click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

MaracanĂ£ Stadium

The Maracanã named the Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho, is a stadium in Rio de Janeiro. The stadium is part of a complex that includes an arena known by the name of Maracanãzinho, which means "The Little Maracanã" in Portuguese. Owned by the Rio de Janeiro state government, it is, as is the Maracanã neighborhood where it is located, named after the Rio Maracanã, a now canalized river in Rio de Janeiro; the stadium was opened in 1950 to host the FIFA World Cup, in which Brazil was beaten, 2–1, by Uruguay in the deciding game, in front of 199,854 spectators on 16 July 1950. The venue has seen attendances of 150,000 or more at 26 occasions, the last being on 29 May 1983, as 155,253 spectators watched Flamengo beat Santos, 3–0; the stadium has seen crowds of more than 100,000 284 times. But as terraced sections have been replaced with seats over time, after the renovation for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, its original capacity has been reduced to the current 78,838, but it remains the largest stadium in Brazil.

The stadium is used for football matches between the major football clubs in Rio de Janeiro, including Flamengo, Fluminense and Vasco da Gama. It has hosted a number of concerts and other sporting events; the total attendance at the last game of the 1950 World Cup was 199,854, making it the world's largest stadium by capacity when it was inaugurated. After its 2010–2013 renovation, the rebuilt stadium seats 78,838 spectators, making it the largest stadium in Brazil and the second in South America after Estadio Monumental in Peru, it was the main venue of the 2007 Pan American Games, hosting the football tournament and the opening and closing ceremonies. The Maracanã was rebuilt in preparation for the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the 2014 World Cup, for which it hosted several matches, including the final, it served as the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, with the main track and field events taking place at the Estádio Olímpico. The official name of the stadium, Mário Filho, was given in honor of an old Pernambucan journalist, the brother of Nelson Rodrigues, a strong vocal supporter of the construction of the Maracanã.

The stadium's popular name is derived from the Maracanã River, whose point of origin is in the jungle-covered hills to the west, crossing various bairros of Rio's Zona Norte, such as Tijuca and São Cristóvão, via a drainage canal which features sloping sides constructed of concrete. Upon flowing into the Canal do Mangue, it empties into Guanabara Bay; the name "Maracanã" derives from the indigenous Tupi–Guarani word for a type of parrot which inhabited the region. The stadium construction was prior to the formation of the Maracanã neighborhood, once part of Tijuca; the stadium of Red Star Belgrade, the Red Star Stadium, is popularly called Marakana in honor of the Brazilian stadium. After winning the right to host the 1950 FIFA World Cup, the Brazilian government sought to build a new stadium for the tournament; the construction of Maracanã was criticized by Carlos Lacerda Congressman and political enemy of the mayor of the city, general Ângelo Mendes de Morais, for the expense and for the chosen location of the stadium, arguing that it should be built in the West Zone neighborhood of Jacarepaguá.

At the time, a tennis stadium stood in the chosen area. Still it was supported by journalist Mário Filho, Mendes de Morais was able to move the project forward; the competition for the design and construction was opened by the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in 1947, with the construction contract awarded to engineer Humberto Menescal, the architectural contract awarded to seven Brazilian architects, Michael Feldman, Waldir Ramos, Raphael Galvão, Oscar Valdetaro, Orlando Azevedo, Pedro Paulo Bernardes Bastos, Antônio Dias Carneiro. The first cornerstone was laid at the site of the stadium on 2 August 1948. With the first World Cup game scheduled to be played on 24 June 1950, this left a little under two years to finish construction. However, work fell behind schedule, prompting FIFA to send Dr. Ottorino Barassi, the head of the Italian FA, who had organized the 1934 World Cup, to help in Rio de Janeiro. A work force of 1,500 constructed the stadium, with an additional 2,000 working in the final months.

Despite the stadium having come into use in 1950, the construction was only completed in 1965. The opening match of the stadium took place on 16 June 1950. Rio de Janeiro All-Stars beat São Paulo All-Stars 3–1. While the major part of the stadium was finished, it still looked like a construction site. Brazilian officials claimed it could seat over 200,000 people, while the Guinness Book of World Records estimated it could seat 180,000 and other sources pegged capacity at 155,000. What is beyond dispute is that Maracanã overtook Hampden Park as the largest stadium in the world. Despite the stadium's unfinished state, FIFA allowed matches to be played at the venue, on 24 June 1950, the first World Cup match took place, with 81,000 spectators in attendance. In that first match for which Maracanã had been built, Brazil beat Mexico with a final score 4–0, with Ademir becoming the first scorer of a competitive goal at the stadium with his 30th-minute strike. Ademir had one each from Baltasar and Jair.

The match was refereed by Englishman George Reader. Five of Brazil's six games at the tournament were played at Maracan

Wayland's Smithy

Wayland's Smithy is a chambered long barrow located near the village of Ashbury in the south-eastern English county of Oxfordshire. Constructed in the thirty-sixth century BC, during Britain's Early Neolithic period, today it survives in a reconstructed state. Archaeologists have established that the monument was built by pastoralist communities shortly after the introduction of agriculture to Britain from continental Europe. Although representing part of an architectural tradition of long barrow building, widespread across Neolithic Europe, Wayland's Smithy belongs to a localised regional variant of barrows produced in the south-west of Britain, now known as the Severn-Cotswold group. Of these, it is in one of the best surviving conditions; the mound was 185 feet long and 43 feet wide at the south end. Its present appearance is the result of restoration following excavations undertaken by Stuart Piggott and Richard Atkinson in 1962–63, they demonstrated that the site had been built in two different phases, a timber-chambered oval barrow built around 3590 and 3550 BC and a stone-chambered long barrow in around 3460 to 3400 BC.

Wayland's Smithy is along the same hill as the Uffington White Horse and Uffington Castle, while it is close to The Ridgeway, an ancient road running along the Berkshire Downs. In the early middle ages, the site became associated with the mythological figure Wayland the Smith, from which it gained its name. Since the late 20th century it has been used as a ritual site by various modern Pagan groups. Now under the guardianship of the National Trust, it is open without charge to visitors all year round; the Early Neolithic was a revolutionary period of British history. Between 4500 and 3800 BC, it saw a widespread change in lifestyle as the communities living in the British Isles adopted agriculture as their primary form of subsistence, abandoning the hunter-gatherer lifestyle that had characterised the preceding Mesolithic period; this came about through contact with continental societies, although it is unclear to what extent this can be attributed to an influx of migrants or to indigenous Mesolithic Britons adopting agricultural technologies from the continent.

The wooden mortuary house consisted of a paved stone floor with two large posts at either end. A single crouched burial had been placed at one end and, the disarticulated remains of a further 14 individuals were scattered in front of it. Analysis of these remains indicated that they had been subjected to excarnation before burial and deposited in four different phases. Postholes at one end have been interpreted as supporting a timber facade. An earth barrow covered the whole monument with material excavated from two flanking ditches and measured around 15 feet wide and 6 feet deep; the stone tomb consists of two opposing transept chambers and terminal chamber. At the entrance four large sarsen stones stand, having been returned to their upright locations following the 1962 excavations, it is classified by archaeologists as one of the Severn-Cotswold tombs. The large trapezoidal earth barrow erected over it was revetted with a stone kerb and its material was again excavated from two large flanking ditches.

Excavation in 1919 revealed the jumbled remains of one child. The site is important as it illustrates a transition from a timber-chambered barrow to stone-chamber tomb over a period that may have been as short as 50 years. Carbon dating of the burials in the second tomb suggests it was a late use of this style of burial, being similar to West Kennet Long Barrow, in use 200 years before. Wayland's Smithy is one of many prehistoric sites associated with Wayland or Wolund, a Germanic smith-god; the name was applied to the site by the Saxons who settled in the area some four thousand years after Wayland's Smithy was built. The first documented use of the name was in a Saxon charter of King Eadred; the name "Wayland's Smithy" is a reference to the mythological metal-worker Wayland the Smith. This character appears in Norse mythology, a depiction of him is believed to be present on the Franks Casket, on display in the British Museum in London; the monument's name is first recorded in an early medieval land charter from Compton Beauchamp, attributed a date of 955 AD.

In 1738, Francis Wise, the under-keeper of the Bodleian Library, recorded a belief held about the site in local folklore. Like several other early commentators, Wise referred to the site not as "Wayland's Smithy", but only as "Wayland Smith". Wise related that: All the account which the country people are able to give of it is'At this place lived an invisible Smith, if a traveller's Horse had lost a Shoe upon the road, he had no more to do than to bring the Horse to this place with a piece of money, leaving both there for some little time, he might come again and find the money gone, but the Horse new shod; the site was mentioned in a letter sent to the antiquarian William Stukeley by his daughter Anna on 3 October 1758. There is some folklore associating witch relics with the site, it is referred to. In 1828, a one-inch Ordnance Survey map recorded the site's name as being "Wayland Smith's Forge"; the folklorist and archaeologist Leslie Grinsell suggested that the decision to name it this on the map was influenced by Scott's novel.

The deposition of coins at the site has taken place since at least the 1960s, with visitors lodging the coins into cracks in the site's stones. As of 2015, the local wardens from The National Trust are tasked wi

T. S. R. Boase

Thomas Sherrer Ross Boase was a British art historian, university teacher, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. Thomas Boase was born in Dundee, Scotland, to Charles Millet Boase, operator of a bleaching mill at Claverhouse, outside Dundee, of which the Boase family were part-owners, his wife Anne. Boase was educated at a day preparatory school and at Rugby School in England, he fought on the Western Front during World War I in the Oxford and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry and was awarded the Military Cross. Boase studied Modern History at Magdalen College, from 1919 to 1921, was subsequently Fellow and Tutor at Hertford College from 1922 to 1937. From 1937 to 1947, Boase was Director of the Courtauld Institute of Art in London and Professor of History of Art at the University of London. During World War II, he worked in the Government Code and Cipher School at Bletchley Park, followed by the RAF in Cairo, from 1939 to 1941, he was in charge of British Council activities in the Middle East based in Cairo, from 1943 to 1945.

