Wausau is a city in and the county seat of Marathon County, United States. The Wisconsin River divides the city into west; the city's suburbs include Schofield, Maine, Rib Mountain and Rothschild. As of the 2010 census, Wausau had a population of 39,106, it is the core city of the Wausau Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Marathon County and had a population of 134,063 at the 2010 census. This area was occupied for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples; the historic Ojibwe occupied it in the period of European encounter. They had a lucrative fur trade for decades with French Canadians. After the French and Indian War this trade was dominated by British-American trappers from the eastern seaboard; the Wisconsin River first drew European-American settlers to the area during the mid-19th century as they migrated west into the Great Lakes region following construction of the Erie Canal in New York State. This provided a route for products from the region to the large New York and other eastern markets.
The area had been called "Big Bull Flats" or "Big Bull Falls" by French explorers, who were the first Europeans here. They named it for the long rapids in the river. By an 1836 treaty with the United States, the Ojibwe ceded much of their lands in the area to federal ownership, it was sold to non-Native peoples. Wausau, from Ojibwe “waasa” means "a faraway place" or "a place from which one can see far away" in the Ojibwe language. George Stevens, the namesake for the city of Stevens Point located south of Wausau, began harvesting the pine forests for lumber in 1840 and built a saw mill. Lumbering was the first major industry in this area, other sawmills along the Wisconsin River were constructed by entrepreneurs. By 1846, Walter McIndoe took the lead in the local business and community, his efforts helped to establish Marathon County in 1850. Word of Stevens' success in the region spread across the country throughout the logging industry. Loggers came from Cortland County, New York, Carroll County, New Hampshire, Orange County and Down East Maine in what is now Washington County and Hancock County, Maine.
These were "Yankee" migrants, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who had settled New England during the 1600s. By 1852, Wausau continued to grow and mature. German immigration into the area following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states brought more people, by 1861, the settlement was incorporated as a village. Churches, schools and social organizations began to flourish; the state granted the city a charter in 1872, elections are held the first Tuesday in April. The residents elected A. Kickbusch as their first mayor in 1874. Five years earlier, Kickbusch had returned to his homeland of Germany and brought back with him 702 people, all of whom are believed to have settled in the Wausau area. Kickbusch founded the A. Kickbusch Wholesale Grocery Company, a family business carried on by his grandson, August Kickbusch II. In 1917, August Kickbusch II purchased a four-square-style house at 513 Grant Street, he undertook extensive and additions, adding two sun rooms, arcaded windows, a tiled porch in the Mediterranean style, a formal classical entrance, ornate custom-designed chimney crowns.
The home is on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Andrew Warren Historic District. When the railroad arrived in 1874, Wausau became more accessible to settlers and industry; this enabled the city to develop alternatives to the lumber industry, in decline since the clear-cutting of many forests. By 1906 the lumber was gone. Other villages and towns in the area declined because of over-harvesting of the forests and lumber mills closed down. Wausau's favorable location on the Wisconsin River was responsible for the city's survival; the economy was diversified in the early 20th century, led by the insurance group, the Employers Insurance of Wausau, now a part of Liberty Mutual. Its logo, first introduced in 1954, was the downtown Milwaukee Road railroad depot, set against the backdrop of the community's skyline; the Wall Street Crash of 1929 had a major effect on the Wausau area. Many industries were forced to cut back by laying off and dismissing workers or by closing altogether.
After decades of growth, the city ground to a halt. However, under the New Deal, Wausau was modernized. After World War II, the city once again continued to grow in industry, education and retail, more than in population. After the fall of Saigon, Hmong refugees from Southeast Asia who fought alongside the CIA immigrated into Wausau at the end of the 1970s. Wausau church organizations helped. In 1983, the Wausau Center shopping mall opened. By the mid-to-late-1990s, the city of Wausau began to purchase and develop parts of West Industrial Park to meet the needs of the expanding economy and companies. In the late 1990s, the city demolished a number of aging buildings on a square in the center of downtown, creating what is known locally as the 400 Block, an open, grassy block with paved sidewalks crossing it; the square is a focal point for summer festivals. In recent years Wausau has redone the 400 Block, adding a permanent stage and other renovations that cost $2 million. By the end of the 20th century, Wausau began to implement the Wausau Central Business District Master Plan, which included redevelopment and economic restructuring of downtown Wausau.
