time it begins to fly: the change starts on the back and spreads across the body while increasing in intensity over a period of about two years.
The scarlet ibis is the only shorebird with red coloration in the world. Adults are 55–63 centimetres long, the males larger than females weigh about 1.4 kilograms. Their bills are on average around 22% longer than those of females; the life span of the scarlet ibis is sixteen years in the wild and twenty years in captivity. An adult scarlet ibis has a wingspan of around 54 centimetres. Though it spends most of its time on foot or wading through water, the bird is a strong flyer: they are migratory and capable of long-distance flight, they move as flocks in a classic V formation. The range of the scarlet ibis is large, colonies are found throughout vast areas of South America and the Caribbean islands. Native flocks exist in Brazil. Flocks gather in wetlands and other marshy habitats, including mud flats and rainforest. There is an outlying colony in the Santos-Cubatão mangroves of Baixada Santista district in southeastern Brazil, considered critically endangered; the highest concentrations are found in the Llanos region between western Venezuela and eastern Colombia.
The fertile and remote tropical grassland plain of the Llanos provides a safe haven far from human encroachment. Together with its relative the bare-faced ibis, the scarlet ibis is remarkably prolific and conspicuous in the region. Scarlet ibis vagrants have been identified in Belize and Panama; the species may well have been a natural vagrant to the Gulf Coast in the 19th century or earlier – in The Birds of America, John James Audubon made brief remarks regarding three rubra specimens he encountered in Louisiana. However all modern occurrences of the species in North America have been introduced or escaped birds. In one notable example from 1962, scarlet ibis eggs were placed in white ibis nests in Florida's Greynolds Park, the resulting population hybridised producing "pink ibises" that are still seen. Mating pairs build nests in a simple style
The davul, atabal or tabl is a large double-headed drum, played with mallets. It has many names depending on the region; these drums are used in the music of Middle East. These drums have both a deep bass sound and a thin treble sound due to their construction and playing style, where different heads and sticks are used to produce different sounds on the same drum; some names of davuls include: tupan davul davil davula daul, tǎpan, tupan tapan, goč tapan tobă/dobă tabl tof daouli meaning "drum" lodra, daulle dohol doli dhol dawola/davola dahol moldvai dob Other Greek names for this drum include Davouli, Toskani, Toubi, Kiossi, Pavouli and Toubaneli. Additionally, other names for the daouli, depending on the area, include toumpano, tymbano, or toumbi, which stem from the ancient Greek word tympano. In the southern Balkans, the rhythm of the tapan is complex and utilizes many accents in numerous traditional time signatures. In Macedonia, tapans are most used to accompany other instruments such as the zurla and gaida, while in Bulgaria they accompany gaida and gadulka.
They are played solo in some Albanian and Macedonian folk dances and songs. For centuries the tapan is irreplaceable at Bulgarian village festivities such as weddings and celebrations of patron saints of homes and villages. In Romania and Moldova the toba is sometimes used to accompany dances. In the regions of Moldavia and Bihor there are some varieties with a small cymbal mounted on top, they are struck with a wooden mallet on one skin and with a thinner stick on the rim or cymbal. In Turkey and Armenia, the davul is most played with the zurna, although it can be played with other instruments and in ensembles as well, it has traditionally been used for communication and for Turkish mehter, or janissary music. In Iraq and the Levant, it is predominantly used in Assyrian folk dance and Assyrian folk/pop music, among Assyrian people, which are accompanied by a zurna, a wind instrument. In Armenia the dhol does not have as large of a circumference and is played with the hands, although a wooden, spoon-shaped drumstick is used.
It is heard in Armenian folk music. Not only is it in folk music but in modern music as well having solos in many prominent songs; the drum shell is made of hard wood walnut or chestnut, though many woods may be in use depending on the region where the drum is made. To make the shell, the wood is boiled in water to make it bendable, it is bent into a cylindrical shape and fastened together; the heads are goat skin, they are shaped into circles by wooden frames. However, one head may be goat skin to provide a higher tone, while the other head can be sheepskin, calfskin, or donkey-skin to provide a lower tone; some say that wolf skin and dog skin are preferred. Rope threaded back and forth across the shell of the drum, from head to head in a zigzag pattern, holds the heads on the drum and provides tension for tuning the drum. Sometimes metal rings or leather straps join neighboring strands of the rope in order to allow for further tuning. Two rings are sometimes attached to the main rope where a belt-like rope is threaded through to hold the drum.
In the former Yugoslavian republics and Bulgaria, the tapan is made in two dimensions, Bulgarian: golem, at about 50 – 55 cm diameter, Bulgarian: mal or tapanche, at about 30 – 35 cm diameter. In Turkey, davuls range in size from 60 cm to 90 cm in diameter. Cow hide is used for the bass pitch drum head side, while goat skin is used for the thin, high pitched side. In Greece, daouli can be 12 to 14 inches for the toumbi up to 3 to 4 feet for daouli; the drum is about 20 to 30 inches. Players use a rope hooked to the drum to hold the drum sideways, so that one head is accessible with the left hand and one with the right; each hand is dedicated to playing one side of the drum though this can vary by local style and tradition. Drummers of this drum uses two kinds of sticks; the drummer plays the accented beats with the dominant hand on the side of the drum with the thicker skin, using a special stick known as the Bulgarian: kukuda or ukanj, Turkish: tokmak, or Greek: daouloxylo. This stick is a thick pipe-like stick about 440 mm long, made with walnut.
Its thick shape as well as the thickness of the head give the accented beats a full sound. Sometimes the drumhead played with the thick stick is muted with a cloth to enhance the fundamental low note of the drum. Unaccented beats are played by the nondominant hand on the side of the drum having the thin skin, using a thin stick or switch called Bulgarian: pracka, Turkish: çubuk, or Greek: daouloverga; this thin stick is held cross-grip, the drummer can hit thin accent strokes by twisting the wrist. These thin sticks are made from soft wood such as willow or cornel; the Balkan school of tapan playing presumes the playing of a melody, where the non-dominant hand is used to express all that the player wishes to say, while the dominant hand is onl
A cymbal is a common percussion instrument. Used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin round plates of various alloys; the majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note. Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion ensembles, jazz bands, heavy metal bands, marching groups. Drum kits incorporate at least a crash, ride, or crash/ride, a pair of hi-hat cymbals. A player of cymbals is known as a cymbalist; the word cymbal is derived from the Latin cymbalum, the latinisation of the Greek word κύμβαλον kymbalon, "cymbal", which in turn derives from κύμβη kymbē, "cup, bowl". In orchestral scores, cymbals may be indicated by the French cymbales. Many of these derive from the word for plates. Cymbals have existed since ancient times. Representations of cymbals may be found in reliefs and paintings from Armenian Highlands, Babylon, ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Rome. References to cymbals appear throughout the Bible, through many Psalms and songs of praise to God.
Cymbals may have been introduced to China from Central Asia in the 3rd or 4th century AD. In India, Cymbals have been in use since the ancient times and are still used across all major temples and Buddhist sites. Gigantic Aartis along Ganges which are revered by Hindus all over the world, are incomplete without large cymbals. Cymbals were employed by Turkish janissaries in the 14th century or earlier. By the 17th century, such cymbals were used in European music, more played in military bands and orchestras by the mid 18th century. Since the 19th century, some composers have called for larger roles for cymbals in musical works, a variety of cymbal shapes and hardware have been developed in response; the anatomy of the cymbal plays a large part in the sound. A hole is drilled in the center of the cymbal, used to either mount the cymbal on a stand or for tying straps through; the bell, dome, or cup is the raised section surrounding the hole. The bell produces a higher "pinging" pitch than the rest of the cymbal.
The bow is the rest of the surface surrounding the bell. The bow is sometimes described in two areas: the crash area; the ride area is the thicker section closer to the bell while the crash area is the thinner tapering section near the edge. The edge or rim is the immediate circumference of the cymbal. Cymbals are measured in inches or centimeters; the size of the cymbal affects its sound, larger cymbals being louder and having longer sustain. The weight describes. Cymbal weights are important to the sound how they play. Heavier cymbals have a louder volume, more cut, better stick articulation. Thin cymbals have a fuller sound, lower pitch, faster response; the profile of the cymbal is the vertical distance of the bow from the bottom of the bell to the cymbal edge. The profile affects the pitch of the cymbal: higher profile cymbals have higher pitch. Cymbals offer a composer nearly endless amounts of effect, their unique timbre allows them to project against a full orchestra and through the heaviest of orchestrations and enhance articulation and nearly any dynamic.
Cymbals have been utilized to suggest frenzy, fury or bacchanalian revels, as seen in the Venus music in Wagner's Tannhäuser, Grieg's Peer Gynt suite, Osmin's aria "O wie will ich triumphieren" from Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Orchestral crash cymbals are traditionally used in pairs, each one having a strap set in the bell of the cymbal by which they are held; such a pair is always known as crash plates. The sound can be obtained by rubbing their edges together in a sliding movement for a "sizzle", striking them against each other in what is called a "crash", tapping the edge of one against the body of the other in what is called a "tap-crash", scraping the edge of one from the inside of the bell to the edge for a "scrape" or "zischen," or shutting the cymbals together and choking the sound in what is called a "hi-hat chick" or crush. A skilled percussionist can obtain an enormous dynamic range from such cymbals. For example, in Beethoven's ninth symphony, the percussionist is employed to first play cymbals pianissimo, adding a touch of colour rather than loud crash.
