An urn is a vase with a cover, that has a somewhat narrowed neck above a rounded body and a footed pedestal. Describing a vessel as an "urn", as opposed to a vase or other terms reflects its use rather than any particular shape or origin; the term is often used for funerary urns, vessels used in burials, either to hold the cremated ashes or as grave goods, but is used in many other contexts. Large sculpted vases are called urns, whether placed outdoors, in gardens or as architectural ornaments on buildings, or kept inside. Funerary urns have been used by many civilizations. After death, corpses are cremated, the ashes are collected and put in an urn. Pottery urns, dating from about 7000 BC, have been found in an early Jiahu site in China, where a total of 32 burial urns are found, another early finds are in Laoguantai, Shaanxi. There are about 700 burial urns unearthed over the Yangshao areas and consisting more than 50 varieties of form and shape; the burial urns were used for children, but sporadically for adults.
The Urnfield culture, a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, takes its name from its large cemeteries of urn burials. The discovery of a Bronze Age urn burial in Norfolk, prompted Sir Thomas Browne to describe the antiquities found, he expanded his study to survey burial and funerary customs and current, published it as Hydriotaphia or Urn Burial. In ancient Greece, cremation was usual, the ashes placed in a painted Greek vase. In particular the lekythos, a shape of vase, was used for holding oil in funerary rituals. Romans placed; the interior of a dovecote has niches to house doves. Cremation urns were commonly used in early Anglo Saxon England, in many Pre-Columbian cultures. In some European traditions, a king's heart, sometimes other organs, could be placed in one or more urns upon his death, as happened with King Otto of Bavaria in 1916, buried in a different place from the body, to symbolize a particular affection for the place by the departed. In the modern funeral industry, cremation urns of varying quality and cost are offered, urns are another source of potential profit for an industry concerned that a trend toward cremation might threaten profits from traditional burial ceremonies.
Biodegradable urns are sometimes used for both animal burial. They are made from eco-friendly materials such as recycled or handmade paper, cellulose or other natural products that are capable of decomposing back into natural elements, sometimes include a seed intended to grow into a tree at the site of the burial. Besides the traditional funeral or cremation ashes urns, it may be possible to keep a part of the ashes of the loved one or beloved pet in keepsake urns or ash jewellery, although this might be banned in some localities as the law of certain countries may prohibit keeping any human remains in a private residence, it is in some places, possible to place the ashes of two people in so-called companion urns. Cremation or funeral urns are made from a variety of materials such as wood, nature stone, glass, or steel. Scattering of ashes has become popular over recent decades; as a result, urns designed to scatter the ashes from have been developed. Some are biodegradable, some recyclable after being used.
Some cremation urns have been made out of wood. A Figural urn is a style of vase or larger container where the basic urn shape, of either a classic amphora or a crucible style, is ornamented with figures; these may be attached to the main body, forming handles or extraneous decorations, or may be shown in relief on the body itself. The Ashes, the prize in the biennial Test cricket competition between England and Australia, are contained in a miniature urn. Urns are a common form of architectural garden ornament. Well-known ornamental urns include the Waterloo Vase. In mathematics, an urn problem is a thought experiment in probability theory. A tea urn is a heated metal container traditionally used to brew tea or boil water in large quantities in factories, canteens or churches, they are not found in domestic use. Like a samovar it has a small tap near the base for extracting hot water. Unlike an electric water boiler, tea may be brewed in the vessel itself, although they are likely to be used to fill a large teapot.
