American Jews, known as Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, either by religion, ethnicity, or nationality. The Jewish community in the United States is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews and their US-born descendants, Minority Jewish ethnic divisions are represented, including Sephardic Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and a smaller percentage of converts to Judaism. The American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States is home to the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world. In 2012, the American Jewish population was estimated at between 5.5 and 8 million, depending on the definition of the term and this constitutes between 1. 7% and 2. 6% of the total U. S. population. Jews have been present in what is today the United States of America since the mid-17th century, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700. The majority were Sephardic Jewish immigrants of Spanish and Portuguese ancestry, until after 1720 when Ashkenazi Jews from Central, after passage of the Plantation Act of 1740, Jews were specifically permitted to become British citizens and immigrate to the colonies.
Until about 1830, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America and they primarily became merchants and shop-owners. Jewish migration to the United States increased dramatically in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution, many Jews emigrated from Romania. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 restricted immigration, most settled in the New York metropolitan area, establishing the worlds major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915 the circulation of the daily Yiddish newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, in addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture,500,000 American Jews fought in World War II, and after the war younger families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became increasingly assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage, more recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have largely joined the mainstream American Jewish community.
Americans of Jewish descent have been successful in many fields. Scholars debate whether the historical experience for Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate American exceptionalism. Korelitz shows how American Jews during the late 19th and early 20th centuries abandoned a racial definition of Jewishness in favor of one that embraced ethnicity. The key to understanding this transition from a racial self-definition to a cultural or ethnic one can be found in the ‘’Menorah Journal’’ between 1915 and 1925, siporin uses the family folklore of ethnic Jews to their collective history and its transformation into an historical art form. They tell us how Jews have survived being uprooted and transformed, many immigrant narratives bear a theme of the arbitrary nature of fate and the reduced state of immigrants in a new culture. By contrast, ethnic family narratives tend to show the more in charge of his life
California Democratic Party
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California. Headquartered in Sacramento, it is chaired by veteran Democratic politician and former United States Representative John L. Burton and it is the majority party in both chambers of the California State Legislature, i. e. the State Assembly and the Senate. In regards to businesses and economics, the California Democratic party takes a stance that protects consumers, small businesses, the platform makes a point to champion the economic reforms of President Barack Obama. The 2012 platform addresses the issues of family in several sections, the platform promises to protect seniors and all types of families with fair economic and social policies. These policies range from continuing Medicare for the elderly and keeping playgrounds safe for children, the platform highlights the right of a woman to make choices for her own body and claims that healthcare is a natural right of all people.
The California democrats further promise to protect the dignity of disabled citizens, the platform is dedicated to advocating for the rights of women through equal pay and affirmative action. The party prioritizes the creation of a sustainable and earth-friendly state, focus is placed on the development of alternative forms of energy and how energy is consumed. In addition, the stresses that green jobs are a solution to economic. Finally, the platform takes stances on open internet use, the Democrats of California support the right of the people to express their thoughts and ideas through any media, and their right to assemble. The party believes that laws should be fair and that immigrants should not be discriminated against. The party wishes to bring education to the forefront, aiming to turn California into a state for academic achievement. A Detailed description of the California Democratic Partys position on all of the issues can be found in their 2012 Platform document. The California Democratic Party passes multiple resolutions every year as a way of expressing their opinion to lawmakers statewide, while the partys resolutions have no legal force themselves, they are official documents that elected representatives should take into account when making decisions.
