Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the elk, the Western roe deer. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species, grow, in this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are in the same order, Artiodactyla. The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families and Tragulidae, respectively. Deer appear in art from Palaeolithic cave paintings onwards, and they have played a role in mythology and their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, and their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a sport since at least the Middle Ages. Deer live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest, while often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna.
The majority of deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. There are species of deer that are highly specialized, and live almost exclusively in mountains, swamps. Some deer have a distribution in both North America and Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga, huemul deer of South Americas Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry forests with alpine meadows higher up. The foothills and river valleys between the mountain provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands.
The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at altitudes in the subalpine meadows. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region, elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, and pronghorn antelope
Death Valley National Park
Death Valley National Park is a national park in the United States. Straddling the border of California and Nevada, located east of the Sierra Nevada, the park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, valleys and mountains. It is the largest national park in the lower 48 states and has declared an International Biosphere Reserve. Approximately 91% of the park is a wilderness area. It is the hottest and lowest of the parks in the United States. The second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, the park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment. Some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep and the Death Valley pupfish, several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver. The only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, which was transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams, the valley became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, and movies.
Tourism blossomed in the 1920s, when resorts were built around Stovepipe Wells, Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994. The natural environment of the area has been shaped largely by its geology, the valley itself is actually a graben. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old. Ancient, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean, additional sedimentation occurred until a subduction zone formed off the coast. This uplifted the region out of the sea and created a line of volcanoes, the crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, in 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association. There are two valleys in the park, Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years, the result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.
Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the fans there are small
Abies lasiocarpa, commonly called the subalpine fir or Rocky Mountain fir, is a western North American fir tree. It occurs at altitudes, from 300–900 metres in the north of the range, to 2, 400–3,650 metres in the south of the range, it is commonly found at. It is a tree growing to 20 metres tall, exceptionally to 40–50 metres tall, with a trunk up to 1 metre across. The bark on trees is smooth and with resin blisters, becoming rough. The leaves are flat and needle-like,1. 5–3 cm long, glaucous green above with a stripe of stomata. They are arranged spirally on the shoot, but with the leaf bases twisted to be arranged to the sides of and above the shoot, with few or none below the shoot. The cones are erect, 6–12 cm long, dark blackish-purple with fine yellow-brown pubescence, ripening brown, bifolia, or not distinguished from typical A. lasiocarpa at all. It occurs in the Rocky Mountains from southeast Alaska south to Colorado and it differs primarily in resin composition, and in the fresh leaf scars being yellow-brown, not reddish.
The Flora of North America treats it as a distinct species, the corkbark fir Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica occurs in Arizona and New Mexico. It differs in thicker, corky bark and more strongly glaucous foliage, in resin composition it is closer to A. bifolia than to typical A. lasiocarpa, though the combination Abies bifolia var. arizonica has not been formally published. The Flora of North America includes it within A. bifolia without distinction, the cultivar Compacta has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit. The wood is used for structural purposes and paper manufacture. It is a popular Christmas tree, corkbark fir is a popular ornamental tree, grown for its strongly glaucous-blue foliage. Some Plateau Indian tribes drank or washed in a subalpine fir boil for purification or to make their hair grow, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Robert R. Shearer, Raymond C. In Burns, Russell M. Honkala, Barbara H. Conifers, United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
1 – via Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, gymnosperm Database, Abies lasiocarpa Flora of North America, Abies lasiocarpa Flora of North America, Abies bifolia Interactive Distribution Map of Abies lasiocarpa
A serpentine soil is derived from ultramafic rocks, in particular serpentinite, a rock formed by the hydration and metamorphic transformation of ultramafic rock from the Earths mantle. Serpentinite is composed of the serpentine, but the two terms are often both used to mean the rock, not its mineral composition. The atmosphere is the source of nitrogen, mainly by microbial fixation, soils derived from any parent material, including serpentinite, differ greatly in the amounts of plant-available nitrogen in them. Nitrogen spans practically the same range of concentrations in soils as in most other kinds of soils. The low Ca, Mg ratios is the main plant limiting factor in serpentine soils, plants that grow only in serpentine soils are commonly called serpentine endemics. Excellent examples of serpentine soils and the distinctive ecologic communities associated with them have described in western North America. Areas of serpentine soil are home to diverse wildflowers, many of which are rare or endangered species such as Acanthomintha duttonii, Pentachaeta bellidiflora, in California, shrubs such as leather oak and coast whiteleaf manzanita are typical of serpentine soils.
Serpentine-rich rock or serpentinite has a mottled, greenish-gray color with a feel to it. These rocks form by the reaction of olivine-rich rock, Serpentine soils are widely distributed on Earth, in part mirroring the distribution of ophiolites. Although it covers only about 1 percent of the states surface, one such area in California is the Edgewood Park and Natural Preserve. Serpentine soils are present in small but widely distributed areas on the slope of the Appalachian mountains of eastern North America. The unique plants that survive in serpentine soils have been used in the process of phytoremediation, the barrens occur on outcrops of altered ultramafic ophiolites. They are named for minerals of the group, resulting in serpentine soils, with unusually high concentrations of iron, nickel. Serpentine barrens often consist of grassland or savannas in areas where the climate would lead to the growth of forests. Soldiers Delight Natural Environmental Area in Baltimore County, covers 1,900 acres of serpentine barren, the area has over 38 rare, threatened, or endangered plant species as well as rare insects and minerals.
Rock Springs Nature Preserve in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, is a 176-acre property conserved by the Lancaster County Conservancy that is an example of a serpentine barren. It was originally a grassland, but fire suppression led to the conversion of the area to forest and this barren contains the rare serpentine aster, as well as a number of rare species of moth and skippers. Pygmy forest Serpentine Serpentinite Ultramafic rock
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and it is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The bald eagle is a feeder which subsists mainly on fish. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any species, up to 4 m deep,2.5 m wide. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years, Bald eagles are not actually bald, the name derives from an older meaning of the word, white headed. The adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males, the beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown, the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal, in the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States.
Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. governments list of endangered species on July 12,1995 and it was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28,2007. The plumage of an bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head. The tail is long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species. The beak and irises are bright yellow, the legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere, the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle has a body, white head and tail
A campsite or camping pitch is a place used for overnight stay in the outdoors. In American English the term campsite generally means an area where an individual, group, or military unit can pitch a tent or park a camper, there are two types of campsites, an impromptu area a dedicated area with improvements and various facilities. The term camp comes from the Latin word campus, meaning field, therefore, a campgrounds consists typically of open pieces of ground where a camper can pitch a tent or park a camper. More specifically a campsite is an area set aside for camping. Campsites typically feature a few improvements, dedicated campsites, known as Campgrounds, usually have some amenities. Common amenities include, listed roughly in order from most to least common and it is thought to be a nuisance, harmful to the environment, and is often associated with vagrancy. However some countries have specific laws and/or regulations allowing camping on public lands, in the United States, many national and state parks have dedicated campsites and sometimes allow impromptu backcountry camping by visitors. U. S.
National Forests often have established campsites, but generally allow camping anywhere, in Britain, it is more commonly known as wild camping, and is mostly illegal. However, Scotland has a view and wild camping is legal in the majority of Scotland. In many parts of Canada, roughing it is considered to be camping on government owned, public land known as crown land. In North America many campgrounds have facilities for Recreational Vehicles and are known as RV parks. Similar facilities in the UK are known as Caravan Parks, the Kampgrounds of America is a large chain of commercial campgrounds located throughout the United States and Canada. Many travellers prefer to use KOA, or similar campsites, as an alternative to hotels or motels. Both commercial and governmental campgrounds typically charge a fee for the privilege of camping there, to cover expenses. However, there are some in North America that do not charge a use fee and rely on such as donations. Staying the night in a big-box store parking lot is common, some RV parks provide year-round spaces.
Frequently confused with campsites, campgrounds and RV parks, trailer parks are made up of long term or semi-permanent residents occupying mobile homes, the holiday park is a United Kingdom version of the North American trailer park. All of the homes are either available for rent from the land owner, or pitches are leased on a long-term basis from the land owner
The Chinook salmon /ʃɪˈnʊk/ is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus. The common name refers to the Chinookan peoples, other vernacular names for the species include king salmon, Quinnat salmon, spring salmon, and Tyee salmon. The scientific species name is based on the Russian common name chavycha and they have been introduced to other parts of the world, including New Zealand, the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia. A large Chinook is a prized and sought-after catch for a sporting angler, the flesh of the salmon is highly valued for its dietary nutritional content, which includes high levels of important omega-3 fatty acids. Some populations are endangered, however many are healthy, the Chinook salmon has not been assessed for the IUCN Red List. Historically, the distribution of Chinook salmon in North America ranged from the Ventura River in California in the south to Kotzebue Sound in Alaska in the north. Populations have disappeared from large areas where they flourished, however.
In certain areas like Californias Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, it was revealed that the low populations of juvenile Chinook salmon were surviving. In the western Pacific, the ranges from northern Japan in the south to the Arctic Ocean as far as the East Siberian Sea. Nevertheless, they are present and the distribution is well known only in Kamchatka. Elsewhere, information is scarce, but they have a presence in the Anadyr River basin. Also in parts of the northern Magadan Oblast near the Shelikhov Gulf and Penzhina Bay stocks might persist, in 1967, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources planted Chinook in Lake Michigan and Lake Huron to control the alewife, an invasive species of nuisance fish from the Atlantic Ocean. Alewives constituted 90% of the biota in these lakes, Coho salmon had been planted the year before and the program was a success. Chinook and Coho salmon thrived on the alewives and spawned in the lakes tributaries, after this success, Chinook were planted in the other Great Lakes, where sport fishermen prize them for their aggressive behavior on the hook.
