University of Paris
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, active 1150–1793, 1806–1970. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second oldest university in Europe. Chartered in 1200 by King Philip II of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne, in turn founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257. Internationally reputed for its academic performance in the humanities since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations. Vast numbers of popes, royalty and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris. A few of the colleges of the time are still visible close to Pantheon and Luxembourg Gardens: Collège des Bernardins, Hotel de Cluny, College Sainte Barbe, College d'Harcourt, Cordeliers.
In 1793, during the French Revolution, the university was closed and by Item-27 of the Revolutionary Convention, the college endowments and buildings were sold. A new University of France replaced it in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology. In 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Although all the thirteen universities that resulted of the original University of Paris split can be considered its inheritors, just three universities of the post-1968 universities embodied direct faculties successors while inheriting the name "Sorbonne", as well as its physical location in the Latin Quarter: the Pantheon-Sorbonne University. From 2010, University of Paris successors started to reorganise themselves into different groups of universities and institutions that were upgraded to "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur".
As a result, various university groups exist in the Paris area, among them Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universities, the University of Paris-Saclay, Paris Lumiéres, Paris-Seine, so on. In January 2018, two of the inheritors of the old University of Paris, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, merged into a single university called Sorbonne University. In 2019, two other inheritors of the University of Paris, namely Paris Diderot University and Paris Descartes University, are expected to merge. In 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school; the earliest historical reference to it is found in Matthew of Paris' reference to the studies of his own teacher and his acceptance into "the fellowship of the elect Masters" there in about 1170, it is known that Pope Innocent III completed his studies there in 1182 at the age of 21. The corporation was formally recognised as an "Universitas" in an edict by King Philippe-Auguste in 1200: in it, among other accommodations granted to future students, he allowed the corporation to operate under ecclesiastic law which would be governed by the elders of the Notre-Dame Cathedral school, assured all those completing courses there that they would be granted a diploma.
The university had four faculties: Arts, Medicine and Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties; the students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin: France, Normandy and England. The last came to be known as the Alemannian nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe; the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, to signify they were under the protection of the church. Students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the king's laws or courts; this presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, its official had to appeal to Church courts for justice.
Students were very young, entering the school at 13 or 14 years of age and staying for six to 12 years. Three schools were famous in Paris: the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, that of Sainte-Geneviève Abbey; the decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two did not have much visibility in the early centuries; the glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it gave way to them. These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning; the first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the eleventh century incl
French Academy of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences. Headed by Sébastien Candel, it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France; the Academy of Sciences traces its origin to Colbert's plan to create a general academy. He chose a small group of scholars who met on 22 December 1666 in the King's library, thereafter held twice-weekly working meetings there; the first 30 years of the Academy's existence were informal, since no statutes had as yet been laid down for the institution. In contrast to its British counterpart, the Academy was founded as an organ of government; the Academy was expected to remain apolitical, to avoid discussion of religious and social issues. On 20 January 1699, Louis XIV gave the Company its first rules.
The Academy was installed in the Louvre in Paris. Following this reform, the Academy began publishing a volume each year with information on all the work done by its members and obituaries for members who had died; this reform codified the method by which members of the Academy could receive pensions for their work. On 8 August 1793, the National Convention abolished all the academies. On 22 August 1795, a National Institute of Sciences and Arts was put in place, bringing together the old academies of the sciences and arts, among them the Académie française and the Académie des sciences. All the old members of the abolished Académie were formally re-elected and retook their ancient seats. Among the exceptions was Dominique, comte de Cassini, who refused to take his seat. Membership in the Academy was not restricted to scientists: in 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte was elected a member of the Academy and three years a president in connection with his Egyptian expedition, which had a scientific component.
In 1816, the again renamed "Royal Academy of Sciences" became autonomous, while forming part of the Institute of France. In the Second Republic, the name returned to Académie des sciences. During this period, the Academy was funded by and accountable to the Ministry of Public Instruction; the Academy came to control French patent laws in the course of the eighteenth century, acting as the liaison of artisans' knowledge to the public domain. As a result, academicians dominated technological activities in France; the Academy proceedings were published under the name Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. The Comptes rendus is now a journal series with seven titles; the publications can be found on site of the French National Library. In 1818 the French Academy of Sciences launched a competition to explain the properties of light; the civil engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel entered this competition by submitting a new wave theory of light. Siméon Denis Poisson, one of the members of the judging committee, studied Fresnel's theory in detail.
Being a supporter of the particle-theory of light, he looked for a way to disprove it. Poisson thought that he had found a flaw when he demonstrate that Fresnel's theory predicts that an on-axis bright spot would exist in the shadow of a circular obstacle, where there should be complete darkness according to the particle-theory of light; the Poisson spot is not observed in every-day situations, so it was only natural for Poisson to interpret it as an absurd result and that it should disprove Fresnel's theory. However, the head of the committee, Dominique-François-Jean Arago, who incidentally became Prime Minister of France, decided to perform the experiment in more detail, he molded a 2-mm metallic disk to a glass plate with wax. To everyone's surprise he succeeded in observing the predicted spot, which convinced most scientists of the wave-nature of light. For three centuries women were not allowed as members of the Academy; this meant that many women scientists were excluded, including two-time Nobel Prize winner Marie Curie, Nobel winner Irène Joliot-Curie, mathematician Sophie Germain, many other deserving women scientists.