A few recent resolutions are summarised below,2012 Buy American This resolution, written 18 November 2012, encourages all arms of government to favor American suppliers of goods and services. The above are three of a long list of Resolutions passed by the California Democratic Party in 2012 and in preceding years. The history of the Democratic Party of California is complex and long, the State has traded hands every few cycles since its admission into the union in 1850. At that time, the state was firmly in the hands of the Democratic Party, until the early 1880s after the Republican Party abolished slavery, the Republicans held the state through the power and influence of railroad men. The Democratic Party responded by taking an anti-corporate, anti freedom of attainment position, in 1894, Democrat James Budd was elected to the governorship, and the Democratic Party attempted to make good on their promises to reform the booming railroad industry
William J. Bill Quirk is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 20th Assembly District, which encompasses the southern East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area, prior to being elected to the Assembly in 2012, he was a Hayward City Councilmember and nuclear physicist. Upon returning to New York City, Bill joined NASA as a research scientist and developed the Goddard Institute Climate Model, Bill left NASA to work at the management consulting firm, McKinsey and Company in New York City in their computer system practice. Bill became this country’s expert in nuclear programs in foreign countries. Bill prepared reports for the Presidential Daily Brief and played a key role in the negotiations for the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, teaching physics at Columbia, Caltech and UC Davis helped Bill formulate his lifelong interest in education. Quirk was a physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Lab for 26 years 1979-2005, in 1996, he helped break the deadlock in the negotiations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty In the early 90s, he showed that the plutonium parts of nuclear weapons could be reused.
This resulted in the closing of the Rocky Flats plutonium fabrication facility near Denver and this removed the threat of a major environment disaster in the Denver metropolitan area. There had already been a fire at the facility that had threatened to spread plutonium oxide across the metropolitan area. Bill served from 2004-12 on the Hayward City Council, while on the Council, Bill served on the Board of Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency, and the Hayward Area Shoreline Planning Agency. While on the city council, Bill has been dedicated to revitalizing Hayward through promoting jobs and safe, Quirk is the only rocket engineer to serve in the California legislature. He has a Ph. D. in astrophysics from Columbia University, since being elected to the California State Assembly in November 2012, Bill has served on 5 committees, which determines what committees bills are sent to. Appropriations, which determines whether bills that appropriate funds can proceed to a vote of the full assembly and Commerce that deals with the state’s telecommunication, electric and water utilities.
In 2014, Quirk authored a bill that made it easier to get domestic violence restraining orders in California, the bill AB2089 goes into effect January 1,2015. Bill and his wife Laurel moved to the Hayward area in 1978 and they raised two children who attended Moreau Catholic High School and the University of California. Since moving to Hayward in 1978, Bill served the community as President of Hayward Friends of the Library and Chair and he is a Member of Hayward Rotary, the Hayward Arts Council and the Hayward Area Historical Society. Official website Campaign website Scientific Papers
Marc Levine is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 10th Assembly District, which encompasses the North San Francisco Bay Area, Levine is the current Chair of the California Legislative Jewish Caucus. Prior to being elected to the Assembly in 2012, he was a San Rafael City Councilmember, marc Levine served on the San Rafael City Council, and gained a reputation for innovative environmental policies and pragmatic solutions. Levines election to the Assembly in 2012 was an upset, in which he prevailed despite being outspent 5-to-1 by a fellow Democrat. Levine was reelected to the Assembly in 2014 by nearly a three-to-one margin, Levine lives in Marin County with his wife Wendy and their two children. Levine has stated, Immigrants are welcome and we will do everything we can to help them achieve legal status, in 2015, he took action by authoring two immigration bills— both of which were signed by Governor Brown. AB899 safeguards the privacy of immigrant children by requiring federal immigration officials to obtain an order before accessing juvenile records.
AB900 helps unaccompanied minor immigrants who are escaping violence and exploitation to receive humanitarian relief through the Special Immigrant Juvenile Status visa process, Levine worked with legislative leaders and Governor Brown to pass legislation providing $3 million in legal aid for those immigrants
Jim Patterson (California politician)
James Norwood Jim Patterson is an American politician serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Republican representing the 23rd district, which encompasses eastern Fresno County, prior to being elected to the state assembly, he was a business executive, public speaker, and is the former mayor of Fresno, California. Patterson was mayor of Fresno between 1993 and 2001, succeeding Karen Humphrey, and being succeeded by Alan Autry, Patterson ran for the Republican nomination in Californias 21st congressional district, a district with new boundaries created through reapportionment after the 2000 United States census. His opponents were State Assemblyman Mike Briggs and Devin Nunes, the California State Director for the United States Department of Agricultures Rural Development section, Patterson came in second place to Nunes, who would eventually win the general election. Patterson ran for the Republican nomination in Californias 19th congressional district and he finished a close second in the June 8,2010 primary to California State Senator Jeff Denham, who won the general election.