In Neoclassical furniture, it was a large wooden vase-like container, set on a pedestal on either side of a side table. This was the characteristic of Adam designs and of Hepplewhite's work. Sometimes they were "knife urns", where the top lifted off, cutlery was stored inside. Urns were used as decorative turnings at the cross points of stretchers in 16th and 17th century furniture designs; the urn and the vase were set on the central pedestal in a "broken" or "swan's" neck pediment. "Knife urns" placed on pedestals flanking a dining-room sideboard were an English innovation for high-style dining rooms of the late 1760s. They went out of fashion in the following decade, in favour of knife boxes that were placed on the sideboard. Bridge spouted vessel Crematory Pithos Urn problem Viewlogy Daily Mail article on a Roman cinerary urn Getty. Art & Architecture Thesaurus. Urns
Alexander Pavlovich Brullov was a Russian artist associated with Russian Neoclassicism. Alexander Brullov was born in Saint Petersburg into a family of French artists: his great grandfather, his grandfather, his father and his brothers were artists, his first teacher was his father Paul. He attended the Imperial Academy of Arts architecture class from 1810 to 1820, graduated with honors. Along with his brother, Karl, he was sent to Europe to study art and architecture with a stipend from the Society for the Promotion of Artists. Alexander Brullov spent eight years abroad, from 1822 to 1830, in Italy and France, studying architecture and art, he painted many watercolor portraits at that time. Among the best were those of Yekaterina Pavlovna Bakunina, John Capodistria, Natalya Goncharova-Pushkina, wife of the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin and Yekaterina Ivanovna Zagryazhskaya, her aunt, he did illustrations for books and magazines. In 1831, after his return to Russia, he was appointed professor at the Imperial Academy of Arts and these were the years when he created his best architectural projects.
Among others, he designed and supervised the construction of the following buildings in Saint Petersburg: Mikhailovsky Theatre Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul on Nevsky Prospekt Pulkovo Observatory The Guard Corps Headquarters on Palace Square. He was one of the principal architects for the reconstruction of the Winter Palace after the fire of 1837, he designed many striking interiors there, including the Pompei Hall, the Malachite Room, the White Hall. In 1844 he built Orenburg Caravanserai in Orenburg, his son Pavel became a painter of some note. Thermes de Pompéi. A. Firman Didot, Paris, 1829. С. Н. Кондаков. Юбилейный справочник Императорской Академии художеств. 1764-1914. 2. P. 298—299. Media related to Alexander Brullov at Wikimedia Commons
Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia
Konstantin Pavlovich was a grand duke of Russia and the second son of Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. He was the heir-presumptive for most of his elder brother Alexander I's reign, but had secretly renounced his claim to the throne in 1823. For 25 days after the death of Alexander I, from 19 November /1 December 1825 to 14 December /26 December 1825 he was known as His Imperial Majesty Konstantin I Emperor and Sovereign of Russia, although he never reigned and never acceded to the throne, his younger brother Nicholas became Tsar in 1825. The succession controversy became the pretext of the Decembrist revolt. Konstantin was known to eschew court etiquette and to take frequent stands against the wishes of his brother Alexander I, for which he is remembered fondly in Russia, but in his capacity as the governor of Poland he is remembered as a strong ruler. Konstantin was born in Tsarskoye Selo on 27 April 1779, the second son of the Tsesarevich Paul Petrovich and his wife Maria Fyodorovna, daughter of Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg.
Of all Paul's children, Konstantin most resembled his father both physically and mentally. His paternal grandmother Catherine the Great named him after Constantine the Great, the founder of the Eastern Roman Empire. A medal with antique figures was struck to commemorate his birth. According to the British ambassador James Harris, Prince Potemkin's mind is taken up with the idea of creating an empire in the East. At the same time she is setting up a town at Tsarskoe Selo to be called Konstantingorod; the direction of the boy's upbringing was in the hands of his grandmother, the empress Catherine II. As in the case of her eldest grandson, she regulated every detail of his physical and mental education. Count Nikolai Saltykov was supposed to be the actual tutor, but he too in his turn transferred the burden to another, interfering only on exceptional occasions, exercised no influence upon the character of the passionate and headstrong boy; the only person who exerted a responsible influence was Cesar La Harpe, tutor-in-chief from 1783 to May 1795 and educated both the empress's grandsons.