The first woman admitted as a correspondent member was a student of Curie's, Marguerite Perey, in 1962. The first female full member was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat in 1979. Today the Academy is one of five academies comprising the Institut de France, its members are elected for life. There are 150 full members, 300 corresponding members, 120 foreign associates, they are divided into two scientific groups: the Mathematical and Physical sciences and their applications and the Chemical, Biological and Medical sciences and their applications. Each year, the Academy of Sciences distributes about 80 prizes; these include: the Grande Médaille, awarded annually, in rotation, in the relevant disciplines of each division of the Academy, to a French or foreign scholar who has contributed to the development of science in a decisive way. The Lalande Prize, awarded from 1802 through 1970, for outstanding achievement in astronomy the Valz Prize, awarded from 1877 through 1970, to honor advances in astronomy the Richard Lounsbery Award, jointly with the National Academy of Sciences the Prix Jacques Herbrand, for mathematics and physics the Prix Paul Pascal, for chemistry the Louis Bachelier Prize for major contributions to mathematical modeling in finance the Prix Michel Montpetit for computer science and applied mathematics, awarded since 1977 the Leconte Prize, awarded annually since 1886, to recognize important discoveries in
André Lichnerowicz was a noted French differential geometer and mathematical physicist of Polish descent. His grandfather fought in the Polish resistance against the Prussians. Forced to flee Poland in 1860, he settled in France, where he married a woman from Auvergne. Lichnerowicz's father held agrégation in classics, while his mother, a descendant of paper makers, was one of the first women to earn the agrégation in mathematics. André attended the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, gaining agrégation in 1936. After two years, he entered the Centre national de la recherche scientifique as one of the first researchers recruited by this institution. Lichnerowicz studied differential geometry under Élie Cartan, his doctoral dissertation, completed in 1939 under the supervision of Georges Darmois, concerned what are now called the Lichnerowicz matching conditions in general relativity. His academic career began under the cloud of German occupation, during World War II, he taught at the University of Strasbourg, moved to Clermont Ferrand and only returned to Strasbourg in 1945, where he taught until 1949.
From 1949-1952 he taught at the University of Paris. In 1952 he was appointed to the Collège de France, where he taught until his retirement in 1986, he was made a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1963. His Ph. D. students included Thierry Aubin, Edmond Bonan, Marcel Berger, Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat, Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach, Thibault Damour. While pursuing an active research career, Lichnerowicz made time for pedagogy. From 1963 to 1966 he was President of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction of the International Mathematical Union. In 1967 the French government created the Lichnerowicz Commission made up of 18 teachers of mathematics; the commission recommended a curriculum based on set theory and logic with an early introduction to mathematical structures. It recommended introduction to complex numbers for seniors in high school, less computation-based instruction, more development from premises; these reforms have been repeated internationally. See Mashaal. Elements of Tensor Calculus, John Wiley and Sons, 1962.
Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics, W. A. Benjamin, 1967. Linear Algebra and Analysis Holden Day, 1967. Geometry of Groups of Transformations, Leyden: Noordhoff, 1976. Global Theory of Connection and Holonomy Groups Leyden: Noordhoff, 1976. Magnetohydrodynamics: Waves and Shock Waves in Curved Space-Time Kluwer, Springer 1994. ISBN 0-7923-2805-1 with Alexandre Favre, Henri Guitton, Jean Guitton and Determinism, Johns Hopkins, 1995. With Alain Connes, Marco Schutzenberger, Triangle of Thoughts, American Mathematical Society, 2000. Cahen, M.. Differential Geometry and Relativity: A Volume in Honour of André Lichnerowicz on His 60th Birthday, Reidel, 1976. ISBN 90-277-0745-6 Lichnerowicz conjecture Lichnerowicz formula Lichnerowicz Laplacian Bibi-binary system Berger, Marcel. "André Lichnerowicz". Notices of the American Mathematical Society. 46: 1387–1396.. Alain Connes, "Biographical Note: André Lichnerowicz," in Triangle of Thoughts, 173–5. Maurice Mashaal, Bourbaki: A Secret Society of Mathematicians, American Mathematical Society, ISBN 0-8218-3967-5, see pages 140–1 for Lichnerowicz Commission.
André Lichnerowicz at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
Dominique Foata is a mathematician who works in enumerative combinatorics. With Pierre Cartier and Marcel-Paul Schützenberger he pioneered the modern approach to classical combinatorics, that lead, in part, to the current blossoming of algebraic combinatorics, his pioneering work on permutation statistics, his combinatorial approach to special functions, are notable. Foata gave an invited talk at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Warsaw. Among his honors are the Scientific Prize of the Union des Assurances de Paris. With Adalbert Kerber and Volker Strehl he founded the mathematics journal Séminaire Lotharingien de Combinatoire, he is one of the contributors of the pseudonymous collective M. Lothaire, he was born in Damascus. With Pierre Cartier: Problèmes combinatoires de commutation et réarrangements, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, volume 85, Springer Verlag, 1969. With Marcel-Paul Schützenberger: Théorie géométrique des polynômes eulériens, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, volume 138, Springer Verlag, 1970.