List of mayors of Fresno, California Official website Campaign website
Evan Low is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 28th Assembly District, which parts of the South Bay. Prior to his election in the Assembly in 2014, Low served as Mayor and City Councilmember in Campbell and he is a member of the California Legislative LGBT Caucus, and the California Asian & Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus. Low was born in 1983 as the son of Arthur Low, Low moved to Campbell in 2003. He earned a degree in political science from San Jose State University. He participated in a program, the Senior Executives in State and Local Government program, at the John F. Kennedy School of Government. In 2014, Assembly Speaker Toni Atkins appointed Low as Assistant Majority Whip, Low was kept in the same leadership role by Atkinss successor, Speaker Anthony Rendon, in 2016. There are 24 members of the Tech Caucus. S, house of Representatives Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi. In 2016, New York Magazine identified Low as a potential United States presidential candidate in 2024, in 2004, he unsuccessfully ran for a seat on the City Council, and won in 2006.
Low worked as a district representative for Californias former 28th State Assembly district Assemblymember Paul Fong. When his colleagues selected him to become Campbell mayor in 2009, Low became the youngest openly gay, in 2013, his colleagues on the Campbell City Council selected him to serve as Mayor for a second time. His term on the council expired in 2014, while Mayor of San Francisco, Lieutenant Governor Gavin Newsom issued a Proclamation naming June 5,2006, “Evan Low Day” in the City and County of San Francisco
Jim Frazier (politician)
James L. Frazier, Jr. is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 11th Assembly District, which encompasses the western Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, prior to being elected to the Assembly in 2012, he was an Oakley City Councilmember and Mayor. During his first term, Fraziers legislation focused on roadway safety and he authored Assembly Bill 1113, concerning provisional drivers licenses, which sought to strengthen teen driver-licensing programs and improve the safety of the roadways. He authored Assembly Bill 417, which lessened the processes needed to authorize bike lanes in urbanized areas and he authored Assembly Bill 513, which expands the use of rubberized asphalt in roads and other transportation projects. And he authored Assembly Bill 1336, which provides the state with added enforcement powers necessary to ensure that workers are paid mandated wages, during the 2014-15 legislative session, Frazier served as Chair of the Assembly Transportation Committee
David Chiu (politician)
David Chiu is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 17th Assembly District, which encompasses the eastern half of San Francisco, Chiu is a member of the California Asian & Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus. The eldest child of Hakka Taiwanese American immigrant parents, Chiu was born in Cleveland and grew up in Boston, where he attended Boston College High School. In the mid-1990s, Chiu served as Democratic Counsel to the U. S. Senate Judiciary Committee’s Constitution Subcommittee and he founded Grassroots Enterprise, an online communications technology company, and served as its chief operating officer. He served on the San Francisco Small Business Commission until he was elected supervisor in 2008, Chiu first ran for elected office in 2008, when he ran for a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing District 3. He was backed by incumbent supervisor Aaron Peskin as well as Kamala Harris, Mark Leno, Leland Yee, on his first day in office on January 8,2009, Chiu was elected to a two-year term as president of the Board of Supervisors.
He was reelected president on January 8,2011, Chiu was reelected to his second and final term as supervisor in 2012, winning over 75% of the vote. He was reelected by his supervisors to serve an unprecedented third term as president of the board on January 8,2013. In addition to serving on the Board of Supervisors, Chiu served as a member of the San Francisco Democratic County Central Committee, on February 28,2011, Chiu announced his mayoral candidacy at a morning rally at San Francisco City Hall. Over the course of the campaign, Chiu raised over $1.24 million from private and public sources and spent roughly the same amount. On Election Day, Chiu placed fourth behind incumbent Ed Lee with 17,921 first-place votes, despite the fourth-place finish, Chiu and third-place candidate Dennis Herrera appeared individually on more ballots overall than John Avalos, who came in second. He ran against fellow Democrat and supervisor David Campos, on January 22,2014, the San Francisco Chronicle column City Insider reported that Chiu reported having raised $450,000 for the Assembly race.