The species has established itself in Patagonian waters in South America. Chinook salmon have been spawning in headwater reaches of the Rio Santa Cruz. The population is thought to be derived from a single stocking of juveniles in the river around 1930. Sporadic efforts to introduce the fish to New Zealand waters in the late 1800s were largely failures, early ova were imported from the Baird hatchery of the McCloud River in California
Siskiyou County, California
Siskiyou County /ˈsɪskjuː/ SISS-kew is a county in the northernmost part of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,900, Siskiyou County is in the Shasta Cascade region along the Oregon border. Because of its outdoor recreation opportunities and Gold Rush era history, Siskiyou County was created on March 22,1852, from parts of Shasta and Klamath Counties, and named after the Siskiyou mountain range. Parts of the territory were given to Modoc County in 1855. The county is the site of the section of the Siskiyou Trail. The Siskiyou Trail followed Native American footpaths, and was extended by Hudsons Bay Company trappers in the 1830s and its length was increased by Forty-Niners during the California Gold Rush. After the discovery of an important gold strike near today’s Yreka, California in 1851 and this was described in detail by Joaquin Miller in his semi-autobiographical novel Life Amongst the Modocs. In the mid 1880s, the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad along the Siskiyou Trail brought the a first wave of tourism, Visitors were drawn by the county’s many summer resorts, and to hunt or fish in the largely untouched region.
The Southern Pacific railroad, the successor to the Central Pacific, the movement has seen a revival in recent years. The origin of the word Siskiyou is not known, others claim the Six Cailloux name was appropriated by Stephen Meek, another Hudsons Bay Company trapper who discovered Scott Valley, for a crossing on the Klamath River near Hornbrook. The County is home to the Black Bear Ranch, a commune started in 1968 with the slogan Free Land for free people, on September 4,2013, the Siskiyou County Board of Supervisors voted 4 to 1 to secede from the State of California. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 6,347 square miles. It is the fifth-largest county by area in California, the county is dotted as well with lakes and reservoirs, such as Castle Lake and Lake Siskiyou. Mount Shasta itself has a sports center. Pastoral Scott Valley in the part of the county has many wide, tree-lined meadows. Butte Valley nurseries are the source of premium strawberry plants in North America.
The county’s water is viewed as pure and abundant that the county is a source of significant amounts of bottled water. A large Crystal Geyser plant is at the base of Mt. Shasta, substantial amounts of the county are forested within the Siskiyou and Cascade Ranges, including significant oak woodland and mixed conifer forests
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity, however. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion and it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada and regions in the United States. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports, Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks. The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð which means stick of wood, Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting almost five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia.
It may have practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxinganling. Early historical evidence includes Procopius description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as ski running samis, birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the very old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimssons 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Goods practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis, the Gulating law stated that No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land. Cross-country skiing evolved from a means of transportation to being a world-wide recreational activity and sport. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis, the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741. This combination has a long history among the Sami people, skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, and the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century and these troops were reportedly able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry.
The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary, Norwegian immigrant Snowshoe Thompson transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis, Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition, in 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. An early record of a ski competition occurred in Tromsø,1843
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as likely to become extinct. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3079 animal and 2655 plant species as endangered worldwide, the figures for 1998 were, respectively,1102 and 1197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species, for example, population numbers and species conservation status can be found in the lists of organisms by population. The conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood that it will become extinct, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 40% of the species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally,199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered, in the United States, such plans are usually called Species Recovery Plans. Those species of Near Threatened and Least Concern status have been assessed and found to have relatively robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline.
The IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, Extinct Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, critically endangered Faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future, vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future, Least concern No immediate threat to species survival. A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. E) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 20% within 20 years or five generations, there is data from the United States that shows a correlation between human populations and threatened and endangered species. Under the Endangered Species Act in the United States, species may be listed as endangered or threatened, the Salt Creek tiger beetle is an example of an endangered subspecies protected under the ESA.
Some endangered species laws are controversial, lobbying from hunters and various industries like the petroleum industry, construction industry, and logging, has been an obstacle in establishing endangered species laws. The Bush administration lifted a policy that required federal officials to consult an expert before taking actions that could damage endangered species. Under the Obama administration, this policy has been reinstated, being listed as an endangered species can have negative effect since it could make a species more desirable for collectors and poachers. This effect is potentially reducible, such as in China where commercially farmed turtles may be reducing some of the pressure to poach endangered species. Another problem with the species is its effect of inciting the use of the shoot, shovel
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database