La série génératrice exponentielle dans les problèmes d'énumération, Les Presses de l´Université de Montreal, 1974. With Aimé Fuchs: Processus stochastiques, Dunod, 2002. With Jacques Franchi et Aimé Fuchs: Calcul des probabilités, 3e édition, Dunod, 2012. Foata, Dominique. "On the Netto inversion number of a sequence". Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 19: 236–240. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9939-1968-0223256-9. MR 0223256. Foata, Dominique. "Further divisibility properties of theq-tangent numbers". Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 81: 143–148. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9939-1981-0589157-8. MR 0589157. With Pierre Leroux: Foata, Dominique. "Polynômes de Jacobi, interprétation combinatoire et fonction génératrice". Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 87: 47–53. Doi:10.2307/2044349. JSTOR 2044349. MR 0677229. With Doron Zeilberger: Foata, Dominique. "A combinatorial proof of Bass's evaluations of the Ihara-Selberg zeta functions for graphs". Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 351: 2257–2274. ArXiv:math/9806037. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9947-99-02234-5. MR 1487614. With Guo-Niu Han: Foata, Dominique.
"Signed words and permutations, I: A fundamental transformation". Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 135: 31–40. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9939-06-08436-x. MR 2280171. With Guo-Niu Han: Foata, Dominique. "The q-tangent and q-secant numbers via basic Eulerian polynomials". Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 138: 385–393. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9939-09-10144-2. MR 2557155. Dominique Foata at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Foata's website the Foata festschrift at the Electronic Journal of Combinatorics, 1996 Interview with Foata, Eugene Dynkin Collection of Mathematics Interviews, Cornell University Library
Association for Computing Machinery
The Association for Computing Machinery is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society; the ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, with nearly 100,000 members as of 2019. Its headquarters are in New York City; the ACM is an umbrella organization for scholarly interests in computer science. Its motto is "Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession"; the ACM was founded in 1947 under the name Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, changed the following year to the Association for Computing Machinery. ACM is organized into over 171 local chapters and 37 Special Interest Groups, through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 university chapters; the first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Many of the SIGs, such as SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences, which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields.
The groups publish a large number of specialized journals and newsletters. ACM sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer. ACM publishes over 50 journals including the prestigious Journal of the ACM, two general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM and Queue. Other publications of the ACM include: ACM XRDS "Crossroads", was redesigned in 2010 and is the most popular student computing magazine in the US. ACM Interactions, an interdisciplinary HCI publication focused on the connections between experiences and technology, the third largest ACM publication. ACM Computing Surveys ACM Computers in Entertainment ACM Special Interest Group: Computers and Society A number of journals, specific to subfields of computer science, titled ACM Transactions; some of the more notable transactions include: ACM Transactions on Computer Systems IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics ACM Transactions on Computational Logic ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction ACM Transactions on Database Systems ACM Transactions on Graphics ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing and Applications IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages.
ACM has made all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and has a Guide to Computing Literature. Individual members additionally have access to Safari Books Online and Books24x7. ACM offers insurance, online courses, other services to its members. In 1997, ACM Press published Wizards and Their Wonders: Portraits in Computing, written by Christopher Morgan, with new photographs by Louis Fabian Bachrach; the book is a collection of historic and current portrait photographs of figures from the computer industry. The ACM Portal is an online service of the ACM, its core are two main sections: the ACM Guide to Computing Literature. The ACM Digital Library is the full-text collection of all articles published by the ACM in its articles and conference proceedings; the Guide is a bibliography in computing with over one million entries. The ACM Digital Library contains a comprehensive archive starting in the 1950s of the organization's journals, magazines and conference proceedings.
Online services include a forum called Tech News digest. There is an extensive underlying bibliographic database containing key works of all genres from all major publishers of computing literature; this secondary database is a rich discovery service known as The ACM Guide to Computing Literature. ACM adopted a hybrid Open Access publishing model in 2013. Authors who do not choose to pay the OA fee must grant ACM publishing rights by either a copyright transfer agreement or a publishing license agreement. ACM was a "green" publisher. Authors may post documents on their own websites and in their institutional repositories with a link back to the ACM Digital Library's permanently maintained Version of Record. All metadata in the Digital Library is open to the world, including abstracts, linked references and citing works and usage statistics, as well as all functionality and services. Other than the free articles, the full-texts are accessed by subscription. There is a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement.
Some authors see a centralized peer–review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Journal of Machine Learning Research and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology. In addition to student and regular members, ACM has several advanced membership grades to recognize those with multiple years of membership and "demonstrated performance that sets them apart from their peers"; the number of Fellows, Distinguished Members, Senior Members cannot exceed 1%, 10%, 25% of the total number of professional members, respect
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys