Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most calcite or dolomite. Marble is not foliated, although there are exceptions. In geology, the term marble refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is used for sculpture and as a building material; the word "marble" derives from the Ancient Greek μάρμαρον, from μάρμαρος, "crystalline rock, shining stone" from the verb μαρμαίρω, "to flash, gleam". This stem is the ancestor of the English word "marmoreal", meaning "marble-like." While the English term "marble" resembles the French marbre, most other European languages more resemble the original Ancient Greek. Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains; the resulting marble rock is composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock have been modified or destroyed.
Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a pure limestone or dolomite protolith. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are due to various mineral impurities such as clay, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were present as grains or layers in the limestone. Green coloration is due to serpentine resulting from magnesium-rich limestone or dolomite with silica impurities; these various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. Examples of notable marble varieties and locations: White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times; this preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative isotropy and homogeneity, a relative resistance to shattering. The low index of refraction of calcite allows light to penetrate several millimeters into the stone before being scattered out, resulting in the characteristic waxy look which brings a lifelike luster to marble sculptures of any kind, why many sculptors preferred and still prefer marble for sculpting.
Construction marble is a stone, composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine, capable of taking a polish. More in construction the dimension stone trade, the term marble is used for any crystalline calcitic rock useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone, that geologists call the Holston Formation. Ashgabat, the capital city of Turkmenistan, was recorded in the 2013 Guinness Book of Records as having the world's highest concentration of white marble buildings. According to the United States Geological Survey, U. S. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at about $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. For comparison, 2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate.
U. S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000–2006 period, compared to 10.5% annually for the 2000–2005 period. The largest dimension marble application is tile. In 1998, marble production was dominated by 4 countries that accounted for half of world production of marble and decorative stone. Italy and China were the world leaders, each representing 16% of world production, while Spain and India produced 9% and 8%, respectively. In 2018 Turkey was the world leader in marble export, with 42% share in global marble trade, followed by Italy with 18% and Greece with 10%; the largest importer of marble in 2018 was China with a 64% market share, followed by India with 11% and Italy with 5%. Dust produced by cutting marble could cause lung disease but more research needs to be carried out on whether dust filters and other safety products reduce this risk. In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set the legal limit for marble exposure in the workplace as 15 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday. Acids damage marble, because the calcium carbonate in marble reacts with them, releasing carbon dioxide: CaCO3 + 2H+ → Ca2+ + CO2 + H2O Thus, vinegar or other acidic solutions should never be used on marble. Outdoor marble statues, gravestones, or other marble structures are damaged by acid rain; the haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga murata was isolated from deteriorating marble in the Kremlin. Bacterial and fungal degradation was detected in four samples of marble from Milan cathedral; as the favorite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors and architects, m
The Latin or Roman Catholic Archbishopric of Larissa is a titular see of the Catholic Church. It was established as a residential episcopal see at Larissa, during the first decades of the Frankokratia period in place of the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Larissa. Following the recovery of Larissa by the Greeks, the see; the see has been vacant since the death of its last incumbent, Giuseppe Mojoli, in 1980. Christianity penetrated early to Larissa, though its first bishop is recorded only in 325 at the Council of Nicaea. Following the Fourth Crusade and Thessaly's incorporation into the Kingdom of Thessalonica, a Roman Catholic archbishop was installed in the place of the previous Greek Orthodox occupant; the city was soon recovered by the Greek Despotate of Epirus, however as early as 1212 and the Greek Orthodox metropolitan restored. Pope Honorius III conferred the see of Thermopylae to the exiled Latin archbishop. Honore Visconti, 1630 Antonio Pignatelli del Rastrello became Pope Innocent XII, 1652 Johann Hugo von Orsbeck, 1672 Baldassare Cardinal Cenci, 1691 Francesco Acquaviva d’Aragona, 1697 Giovanni Battista Anguisciola, 1706 Luigi Carafa, 1713 Troiano Acquaviva d’Aragona, 1930 Giovanni Saverio di Leoni, 1733 Bernardo Froilán Saavedra Sanjurjo, 1736 Pedro Clemente de Aróstegui, 1742 Blasius Paoli, 1750 Francesco Saverio Passari, 1786 Salvatore Maria Caccamo, Augustinians, 1815 Francesco Canali, 1827 Giuseppe Novak, 1843 François-Marie-Benjamin Richard, 1875 Giovanni Rebello Cardoso de Menezes, 1887 Agostino Ciasca, O.
S. A. 1891 Diomede Angelo Raffaele Gennaro Falconio, Friars Minor, 1899 Carlo Montagnini, 1913 Antonio Maria Grasselli, Conventual Franciscans, 1913 Felipe Arginzonis y Astobiza, Discalced Carmelites, 1918 Domenico Spolverini, 1933 José Horacio Campillo Infante, 1939 Antonio Giordani, 1956 Giuseppe Mojoli, 1960 List of Catholic titular sees Miller, William. Essays on the Latin Orient. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. OCLC 457893641. Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, The Despotate of Epiros 1267–1479: A Contribution to the History of Greece in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-13089-9
In My Hands, an album by Natalie MacMaster, was released in 1999 on the Rounder Records label. The album won the 2000 Juno Award for Best Instrumental Album. "In My Hands" - 4:23 "Welcome to the Trossachs" - 7:17 "Gramma" - 2:35 "Blue Bonnets Over the Border" - 4:24 "New York Jig" - 4:06 "Flamenco Fling" - 3:44 "Space Ceilidh" - 3:41 "Olympic Reel" - 3:19 "Father MacLeod's Jig" - 2:55 "Get Me Through December" - 6:29 "The Farewell" - 5:25 "Moxham Castle" - 4:17 "Mom's Jig" - 5:15 "Flora MacDonald" - 3:48 Scott Alexander - bass Art Avalos - percussion, handclaps Margaret Ann Beaton - spoken introduction Marie Berard - violin James Blennerhasset - bass Kevin Breit - electric guitar Joel Chiasson - piano Charlie Cooley - drums Jesse Cook - guitar Al Cross - drums Aaron Davis - piano David Direnzo - percussion Bruce Dixon - bass Phil Dwyer - trombone, saxophone Ray Fean - drum Fujiko Imajishi - violin John Barlow Jarvis - piano Denis Keldie - organ Laoise Kelly - harp Alison Krauss - vocals on track 10 Viktor Krauss - bass Howie MacDonald - piano David MacIsaac - guitar Brent Mason - guitar Mark O'Connor - fiddle Douglas Perry - viola Terry Promane - trumpet Matt Rollins - piano Gordie Sampson - keyboards, bass guitar, percussion Chase Sanborn - trumpet Mary Shannon - mandolin Sharon Shannon - accordion Harry Stinson - drums Rick Tate - trumpet Paul Widner - cello Glenn Worf - bass Natalie MacMaster - vocals and electric fiddle In My Hands at AllMusic