Catherine arranged Konstantin's marriage. As Caroline Bauer recorded in her memoirs, “The brutal Constantine treated his consort like a slave. So far did he forget all good manners and decency that, in the presence of his rough officers, he made demands on her, as his property, which will hardly bear being hinted of.” Due to his violent treatment and suffering health problems as a result, Juliane separated from Konstantin in 1799. An attempt by Konstantin in 1814 to convince her to return broke down in the face of her firm opposition. During this time, Konstantin's first campaign took place under the leadership of Suvorov; the battle of Bassignana was lost by Konstantin's fault. Though it cannot be proved that this action of the tsar denoted any far-reaching plan, it yet shows that Paul distrusted the grand-duke Alexander. Konstantin never tried to secure the throne. After his father's death in 1801, he led a disorderly bachelor life, he abstained from politics, but remained faithful to his military inclinations, without manifesting anything more than a preference for the externalities of the service.
In command of the Imperial Guards during the campaign of 1805, he had a share of the responsibility for the Russian defeat at the battle of Austerlitz. After the peace of Tilsit he became an ardent admirer of Napoleon and an upholder of the Russo-French alliance, he therefore lost the confidence of his brother Alexander. This view was not held by Konstantin, his personal behaviour towards both his own men and French prisoners was cruel. During the campaign, Barclay de Tolly was twice obliged to send him away from the army due to his disorderly conduct, his share in the battles in Germany and France was insignificant. At Dresden, on 26 August, his military knowledge failed him at the decisive moment, but at La Fère-Champenoise he distinguished himself by personal bravery. In Paris the grand duke excited public ridicule by the manifestation of his petty military fads, his first visit was to the stables, it was said that he had been marching and drilling in his private rooms. Konstantin's importance in political history dates from when his brother, Tsar Alexander, installed him in the Congress Poland as de facto viceroy (however he was not the "official viceroy" - names
A palace is a grand residence a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop. The word is derived from the Latin name Palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which housed the Imperial residences. Most European languages have a version of the term, many use it for a wider range of buildings than English. In many parts of Europe, the equivalent term is applied to large private houses in cities of the aristocracy. Many historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, hotels, or office buildings; the word is sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions, such as a movie palace. The word palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the name of one of the seven hills of Rome; the original "palaces" on the Palatine Hill were the seat of the imperial power while the "capitol" on the Capitoline Hill was the religious nucleus of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a desirable residential area.
Emperor Caesar Augustus lived there in a purposely modest house only set apart from his neighbours by the two laurel trees planted to flank the front door as a sign of triumph granted by the Senate. His descendants Nero, with his "Golden House", enlarged the house and grounds over and over until it took up the hill top; the word Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus". At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace" at Aachen, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the "palace" indicated the housing of the government too, the travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the early Middle Ages, the palas was that part of an imperial palace, that housed the Great Hall, where affairs of state were conducted.
In the Holy Roman Empire the powerful independent Electors came to be housed in palaces. This has been used as evidence that power was distributed in the Empire. In modern times, the term has been applied by archaeologists and historians to large structures that housed combined ruler and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind; the earliest known palaces were the royal residences of the Egyptian Pharaohs at Thebes, featuring an outer wall enclosing labyrinthine buildings and courtyards. Other ancient palaces include the Assyrian palaces at Nimrud and Nineveh, the Minoan palace at Knossos, the Persian palaces at Persepolis and Susa. Palaces in East Asia, such as the imperial palaces of Japan, Vietnam, Thailand and large wooden structures in China's Forbidden City, consist of many low pavilions surrounded by vast, walled gardens, in contrast to the single building palaces of Medieval Western Europe; the Brazilian new capital, Brasília, hosts modern palaces, most designed by the city's architect Oscar Niemeyer.