The tallest commercial building in Wisconsin ou
Athens is a village in Marathon County, United States. The population was 1,105 at the 2010 census, it is part of Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area. Athens is located at 45°1′58″N 90°4′35″W. Athens is halfway between the Equator and North Pole, as well as halfway between the Prime Meridian and 180th meridian; the Athens area is agricultural with a small industrial park on the south side of the village limits. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.46 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,105 people, 471 households, 298 families residing in the village; the population density was 449.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 503 housing units at an average density of 204.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.2% White, 0.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 2.4% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population. There were 471 households of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.7% were non-families.
30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the village was 39.5 years. 24.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 51.0% male and 49.0% female. At the 2000 census, there were 1,095 people, 443 households and 299 families residing in the village; the population density was 448.2 people per square mile. There were 469 housing units at an average density of 192.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.72% White, 0.09% Native American, 0.55% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.10% of the population. There were 443 households of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.9% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.08. Age distribution was 26.8% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. The median household income was $39,286, the median family income was $52,727. Males had a median income of $30,956 versus $22,167 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,076. About 1.3% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.7% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over. The Athens Library is part of the Marathon County Public Library and the Wisconsin Valley Library Service, a regional library system; the library began in the early 1900s as a small collection of books in the Bloczynski Hotel. In 1926, the Athens Women's Club assumed management of the library, moving the collection to the Athens Bank.
The library moved again to the Community Hall. In 1947, the Athens Library joined the Marathon County Library. In 1973, when the Marathon County Library and Wausau Public Library merged to form the Marathon County Public Library, the Athens Library became a branch of the MCPL; the Athens School District is made up of three schools: Athens Elementary School, Athens Middle School, Athens High School. The middle and high schools share the same building; the Athens School District belongs to the Marawood Conference. Its mascot is the Fighting Bluejay. There are two parochial schools in the community, Trinity Lutheran and St. Anthony's Catholic School. Russ Decker, Wisconsin politician, was born in Athens. Charles Winninger, notable character actor, was born in Athens. Village of Athens official website Athens School District Marathon County Public Library - Athens Branch
Wausau School District
The Wausau School District is a public school district serving the Wausau metropolitan area, including the City of Wausau and the Towns of Rib Mountain, Wausau and Texas. It contains two high schools, two middle schools, 14 elementary schools, one alternative high school. Franklin Elementary Grant Elementary Hawthorn Hills Elementary Hewitt Texas Elementary Jefferson Elementary G. D. Jones Elementary A. C. Kiefer Elementary Lincoln Elementary Maine Elementary Rib Mountain Elementary John Marshall Elementary Riverview Elementary South Mountain Elementary Stettin Elementary Horace Mann Middle School John Muir Middle School Wausau East High School Wausau Engineering and Global Leadership Academy Wausau West High School Berlin School Humboldt School, built in 1873–1874 Washington School, built in 1889 Franklin School, built in 1883 Lincoln School, built in 1883 Columbia School, built in 1885 Longfellow School, built in 1894; the old building is now an apartment complex. Horace Mann Junior High, demolished in 1984, rebuilt on 13th and Sells Streets as Horace Mann Middle School in 1993.
Marathon County Training School for Teachers, built in 1889. In 1981 there were 160 Hmong students in the Wausau School District. In the 1990s the Wausau School District received an increase of Hmong students, some of whom came from refugee camps and lacked formal education. In 1993 the Wausau School District began moving students assigned to schools based on attendance zone, to a different scheme intended to equalize the ethnic proportions of Hmong and non-Hmong students; however it reverted to its previous scheme in 1994 after a negative reception from area parents. By 2002, 12% of the Wausau population was Hmong, 25% of the students at Wausau public schools were Hmong. Patti Kraus, who worked as a secretary for the WSD, stated in 2016 that the ethnic Hmong adapted to American school life. Charles Zarnke, Wisconsin politician, was janitor for the school district after he left office
George W. Maher
George Washington Maher was an American architect during the first-quarter of the 20th century. He is considered part of the Prairie School-style and was known for blending traditional architecture with the Arts & Crafts-style. According to architectural historian H. Allen Brooks, "His influence on the Midwest was profound and prolonged and, in its time, was as great as was Wright's. Compared with the conventional architecture of the day, his work showed considerable freedom and originality, his interiors were notable for their open and flowing...space". Maher was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1916. George Maher was born in Mill Creek, West Virginia, but, as a small boy, moved with his parents, Pennsylvania-born Sarah Landis and French-born chemist Theophile Maher, to New Albany, where he attended public elementary school. While in his early teens the family moved to Chicago. At the age of 13 he was apprenticed at the Chicago architectural firm of Augustus Bauer and Henry Hill.
In 1887 he joined the office of architect Joseph L. Silsbee, in Chicago's Lakeside Building, as a draftsman where he worked with Frank Lloyd Wright and George Grant Elmslie. While working for Silsbee, Maher had first-hand experience in designing residences in the Shingle Style, Richardsonian Romanesque, Colonial Revival, he was inspired by the work of Henry Hobson Richardson. In 1888 Maher formed a partnership with Charles Corwin which lasted for only a brief time before he began his own practice. Maher moved to Kenilworth, Illinois, he designed his own home in Kenilworth, built there in 1893. It was one of about 40 homes. Along with the homes he designed the entrance to the village as well as a number of other public embellishments. In addition to Kenilworth, one of the largest concentrations of his work is along Hutchinson Street, on Chicago's North Side lakefront. From the start of his career, Maher wrote about his views on architecture and was active in organizations interested in exploring new ideas in architecture and design.
In 1887 Inland Architect published a paper he had written titled "Originality in American Architecture," one of the first of many he would write. In 1895 an interest in the English Arts and Crafts Movement led him to become one of the founding members of The Chicago Arts and Crafts Society. During his career, he was involved as a leading figure in the meetings and exhibitions of the Chicago Architectural Club, a group, at the center of activity of the Prairie movement in Chicago. Maher's early work during the 1890s reflected the influence of Silsbee and H. H. Richardson as well as others of the Chicago School. In 1893 Maher met J. L. Cochran, developing the community of Edgewater which would become part of Chicago. During the next several years Maher designed a series of houses for Cochran which helped establish Maher's career and reputation. Commissioned in 1897, one of Maher's most important designs is the John Farson House in Oak Park, Illinois known as Pleasant Home. In this house, Maher synthesized his own version of what would come to be called the Prairie School style of architecture.
One of the earliest Prairie style buildings, its design concept proved to be influential in its time and was copied throughout the Midwest. Over the years Maher designed numerous houses for clients ranging from middle class businessmen to wealthy society figures; the success of the Farson house led to a number of large commissions. Among his clients was James A. Patten for whom he built a large mansion in 1901. Patten was responsible for getting Maher the commission to design the original Patten Gymnasium at Northwestern University where Maher designed the Swift Hall of Engineering. In 1901, Maher was hired to remodel the Nickerson House which houses the Driehaus Museum; these were followed by the design of a large estate for Harry Rubens, built in Glencoe, Illinois in 1903. Jens Jensen designed the landscaping for the Rubens estate. Other projects include the P. J. King House from 1901, the Rath House in 1907, the Colvin House in 1909, all of which have been designated Chicago Landmarks by the city.