Polls showed him ahead of Campos, Chiu beat Campos in the San Francisco primary on Tuesday, June 3,2014, by approximately five percentage points. Chiu won 48% of the vote, while Campos pulled in 43%, on November 4, Chiu defeated Campos with 51. 9% of the vote, and Campos conceded on November 6. David Chiu was appointed by Speaker Toni Atkins to serve as assistant speaker pro tempore in the 2015–16 session, the assistant speaker pro tempore is the third highest ranking position in the state assembly
Silicon Valley is a nickname for the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area, in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. The valley in its name refers to the Santa Clara Valley in Santa Clara County, which includes the city of San Jose and surrounding cities and towns, where the region has been traditionally centered. The region has expanded to include the half of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Mateo County. It was in the Valley that the integrated circuit, the microprocessor. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of an information technology workers. The term is now used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector. The first published use of Silicon Valley is credited to Don Hoefler, hostler used the phrase as the title of a series of articles in the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News. The series, entitled Silicon Valley in the USA, began in the papers January 11,1971, the term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market.
The silicon part of the name refers to the concentration of companies involved in the making of semiconductors. These firms slowly replaced the orchards and the fruits which gave the area its initial nickname — the Valley of Hearts Delight, Stanford University leadership was especially important in the valleys early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success, the ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors. Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckles History of San Jose that California first heard the click of a key on September 11,1853. It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants Exchange members named George Sweeney and it was known as the Inner Station, the second, as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchantss Exchange by electric telegraph Wire.
According to Arbuckle Sweeney and Baughs line was strictly an intra-city, San Francisco-based service, allen and C. Burnham led the way to build a line from San Francisco to Marysville via San Jose and Sacramento. Delays to construction occurred until September 1853, but, …San Jose became the first station on the line when the wire arrived here on October 15, the line was completed when Gambles northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24. The Bay Area had long been a site of United States Navy research. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with regularly scheduled programming in San Jose
Kevin McCarty is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 7th Assembly District, which encompasses a portion of the Sacramento metropolitan area, McCarty is a member of the California Legislative Black Caucus. Prior to being elected to the Assembly in 2014, he was a Sacramento City Councilmember representing the 6th district, McCarty was born and raised in the Sacramento area. He graduated with a degree in science from CSU Long Beach and is working on a masters degree in public policy. He is a resident of the Elmhurst neighborhood, while on the City Council, McCarty worked as a legislative advocate for Preschool California. Representing many of Sacramentos older neighborhoods, McCarty has been a big advocate for safe housing and he is known as a big advocate of gun control. He works with creating after school programs for District 6 schools, Council member McCarty along with Darrell Fong voted against a $257 million subsidy to develop a downtown entertainment and sports complex for the Sacramento Kings.
The 6th district includes the suburban College Greens and Glenbrook neighborhoods which are located in the edges of Sacramento. He represents the Tahoe Park area and the neighborhoods that make up southeast Sacramento. In the 2004 election, McCarty faced John Boyd, the director of Shriners Hospital for Children, McCarty defeated him by a 62% to 38% margin. McCarty did not face any opposition in his 2008 reelection bid and he did gain notoriety as the lone city councilman who declined to take sides in the mayoral primary between Heather Fargo and Kevin Johnson. However, by the election, he decided to support Fargos unsuccessful reelection bid. In 2010, Assembly Member Dave Jones was term limited, McCarty lost a close primary election to Roger Dickinson, the Sacramento County Board of Supervisors member from District 1. In 2012, McCarty was challenged by information technology manager Mitch Netto and he easily won in the primary election by a 3 to 1 margin. In 2014, McCarty was elected to represent Californias 7th Assembly District, defeating fellow Sacramento City Councilmember Steve Cohn