The Alvorada Palace is the official residence of Brazil's president. The Planalto Palace is the official workplace; the Jaburu Palace is the official residence of Brazil's vice-president. Rio de Janeiro, the former capital of the Portuguese Empire and the Empire of Brazil, houses numerous royal and imperial palaces as the Imperial Palace of São Cristóvão, former official residence of the Brazil's Emperors, the Paço Imperial, its official workplace and the Guanabara Palace, former residence of Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil. Besides palaces of the nobility and aristocracy; the city of Petropolis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, is known for its palaces of the imperial period such as the Petrópolis Palace and the Grão-Pará Palace. In Canada, Government House is a title given to the official residences of the Canadian monarchy and various viceroys. Though not universal, in most cases the title is the building's sole name; the use of the term Government House is an inherited custom from the British Empire, where there were and are many government houses.
Rideau Hall is, since 1867, the official residence in Ottawa of both the Canadian monarch and his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada, has been described as "Canada's house". It stands in Canada's capital on a 0.36 km2 estate at 1 Sussex Drive, with the main building consisting of 175 rooms across 9,500 m2, 27 outbuildings around the grounds. While the equivalent building in many countries has a prominent, central place in the national capital, Rideau Hall's site is unobtrusive within Ottawa, giving it more the character of a private home. Along with Rideau Hall, the Citadelle of Quebec known as La Citadelle, is an active military installation and official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General, it is located atop adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec. The citadel is the oldest military building in Canada, forms part of the fortifications of Quebec City
Stanisław August Poniatowski
Stanisław II Augustus, who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He remains a controversial figure in Polish history. Recognized as a great patron of the arts and sciences and an initiator and firm supporter of progressive reforms, he is remembered as the King of the Commonwealth whose election was marred by Russian intervention, he is criticized for his failure to stand against the partitions, thus to prevent the destruction of the Polish state. Having arrived at the Russian imperial court in Saint Petersburg in 1755, he became romantically involved with the future empress Catherine the Great. With her connivance, in 1764 he was elected King of Poland. Contrary to expectations, he attempted to strengthen the ailing Commonwealth, his efforts met with external opposition from Prussia and Austria, all committed to keeping the Commonwealth weak. From within he was opposed by conservative interests, which saw reforms as threatening their traditional liberties and privileges.
The defining crisis of his early reign was the War of the Bar Confederation that led to the First Partition of Poland. The part of his reign saw reforms wrought by the Great Sejm and the Constitution of 3 May 1791; these reforms were overthrown by the 1792 Targowica Confederation and by the Polish–Russian War of 1792, leading directly to the Second Partition of Poland, the Kościuszko Uprising and the final and Third Partition of Poland, marking the end of the Commonwealth. Stripped of all meaningful power, Poniatowski abdicated in November 1795 and spent the last years of his life a virtual captive in Saint Petersburg. Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski was born on 17 January 1732 in Wołczyn in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and now in Belarus, he was one of eight surviving children and fourth son of Princess Konstancja Czartoryska and of Count Stanisław Poniatowski, Ciołek coat of arms, Castellan of Kraków. His older brothers were Kazimierz Poniatowski, a Podkomorzy at Court, Franciszek Poniatowski, Canon of Krakow Cathedral who suffered from Epilepsy and Aleksander Poniatowski, an officer killed in the Rhineland-Palatinate during the War of the Austrian Succession.
His younger brothers were, Andrzej Poniatowski, an Austrian Feldmarschall, Michał Jerzy Poniatowski who became Primate of Poland. His two older and married sisters were Izabella Branicka. Among his nephews was Prince Józef Poniatowski, son of Andrzej, he was a great-grandson of the poet and alleged traitor, Jan Andrzej Morsztyn and through his great-grandmother, Catherine Gordon, lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga, he was related to the House of Stuart and thereby connected to the leading families of Scotland and France. The Poniatowski family had achieved high status among the Polish nobility of the time, he spent the first few years of his childhood in Gdańsk. He was temporarily kidnapped as a toddler, on the orders of Józef Potocki, Voyevoda of Kiev, as a reprisal for his father's support for King August and held for some months in Kamieniec-Podolski, he was returned to his parents in Gdańsk. He moved with his family to Warsaw, he was educated by his mother by private tutors, including Russian ambassador Herman Karl von Keyserling.
