Marathon, Greece

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Marathon
Μαραθώνας
The plain of Marathon today
The plain of Marathon today
Marathon is located in Greece
Marathon
Marathon
Location within the region
2011 Dimos Marathonos.png
Coordinates: 38°9′N 23°57′E / 38.150°N 23.950°E / 38.150; 23.950Coordinates: 38°9′N 23°57′E / 38.150°N 23.950°E / 38.150; 23.950
Country Greece
Administrative region Attica
Regional unit East Attica
Government
 • Mayor Ilias Psinakis
Area
 • Municipality 222.75 km2 (86.00 sq mi)
 • Municipal unit 97.06 km2 (37.48 sq mi)
Elevation 28 m (92 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Municipality 33,423
 • Municipality density 150/km2 (390/sq mi)
 • Municipal unit 12,849
 • Municipal unit density 130/km2 (340/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code 190 07
Area code(s) 22940
Vehicle registration Z
Website www.marathon.gr

Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathṓn) is a town in Greece and the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. Legend has it that Pheidippides, a Greek herald at the battle, was sent running from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory, which is how the marathon running race was conceived in modern times.[n 1]

History[edit]

Ruins of a Frankish tower near Marathon

The name "Marathon" (Μαραθών) comes from the herb fennel, called marathon (μάραθον) or marathos (μάραθος) in Ancient Greek,[2][n 2] so Marathon literally means "a place full of fennels".[4] It is believed that the town was originally named so because of an abundance of fennel plants in the area.

After Miltiades (the general of the Greek forces) defeated Darius' Persian forces, the Persians decided to sail from Marathon to Athens in order to sack the unprotected city. Miltiades ordered all his hoplite forces to march "double time" back to Athens, so that by the time Darius' troops arrived they saw the same Greek force waiting for them.

Although the name Marathon had a positive resonance in Europe in the nineteenth century, for some time that was sullied by the Dilessi murders, which happened nearby in 1870.

In the 19th century and beginning of twentieth century the village was inhabited by Albanian population (Arvanites). Thomas Chase, an English traveller, describes his meeting with ‘an old Albanian’ in Marathon and also says that they ‘accosted some Albanian children playing near a well, but they did not understand modern Greek.’ [5] [1] Another English traveller Robert Hichens writes in 1913: ‘Some clustering low houses far off under the hills form the Albanian village of Marathon.’[6] [2]

Plain of Marathon
View of the Lake Marathon

The sophist and magnate Herodes Atticus was born in Marathon. In 1926, the American company ULEN began construction on the Marathon Dam in a valley above Marathon, in order to ensure water supply for Athens. It was completed in 1929. About 10 km² of forested land were flooded to form Lake Marathon.

The beach of Schinias is located southeast of the town and it is a popular windsurfing spot and the Olympic Rowing Center for the 2004 Summer Olympics is also located there. At the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics, Marathon was the starting point of the marathon races (for both women and men in 2004).[7][8] The area is susceptible to flash flooding, because of forest fires having denuded parts of the eastern slopes of Mount Penteli especially in 2006.

Municipality[edit]

The municipality Marathon was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[9]

The municipality has an area of 222.747 km2, the municipal unit 97.062 km2.[10]

Population[edit]

Year Town Municipal unit Municipality
1981 4,841 - -
1991 5,453 12,979 -
2001 4,399 8,882 -
2011 7,170 12,849 33,423

The other settlements in the municipal unit are Agios Panteleimonas (pop. 1,591), Kato Souli (2,142), Vranas (1,082), Avra (191), Vothon (177), Ano Souli (232), and Schinias (264).

Points of interest[edit]

The Soros, a burial mound (Marathon tumuli) to the fallen of the Battle of Marathon
  • The Soros, a tumulus (Greek Τύμβος, tymbos, tomb), or burial mound, erected to the 192 Athenian fallen at the Battle of Marathon, is a feature of the coastal plain, now marked by a marble memorial stele and surrounded by a small park.[11]
  • Kato Souli Naval Transmission Facility with its 250-metre (820 ft) tall radio mast, the tallest structure in Greece.

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ In modern Greek the sports event is called Marathonios Dromos (Μαραθώνιος Δρόμος) or simply Marathonios.
  2. ^ The Greek word for fennel is first attested in Mycenaean Linear B on tablets MY Ge 602, MY Ge 606 + fr., MY Ge 605 + 607 + frr. + 60Sa + 605b - as 𐀔𐀨𐀶𐀺, ma-ra-tu-wo.[3]
References
  1. ^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 
  2. ^ μάραθον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  3. ^ "The Linear B word ma-ra-tu-wo". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages.  Raymoure, K.A. "ma-ra-tu-wo". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean.  "MY 602 Ge (57)".  "MY 606 Ge + fr. (57)".  "MY 605 Ge + 607 + fr. [+] 60Sa + fr. [+] 605b + frr. (57)". DĀMOS: Database of Mycenaean at Oslo. University of Oslo. 
  4. ^ Μαραθών in Liddell and Scott.
  5. ^ ‘‘Passing, after a few hours, the little hamlet of Stamata, from a hill-top we caught a glimpse of the beautiful sea and shore of Marathon, and saw, as we descended a mountain slope by a long, steep path, paved in part with slippery stones, the little village of Marathona. Pushing on towards this village, we came upon a large meadow, at whose western end, on our left, stood a high round tower of mediaeval date. Towards this the old Albanian began to run, pointing, gesticulating, and shouting, here was the battle fought ; this was the ground that had drunk the blood of the Turks. " The Turks! " said I. " Pshaw ! show me the field where your old Greeks routed the Persians." " The Persians? " — the old man had never heard of them ; the name of Miltiades was equally strange to his ears;— so much for all his stories of guiding strangers to the immortal plain, all his boasts of familiarity with its localities. I explained the matter to my attendant, (for he knew no more of the history of Marathon than the old rustic,) and, in the first flush of vexation, we spurred our horses and galloped away from this profitless servant. We came soon to the banks of a little river (its course dry in the hot season), which, coming from among the hills, and washing the village of Marathona, crosses the battle-field, and empties into the sea. On its side and in its bed rose countless oleanders of large size, with their glorious blossoms in their fullest beauty,— the finest specimens I saw even in Greece. By this flowery hedge we rode to the village, and, after inquiring of an intelligent citizen the proper way to the field, at once began to descend to it. We accosted some Albanian children playing near a well, but they did not understand modern Greek. Our path lay by the side of the river, or in its wide bed, covered with sand, and large, round, white marble stones. ‘ Chase,Thomas, Hellas, her monuments and scenery, SEVER AND FRANCIS, Cambridge, pp. 102-103
  6. ^ Hichens, The Near East, Dalmatia, Greece and Constantiople, Hodder and Stoght, London, 1913, p. 116.
  7. ^ Wallechinsky, David and Jaime Loucky (2008). "Track & Field (Men): Marathon". In The Complete Book of the Olympics: 2008 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. p. 133.
  8. ^ 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2008-08-19 at the Wayback Machine. Volume 2. p. 242.
  9. ^ Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
  10. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21. 
  11. ^ Aerial photograph in John Boardman, Jasper Griffin and Oswyn Murray, Greece and the Hellenistic World (Oxford History of the Classical World) 1988, vol. I p. 34.

External links[edit]