Marathon is a town in Greece and the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, in which the outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. Legend has it that Pheidippides, a Greek herald at the battle, was sent running from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory, how the marathon running race was conceived in modern times; the name "Marathon" comes from the herb fennel, called marathon or marathos in Ancient Greek, so Marathon means "a place full of fennels". It is believed that the town was named so because of an abundance of fennel plants in the area. In ancient times, Marathon occupied a small plain in the northeast of ancient Attica, which contained four places, Probalinthus and Oenoe, which formed the Tetrapolis, one of the 12 districts into which Attica was divided before the time of Theseus. Here Xuthus, who married the daughter of Erechtheus, is said to have reigned; the Marathonii claimed to be the first people in Greece who paid divine honours to Heracles, who possessed a sanctuary in the plain.
Marathon is celebrated in the legends of Theseus, who conquered the ferocious bull, which used to devastate the plain. Marathon is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey in a way that implies that it was a place of importance. In mythology, its name was derived from an eponymous hero Marathon, described by Pausanias as a son of Epopeus, king of Sicyon, who fled into Attica in consequence of the cruelty of his father Plutarch calls him an Arcadian, who accompanied the Dioscuri in their expedition into Attica, voluntarily devoted himself to death before the battle. After Theseus united the 12 independent districts of Attica into one state, the name of Tetrapolis fell into disuse. Hence Lucian speaks of "the parts of Marathon about Oenoë". Few places have obtained such celebrity in the history of the world as Marathon, on account of the victory which the Athenians here gained over the Persians in 490 BCE. After Miltiades defeated Darius' Persian forces, the Persians decided to sail from Marathon to Athens in order to sack the unprotected city.
Miltiades ordered all his hoplite forces to march "double time" back to Athens, so that by the time Darius' troops arrived they saw the same Greek force waiting for them. Although the name Marathon had a positive resonance in Europe in the nineteenth century, for some time, sullied by the Dilessi murders, which happened nearby in 1870. In the 19th century and beginning of twentieth century the village was inhabited by an Arvanite population; the sophist and magnate Herodes Atticus was born in Marathon. In 1926, the American company ULEN began construction on the Marathon Dam in a valley above Marathon, in order to ensure water supply for Athens, it was completed in 1929. About 10 km² of forested land were flooded to form Lake Marathon; the beach of Schinias is located southeast of the town. The beach is a popular as a spot for windsurfing spot and the Olympic Rowing Center used for the 2004 Summer Olympics is located there. At the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics, Marathon was the starting point of the marathon races.
The area is susceptible to flash flooding, because of forest fires having denuded parts of the eastern slopes of Mount Penteli in 2006. The municipality Marathon was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Grammatiko Marathon Nea Makri VarnavasThe municipality has an area of 222.747 km2, the municipal unit 97.062 km2. The other settlements in the municipal unit are Agios Panteleimonas, Kato Souli, Avra, Ano Souli, Schinias; the Soros, a tumulus, or burial mound, erected to the 192 Athenian fallen at the Battle of Marathon, is a feature of the coastal plain, now marked by a marble memorial stele and surrounded by a small park. Kato Souli Naval Transmission Facility with its 250-metre tall radio mast, the tallest structure in Greece. Hopkinton, United States Xiamen, China List of municipalities of Attica List of settlements in Attica Dimitrion Yordanidis, oldest man to have run the marathon, at age 98 Notes References This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed..
The Festival of Political Songs was one of the largest music events in East Germany, held between 1970 and 1990. After the collapse of East Germany, the festival lost supporting infrastructure. In order to continue the tradition, a new festival, called the ZwischenWelt Festival, was held between 1991 and 1995, it was founded by the group Oktoberklub and between 1970 and 1990 took place in East Berlin every February as an official event of the Free German Youth. The event was first organized by the Berlin division, but from 1975 was directed by the Central Committee of the Free German Youth. Artists from 60 countries participated in the event over the years, between 50 and 80 artists, from around 30 countries, including prominent artists like Mikis Theodorakis, Miriam Makeba, Quilapayún, Inti-Illimani, Silvio Rodríguez, Mercedes Sosa, Gabino Palomares, Canzoniere delle Lame, Pete Seeger accompanied by Chilean-exile and Berkeley based folk group Grupo Raiz; the mascot of the festival was a red sparrow named Oki.