He had few friends in his teenage years and instead developed a fondness for books which continued throughout his life. He went on his first foreign trip in 1748, with elements of the Imperial Russian army as it advanced into the Rhineland to aid Maria Theresia's troops during the War of the Austrian Succession which ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; this enabled Poniatowski both to visit the city known as Aachen, to venture into the Netherlands. On his return journey he stopped in Dresden; the following year Poniatowski was apprenticed to the office of Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski, the Deputy Chancellor of Lithuania. In 1750, he travelled to Berlin where he met a British diplomat, Charles Hanbury Williams, who became his mentor and friend. In 1751, Poniatowski was elected to the Treasury Tribunal in Radom, where he served as a commissioner, he spent most of January 1752 at the Austrian court in Vienna. That year, after serving at the Radom Tribunal and meeting King Augustus III of Poland, he was elected deputy of the Sejm.
While there his father secured for him the title of Starosta of Przemyśl. In March 1753 he travelled to Vienna, where he again met with Williams, he returned to the Netherlands, where he met many key members of that country's political and economic sphere. By late August he had arrived in Paris. In February 1754 he travelled on to England. There he was befriended by the future Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom, he returned to the Commonwealth that year, however he eschewed the Sejm, as his parents wanted to keep him out of the political furore surrounding the Ostrogski family's land inheritance. The following year he received the title of Stolnik of Lithuania. Poniatowski owed his rise and influence to his family connections with the powerful Czartoryski family and their political faction, known as the Familia, with whom he had grown close, it was the Familia who sent him in 1755 to Saint Petersburg in the service of Williams, nominated British ambassador to Russia. In Saint Petersburg, Williams introduced Poniatowski to the 2
Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia
Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia was the second son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and younger brother of Tsar Alexander II. During the reign of Alexander II, Konstantin was an admiral of the Russian fleet and reformed the Russian Navy, he was an instrumental figure in the emancipation of the serfs. He was less fortunate as viceroy of Poland and had to be recalled to Russia where he was attacked for his liberalism. After the assassination of his brother Alexander II in 1881, Konstantin fell from favour; the new tsar, Alexander III, his nephew, opposed Konstantin's liberal ideas and stripped him of all his governmental positions. His retirement was marked with personal family setbacks. After suffering a stroke, he spent his last years as an invalid. Konstantin was born in St. Petersburg, the second son and fifth child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, his parents were happy to have a second son after nine years of having only daughters. Nicholas I and his wife were devoted to each other and to their children, providing an excellent education for them.
The Imperial children were kept under female supervision until they were seven. However, by the time he was five Konstantin had become too willful and difficult for a governess to handle and his father appointed a male tutor for him. Nicholas I intended that Konstantin would become Admiral General of the Russian Fleet and with this in mind chose Fyodor Litke as tutor for his son. Litke, who had circumnavigated the globe at the age of twenty, was a brash and bold man, unafraid of controversy or offense, he passed these qualities along to his student, he trained the boy in naval sciences and filled his head with tales of the sea, gaining the friendship of his pupil for life. Languages were an important part of Konstantin's education; as he grew older, his lessons increased in length and complexity to encompass mathematics, science and government administration. There were early military lessons and drills. Konstantin enjoyed music, learning to play the piano and cello, he had great appreciation for the arts.
He became an enthusiastic reader and his fascination with Homer led him to translate the Odyssey from German. In 1835, Konstantin accompanied his parents to Germany and from age eight onwards was taught to keep a diary; when he was just eight years old, he was given a small yacht, which he would sail between Petergof and Kronstadt, spending his days at sea and returning home at night. In 1836, accompanied by Litke, he embarked on a lengthy sailing expedition and he was given command of the Russian frigate Hercules under Litke's direction. During his training Konstantin was treated like all other naval cadets to the point of his title of Grand Duke being dispensed with, he was placed on watch duty at midnight as well as in rain and storms. At the age of sixteen, Konstantin was promoted to the rank of captain and served as commander of the frigate Ulyses, visiting various ports along the Gulf of Finland and embarking on a southern tour that included the Mediterranean; the encouragement and guidance of his aunt, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, was another important influence in Konstantin's education.