From 1947 to 1968, Boase was President of Magdalen College. He served as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University from 1958 to 1960, he was Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford for 1963–64. Boase became a Fellow of the British Academy in 1961, he was a Trustee of the British Museum. He was a member of the Advisory Council of the Victoria and Albert Museum. BOASE, Thomas Sherrer Ross archive, Courtauld Institute of Art. Books by Thomas Sherrer Ross Boase from Alibris

Raul Lino

Raul Lino da Silva, better known as Raul Lino was a Portuguese architect, architectural theorist, writer. Lino's architectural theses and studies revolved around the theory of the Casa Portuguesa, an idealized concept of Portuguese residential architecture and lifestyle; the cities of Cascais and Sintra, along the Portuguese Riviera, boast the largest concentration of Lino's constructions out of anywhere. Lino played an active part in the cosmopolitanization of Cascais as a summer resort for the wealthy and notable and in the continuation of Sintra as a historicist, romanticist haven. Raul Lino da Silva was born in Lisbon, Portugal, on 21 November 1879, to a well-off construction materials merchant, his family's financial standing allowed Lino to leave Portugal, in 1890, to study in Windsor, for three years. Following his studies in Britain, Lino moved to Germany, where he would study under and work in the atelier of German revivalist architect, Albrecht Haupt, until 1897, when Lino returned to Portugal to finish his degree in architecture.

After returning to Portugal and finishing his studies in architecture, Lino began to work in his father's construction materials business, in 1897. During this time, Lino began his travels across Portugal and his studies of the regionalisms in architecture and style, paying particular note to the Alentejo region. Back to Portugal, he built more than 700 projects. Many were in the Mediterranean Soft Portuguese styles, he was a founding member of the National Academy of Fine Arts and served as its secretary in 1946. Lino was a habitual guest writer for various Portuguese newspapers and journals, including the Diário de Notícias, the Diário Popular, Atlantida. Lino wrote many books and texts about the theory of the architecture of the Portuguese house, such as A Casa Portuguesa - The Portuguese House, Casas Portuguesas - Portuguese Houses and L'Evolution de l'Architecture Domestique au Portugal - The Evolution of Domestic Architecture in Portugal; some of his most important projects were: House in Castilho street, 64 and 66, Lisbon Casa dos Patudos, Alpiarça Tivoli Theatre, Lisbon João de Deus Museum and Kindergarten, Lisbon Gardénia Shop, Lisbon St. Patrick Tower, Estoril Montsalvat House, Estoril Silva Gomes House, Estoril Brazil Pavilion in the Portuguese World Exhibition, Lisbon House of Quinta da Comenda, Arrábida Casa de Santa Maria, Cascais Casa do Cipreste, Sintra Casa dos Penedos, Sintra Casa Branca, Azenhas do Mar Casa Branca, Oeiras Category: Mediterranean Revival architects Raul Lino archives, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Art Library

Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani

Nawab Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani was a Pakistani politician. Born in well known landlord Gurmani family from district Muzaffargarh, he was born in Thatha Gurmani a village in Kot Addu Tehsil. In his role as Minister without Portfolio, he signed the Karachi Agreement of 1949 that established a ceasefire line between Pakistani and Indian areas of Kashmir, which became known as the Line of Control. In 1951, he served as the Executive for Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas and served as Interior Minister of Pakistan from 1951 till 1954. Between 1954 and 1957 he served as Governor of Punjab. In 1955, the post of Punjab Governor was abolished and Gurmani went on to become the first Governor of West Pakistan. Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani belonged to the Gurmani Baloch tribe. After his death his family made a foundation called Gurmani Foundation which gave huge amount amount of one billion rupees in LUMS University Lahore for the establishment of new department named as Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani school of humanities and social sciences.

Between the war of 1965 between Pakistan and India he and his brother Mian Niaz ahmed Gurmani gave 30 square of his fertile land to Pakistan defence fund in regard of the families of martyres in the wars. He served as a prime minister in the princely state of Bahawalpur before partition. Kashmir, a survey, 1951. Agricultural crisis in Pakistan, speeches, 1957. Nawab Mian Mushtaq Ahmad Gurmani: some personal traits and leadership by S. Qalb-i-Abid, 2017

Blood, Tears & Gold

"Blood, Tears & Gold" is a song by the British duo Hurts from their first album, Happiness. The song was co-written with David Sneddon and The Nexus and was released as the fourth single from the album in Germany; this is the second video, shot by Hurts and published on YouTube at the beginning of 2010. German CD single"Blood, Tears & Gold" – 4:18 "Blood, Tears & Gold" – 11:00German digital download"Blood, Tears & Gold" – 4:18 "Blood, Tears & Gold" "Blood, Tears & Gold" – 5:44 "Sunday" "Blood, Tears & Gold" VIDEO Songwriting – Hurts, David Sneddon, James Bauer-MeinSource: Official music video on YouTube Lyrics Blood, Tears & Gold on LyricWiki