Crash cymbals are damped by pressing them against the percussionist's body. A composer may write "Let vibrate", secco, or equivalent indications on the score. Crash cymbals have traditionally been accompanied by the bass drum playing an identical part; this combination, played loudly, is an effective way to accentuate a note since it contributes to both low and high frequency ranges and provides a satisfying "crash-bang-wallop". In older music the composer sometimes provided one part for this pair of instruments, writing senza piatti or piatti soli if only one is needed; this came from the common practice of having one percussionist play using one cymbal mounted to the shell of the bass drum. The percussionist would crash the cymbals with the left hand and use a mallet to strike the bass drum with the right; this method is nowadays employed in pit orchestras and called for by composers who desire a certain effect. Stravinsky calls for
Rattle (percussion instrument)
A rattle is a type of percussion instrument which produces a sound when shaken. Rattles are described in the Hornbostel -- Sachs system as Shaken Rattles. Rattles include: Maracas used in Cha Cha Cha and jazz. Chac-chac, as known in Trinidad and the French Antilles; the egg-shaped plastic chicken shake, filled with steel shot and available in varying tones depending on the size and quantity of shot. Folk instruments used in ceremonial dance. Toy rattles for infants. Though there are many different sorts of rattles, some music scores indicate a rattle. Chankana Ganzá Hosho Maracas Maracitos Katsa Chajchas Rainstick In Ancient Egypt, rattles were used during funerary rituals to signify regeneration in the after-life. Rattles became the forerunners of the sistrum; the earliest Egyptian rattles were ovular and made of pottery. During the Predynastic and Old Kingdom periods rattles gained handles and different shapes and were made out of different materials such as basket and stone. Native American people use rattles in ceremonial dances.
Oftentimes, these rattles are meant to represent something. Each figure or depiction can relate to something sacred to their tribe; the sound of rattles forms a connection to the supernatural world when the rattles are employed by shamans. The use of the raven rattle, like the one pictured to the right, always implies power, which when used in dances, symbolize the status of the chief, who has a hereditary right to use the rattle. Indirectly struck idiophones Rattle Rattle Toy rattle Rattles - Polish folk musical instruments
The marimba is a percussion instrument consisting of a set of wooden bars struck with yarn or rubber mallets to produce musical tones. Resonators or pipes suspended underneath the bars amplify their sound; the bars of a chromatic marimba are arranged like the keys of a piano, with the groups of two and three accidentals raised vertically, overlapping the natural bars to aid the performer both visually and physically. This instrument is a type of idiophone, but with a more resonant and lower-pitched tessitura than the xylophone. A person who plays the marimba is called a marimba player. Modern uses of the marimba include solo performances and brass ensembles, marimba concertos, jazz ensembles, marching band and bugle corps, indoor percussion ensembles, orchestral compositions. Contemporary composers have used the unique sound of the marimba more in recent years. Xylophones are used in music of west and central Africa. In Latin America, enslaved Africans recreated them in the 17th centuries; the name marimba stems from Bantu marimba or malimba,'xylophone'.
According to some Western sources, the word'marimba' is formed from ma'many' and rimba'single-bar xylophone,' however the use of the term marimba and/or derivative terms is not present in any West African language. The instrument itself is present, but is called balafon or heri in Mali and/or Guinea, while it is known as gyil among the Akan peoples in and around Ghana; the word marimba and derivative words is used in East and Southern Africa. A survey of the literature on the African marimba and related instruments, like the Xylorimba and ilimba indicate a relationship between the word marimba and the various lamellaphones found all over Central and East Africa. Other sources credit the creation of the marimba and the kalimba to Queen Marimba of the Wakambi people, who live south of Lake Victoria. In the Shona language "imba" means song. Kuimba is to sing. Marimba, is said to be the "mother of song" and the creator of all the instruments, including the marimba. Mama means mother in Kiswahili, so it makes perfect sense that the word mother would be combined with the word "imba", the unconjugated verb for'sing'.
The karimba is said to have been created by Queen Marimba. In much of East & Central Africa the karimba is seen as a hand-held version of the marimba. Diatonic xylophones were introduced to Central America in the 17th century; the first historical record of Mayan musicians using gourd resonator marimbas in Guatemala was made in 1680, by the historian Domingo Juarros. It became more widespread during the 18th and 19th centuries, as Mayan and Ladino ensembles started using it on festivals. In 1821, the marimba was proclaimed the national instrument of Guatemala in its independence proclamation. In 1850, Mexican marimbist Manuel Bolán Cruz, modified the old bow marimba, by the wooden straight one, lengthening the legs so that the musicians could play in a standing mode, expanded the keyboard and replaced the gourd resonators by wooden boxes. In 1892, Mexican musician Corazón de Jesús Borras Moreno expanded marimba to include the chromatic scale by adding another row of sound bars, akin to black keys on the piano.