Elena took him under her wing, broadening his taste in literature and music and introducing him to the latest scientific ideas. She had a big influence in her nephew's political views. Under Litke's influence, Konstantin began his forays into official life, taking on patronage of the new Imperial Russian Geographical Society; the Geographical Society was subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, home to a conspicuous number of liberal bureaucrats including Nikolay Milyutin. The male members of the Romanov family were famous for their good looks and their height, but Konstantin was rather short and ugly, he was described by one observer: " His complexion was sallow, the color of his hair was rather neutral, resembled the sand of the seashore. His eyes were gray and half closed and an enormous wooden looking nose took the place of his father's Grecian outline", he had a loud voice, imposing brusque manners. With a quick temper, Konstantin was a difficult man and unpleasant. In 1846 Konstantin's sister, Grand Duchess Olga, married Crown Prince Charles of Württemberg.
He went with her to Stuttgart he continued to Altenburg to be introduced to Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg. His parents had arranged the meeting thinking. Alexandra was strikingly beautiful and slim and Konstantin was eager to marry her. "I don't know. It is as if I am a new person. Just one thought moves me, just one image fills my eyes: forever and only she, my angel, my universe. I do think I’m in love. However, what can it mean? I've only known her a few hours and I'm up to my ears in Passion". Konstantin was Alexandra three years younger. On 12 October 1847, she arrived in Russia. In February she converted to Russian Orthodoxy, taking the name of Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna, they were married six months on 11 September 1848 in the Winter Palace. Both were musical: he played the cello and she the piano, they seem to have been a good match. For the first years of their marriage, they were a devoted couple, starting their married life happily. In the following years, they had six children.
The couple lived in some of the most luxurious palaces of the Empire: Pavlovsk and the Marbl
Vosstaniya Square is a major square in the Central Business District of Saint Petersburg, Russia. The square lies at the crossing of Nevsky Prospekt, Ligovsky Prospekt, Vosstaniya Street and Goncharnaya Street, in front of the Moskovsky Rail Terminal, the northern terminus of the line connecting the city with Moscow. Administratively, the Vosstaniya Square falls under the authority of the Tsentralny District. From the 1840s to 1918 the square was known as Znamenskaya Square, after the Church of the Sign built there between 1794 and 1804 to a Neoclassical design by Fyodor Demertsov; the church building commemorated the icon of Our Lady of the Sign, Four years before the Romanov Tercentenary, in 1909, Prince P. P. Trubetskoy completed a tremendous equestrian statue of Tsar Alexander III, it stood opposite Nikolayevsky Station in Znamenskaya Square. Members of the imperial family ridiculed the statue, it remained in storage for fifty years before re-erection in 1994 in front of the Marble Palace, on the former site of the armoured car that had transported Lenin from the Finland Station on 16 April 1917.
The square was a scene of protests. After the Bolsheviks took control of Petrograd in 1917, they had the square renamed into Uprising Square to commemorate these events; the Church of the Sign was demolished in 1940 to make room for the surface vestibule of the Ploshchad Vosstaniya metro-station. The Leningrad Hero-City Obelisk - designed by architects Vladimir Lukyanov and Aleksandr I. Alymov - was erected on the same spot in 1985 in order to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Victory Day. In 2010 the 200,000-square-metre Galereya shopping center opened on the square, including a large Stockmann department store; the Vosstaniya Square is a major traffic hub of Saint Petersburg. It is home to the large Moscow Rail Terminal, from where trains depart for Moscow and other major cities, it is filled with passengers every day; the square is home to the metro station Ploshchad Vosstaniya. The square is a main hub for marshrutkas, buses and trams