After the collapse of East Germany, the festival lost supporting infrastructure. In order to continue the tradition, a new festival, called the ZwischenWelt Festival, was held between 1991 and 1995, its supporting organization dissolved in 1995 because of financial difficulties. February 9–17, 1980: Agit-Prop, Tamás Berki, Gruppe aus Kampuchea, Macchina Maccheronica, Los Parra de Chile, Sands Family, Daniel und Cédar Viglietti, Reinhold Andert, Gruppe Neue Musik, Brigade Feuerstein, Jahrgang 49, Franz Josef Degenhardt. February 8–15, 1981: José W. Armijo, Battlefield Band, Lajos Boros, Maria Dimitriadi, Bjarne Jes Hansen, Abdullah Ibrahim, Los Jaivas, Bongi Makeba, Dean Reed, Francesca Solleville, Chor Berliner Parteiveteranen „Ernst Busch“, Chor der EOS Kreuzschule, Gerhard Schöne, Floh de Cologne,Panorama February 14–21, 1982: Ad Hoc Singers, Chris Cutler, Sigi Maron, Quinteto Tiempo, Orkest de Volharding, Duo Voga/Turnowski, Kurt Demmler, Gerhard Gundermann, Pietsch/Körbel, Hannes-Zerbe-Blechband, Hannes Wader, Hanns-Eisler-Chor.
February 13–20, 1983: Willem Breuker Quartett, New York Street Theatre Caravan, Patricio Manns, Letta M'Bulu, Noel Nicola, Mikis Theodorakis, Orchester der Musikhochschule Dresden, Jürgen Eger, Lin Jaldati, Silly, Jürgen Walter, Ina Deter, Duo Goebbels/Harth. February 12–19, 1984: Schanna Bitschewskaja and Cover, Khaled el Habr, Los Jaivas, Jackson Kaujeua, Czesław Niemen, Ángel Parra, Mercedes Sosa, Gabino Palomares, Erste Allgemeine Verunsicherung, Pialkowski/Rieck, Wenzel & Mensching, Hannes Wader, Zupfgeigenhansel. February 10–17, 1985: René Bardet, Eric Bogle, Budka Suflera, Bruce Cockburn, Miriam Makeba, San Francisco Mime Troupe, Quilapayún, Silvio Rodríguez und Afro-Cuba, Atahualpa Yupanqui, Karls Enkel, Gina Pietsch, Dieter Süverkrüp, Zupfgeigenhansel. February 16–23, 1986: Grupo Raiz/Osvaldo Torres Aroona, Francis Bebey, Billy Bragg, Cuarteto Cedrón, Leon Rosselson, Pete Seeger, Grupo Pueblo, Pi de la Serra, Herman van Veen, Norbert Bischoff, Pony, Pension Volkmann, Franz Josef Degenhardt George Hewison.
February 15–22, 1987: Attila the Stockbroker and The Neurotics, Red Music, Heber Bartolome, Maria Dimitriadi, León Gieco, Abdullah Ibrahim, Maria del Mar Bonet, Luis Enrique Mejía Godoy, Luci Murphy, Mercedes Sosa, Elżbieta Wojnowska, Gerhard Gundermann, Maike Nowak, Wenzel & Mensching, Dietrich Kittner. February 14–21, 1988: No Fixed Address, ANC-Ensemble, the Kalahari Surfers, Ewan MacColl/Peggy Seeger, Norma Gadea, Sweet Honey in the Rock, Tania Libertad, Carlos Mejía Godoy, Amparo Ochoa, Maria da Paz, Erika Pluhar, Stella Chiweshe, Yarınistan, Arno Schmidt, Gerhard Schöne, Duo Sonnenschirm, Sturmvögel, Wolf Brannasky, Johannes Hodek. February 12–19, 1989: Billy Bragg, Angelo Branduardi, Santiago Felíu, Jugendensemble KDVR, Oyster Band, Michelle Shocked, SWAPO-Kinderchor, Daniel Viglietti, Gerhard Gundermann, Jalda Rebling, Arno Schmidt, Die Zöllner, Heinz Rudolf Kunze, Zwei Drittel, Chalk Circle. February 11–18, 1990: Inti-Illimani, The Klezmatics, Mercedes Sosa, Reinhold Andert, Norbert Bischoff & Gesellschaft, Gerhard Gundermann, Bolschewistische Kurkapelle, Duo Sonnenschirm & Terem, Ute Lemper, Konstantin Wecker, IG Blech (West Berl
Scheveningse Voetbal Vereniging Scheveningen is an association football club from Scheveningen, a district of The Hague, Netherlands. The club was founded in 1919, it is playing in the Tweede Divisie, the third tier of football in the Netherlands. During the period 1954-1971 the club played professional football under the names SHS and Holland Sport; the club was selected by the French sports newspaper L'Équipe to participate in 1955–56 European Cup, but declined to do so. The biggest success in the club's history was the overall amateur title in 1996. Martin Jol was the team manager at that time; as of 1 February 2019 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official site