The name marimba was applied to the orchestra instrument inspired by the Latin American model. In the United States, companies like Deagan and Leedy company adapted the Latin American instruments for use in western music. Metal tubes were used as resonators, fine-tuned by rotating metal discs at the bottom; the marimbas were first used for light dance, such as Vaudeville theater and comedy shows. Clair Omar Musser was a chief proponent of marimba in the United States at the time. French composer Darius Milhaud made the ground-breaking introduction of marimbas into Western classical music in his 1947 Concerto for Marimba and Vibraphone. Four-mallet grip was employed enhancing interest for the instrument. In the late 20th century and contemporary composers found new ways to use marimba: notable examples include Leoš Janáček, Carl Orff, Karl Amadeus Hartmann, Hans Werner Henze, Pierre Boulez and Steve Reich. Marimba bars are made of either wood or synthetic material. Rosewood is the most desirable.
Bars made from synthetic materials fall short in sound quality in comparison to wooden bars, but are less expensive and yield added durability and weather resistance, making them suitable for outdoor use. Bubinga and mahogany have been cited as comparable to rosewood in quality for use as marimba bars; the specific rosewood, Dalbergia stevensonii, only grows in Southern Guatemala and Belize the British Honduras. This wood has a Janka rating of 2200, about three times harder than Silver Maple; the bars are wider and longer at the lowest pitched notes, get narrower and shorter as the notes get higher. During the tuning, wood is taken from the middle underside of the bar to lower the pitch; because of this, the bars are thinner in the lowest pitch register and thicker in the highest pitch register. In Africa, most marimbas are made by local artisans from locally available materials. Marimba bars produce their fullest sound when struck just off center, while striking the bar in the center produces a more articulate tone.
On chromatic marimbas, the accidentals can be played on the extreme front edge of the bar, away from the node if neces
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument; the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications; the date and origin of the first device considered. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years; some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. However, most historians believe that determining a specific time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the definition and the relative instability of materials used to make them.
Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world. However, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, Europeans played instruments from North Africa. Development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, many systems of classification have been used over the years. Instruments can be classified by their material composition, their size, etc.. However, the most common academic method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound; the academic study of musical instruments is called organology. A musical instrument makes sounds.
Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by clapping—to using objects to create music from sounds, musical instruments were born. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment; the concept of melody and the artistic pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the modern notion of "making music". Musical instruments are constructed in a broad array of styles and shapes, using many different materials. Early musical instruments were made from "found objects" such a shells and plant parts; as instruments evolved, so did the selection and quality of materials. Every material in nature has been used by at least one culture to make musical instruments. One plays a musical instrument by interacting with it in some way—for example, by plucking the strings on a string instrument. Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of musical instruments in many parts of the world.
Some finds are 67,000 years old, however their status as musical instruments is in dispute. Consensus solidifies about artifacts dated back to around 37,000 years old and later. Only artifacts made from durable materials or using durable methods tend to survive; as such, the specimens found. In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia; the carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Researchers estimate the flute's age at between 43,400 and 67,000 years, making it the oldest known musical instrument and the only musical instrument associated with the Neanderthal culture. However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the flute's status as a musical instrument. German archaeologists have found mammoth bone and swan bone flutes dating back to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps; the flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, are more accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments.
Archaeological evidence of musical instruments was discovered in excavations at the Royal Cemetery in the Sumerian city of Ur. These instruments, one of the first ensembles of instruments yet discovered, include nine lyres, two harps, a silver double flute and cymbals. A set of reed-sounded silver pipes discovered in Ur was the predecessor of modern bagpipes; the cylindrical pipes feature three side-holes. These excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley in the 1920s, uncovered non-degradable fragments of instruments and the voids left by the degraded segments that, have been used to reconstruct them; the graves these instruments were buried in have been carbon dated to between 2600 and 2500 BC, providing evidence that these instruments were used in Sumeria by this time. Archaeologists in the Jiahu site of central Henan province of China have found flutes made of bones that date back 7,000 to 9,000 years, representing some of the "earliest complete, tightly-dated, multinote musical instruments" found.
Scholars agree that there are no reliable methods of determining the exact chronology of musical instruments across cultures. Comparing and organizing instruments based on their complexity is misleading, since advancements in musical instruments have sometimes reduced complexity. For example, construction of early slit drums involved f