By the time of the Farson House commission, Maher was one of the first of the Prairie Style architects to have developed a personal style. By 1897, with a full decade behind him, his career was well established. With Wright's Prairie houses still several years in the future, Maher's version of the Prairie style came at a time when Louis Sullivan's work was still the dominant influence for the developing group of architects. While many of the others worked directly for Wright or Sullivan, Maher never did which may be part of the reason his design work would follow a more independent path throughout his career. Around 1904 Maher's designs started to show more of his interest in ideas derived from contemporary European design the English Arts and Crafts movement and the Vienna Secession. Assimilating these influences into concepts of his own, he created designs that set his work apart at a time when Wright's work was becoming influential among his contemporaries. Among these projects was the Corbin House in 1904 followed by houses such as the Erwin House, the Lackner House and the Schultz House.
As part of his design philosophy Maher developed what he called Motif-Rhythm theory in an attempt to produce a design unity throughout the building and its interior. This involved using a decorative element a local flower, a geometric shape, or a combination of the two which would be repeated throughout the design. Maher wrote that "there must be evolved certain leading
Northcentral Technical College
Northcentral Technical College is a public community college in Wausau, Wisconsin. It is a member of the Wisconsin Technical College System; the district of the college includes all of, or portions of, Lincoln, Price, Menominee, Portage and Waupaca counties. The main campus is located in Wausau. There are regional centers in Antigo, Merrill, Phillips and Wittenberg. Northcentral Technical College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association. Several programs are accredited by other accreditation bodies; the college began as Wausau Industrial School in 1912. It was renamed Wausau Vocational School in 1936, Wausau Technical Institute in 1961, North Central Technical Institute in 1967, it began occupying its new facility in 1969. It was renamed Northcentral Technical College in 1988. NTC offers associate degrees,technical diplomas, over 100 certificate programs in agriculture, community services, general studies, public safety and technical and trades. Russ Decker, politician Official website
Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of people to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects; the four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project, the Historical Records Survey, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Art Project. In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, the development of professional archaeology in the US; every community in the United States had a new park, bridge, or school, constructed by the agency.
The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States, while developing infrastructure to support the current and future society. Above all, the WPA hired workers and craftsmen who were employed in building streets. Thus, under the leadership of the WPA, more than 1 million km of streets and over 10,000 bridges were built, in addition to many airports and much housing; the largest single project of the WPA was the Tennessee Valley Authority, which provided the impoverished Tennessee Valley with dams and waterworks to create an infrastructure for electrical power. Camp David, the presidential estate in Maryland used for international meetings, San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge were both constructed by the WPA. At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration.
Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people. Most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. Full employment, reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the goal of the WPA. "Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, kept skills sharp."The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. The local sponsor provided land and trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages. WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs, it was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II.
The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years. A joint resolution introduced January 21, 1935, the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 8, 1935. On May 6, 1935, FDR issued executive order 7034; the WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, dissolved. Direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA; the WPA was shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and close adviser to Roosevelt. Both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA. Hallie Flanagan, national director of the Federal Theatre Project, wrote that "for the first time in the relief experiments of this country the preservation of the skill of the worker, hence the preservation of his self-respect, became important."The WPA was organized into the following divisions: The Division of Engineering and Construction, which planned and supervised construction projects including airports, dams and sanitation systems.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, responsible for white-collar projects including education programs, recreation programs, the arts projects. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division; the Division of Finance. The Division of Information; the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics known as the Division of Social Research; the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety and Training and Reemployment; these ordinary men and women proved to be extraordinary beyond all expectation. They
Wausau Daily Herald
The Wausau Daily Herald is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Wausau, Wisconsin. It is distributed throughout Marathon and Lincoln counties; the Daily Herald is owned by the Gannett Company. The newspaper runs a website where people can pay to read the news; the Wausau Daily Herald was a 1985 finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism for "a special section on Wausau's growing Indochinese refugee population, the Hmong" by Pam Sprague and Rob Orcutt. Official website Official mobile website Gannett subsidiary profile of the Wausau Daily Herald