1935 Grand Prix season
The 1935 Grand Prix season was the third AIACR European Championship season. There were seven races that counted for the European Championship; the championship was won by Rudolf Caracciola. Note that the Nazi German flag, bearing the swastika, was adopted on 15 September 1935 – one week before the final championship race of the season; the Golden Era of Grand Prix Racing: 1935
Philippe Étancelin was a French Grand Prix motor racing driver who joined the new Formula One circuit at its inception. Born in Rouen, Seine-Maritime, in Normandy, he worked as a merchant in the winter and raced cars during the summer, his wife, served as his crew chief. Their three children were placed in a school in Rouen while she traveled with her husband to races around the world, she communicated with Étancelin through French sign language. Suzanne told a reporter Étancelin bought a racing car to celebrate the birth of their second child, Jeanne Alice, he did not intend to race the car but use it for pleasure driving around the countryside. The couple once drove it up to a speed of 125 mph. After two years of recreational motoring, Étancelin decided to enter a race, he began entering local events and hillclimbs. His first victory was the Grand Prix de la Marne at Reims in 1927, the same year he recorded a third at the Coppa Florio in Saint-Brieuc, he repeated his victory at Reims in 1929, ahead of Zenelli and friend Marcel Lehoux, making a Bugatti sweep of the podium.
Étancelin took a victory at the Antibes Prix de Conseil General. Nicknamed "Phi Phi", Étancelin earned Bugatti a win at the 1930 Algerian Grand Prix, followed home by Lehoux. At the Formula Libre French Grand Prix, he defeated Henry Birkin's Bentley, won the Grenoble Circuit de Dauphine, with a third at Lyons, he began the 1931 season in a Bugatti, placing behind Czaykowski at the Casablanca Grand Prix at Anfa. He won the Circuit d'Esterel Plage at Saint-Raphaël. For major events, run to Formula Libre rules to a 10-hour duration, he shared with Lehoux, they dropped out of both the French Grands Prix. After Étancelin switched to Alfa in the year, he came fourth in the Marne Grand Prix and won the four-hour Dieppe Grand Prix, ahead of Czaykowski's Bugatti and Earl Howe's Delage, he added wins at the Comminges Grand Prix at St. Gaudens. While Étancelin was a top privateer, he was beaten by works teams in 1932, earning only one win, the Picardy Grand Prix at Peronne. In 1933, Étancelin's Alfa narrowly lost the 19th annual French Grand Prix following a "furious" contest with Giuseppe Campari's Maserati, losing the lead on the final lap of the 500 km event.
Étancelin won a second consecutive Picardy Grand Prix, over a "formidable" Raymond Sommer, placed second to an formidable Tazio Nuvolari at the Nîmes Grand Prix, with win over Jean-Pierre Wimille at the Marne Grand Prix. The new 750 kilogram formula brought the conquering Silver Arrows of Auto Union. Étancelin switched to a Maserati 8CM, earning second places at Casablanca and Nice, with a win at Dieppe. He shared an Alfa with Luigi Chinetti to win Le Mans.Étancelin's 1935 season was no better, with only a third at Tunis. He gave Rudolf Caracciola's Mercedes a tough fight at Monaco in the little 3.7 litre Maserati, but suffered brake fade and came fourth. Driving a Maserati for the Subalpina team, he had a spectacular accident at the Swiss Grand Prix in Bern, with his car upturned and in flames, but he did not suffer injuries. Entering one of the new 4.4 liter Maseratis in 1936, he was outmatched by the German entrants, suffering retirements in nearly every contest. He won only the Pau Grand Prix, and, "against modest opposition".
He negotiated the 100 laps in 3 hours 21 minutes 22 seconds. In October, Étancelin qualified 6th for the Vanderbilt Cup, run over 300 mi near Westbury, New York, after a 20 mi qualifier at Roosevelt Raceway in Long Island. By this time he had won the Marne Grand Prix three times, he stayed out of racing in 1937, returning in 1938 to share a new Talbot with Chinetti at LeMans, but did not score a win. For 1939, he put his Talbot third following Hermann Lang and Manfred von Brauchitsch home, he scored a fourth place at the French Grand Prix.Étancelin would enter the first motor race held in France postwar, failing to finish at the Bois de Boulogne in an Alfa. He was not able to obtain one of the scarce new racers until 1948, when he purchased a 4½ litre Talbot, put it second at the Albi Grand Prix, behind Luigi Villoresi in the Maserati, his 1949 season saw second places at the Marseilles Grand Prix, the European Grand Prix at Monza, Czechoslovakian Grand Prix at Brno. In addition, he won the Paris Grand Prix at Montlhéry.Étancelin participated in twelve World Championship Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 13 May 1950.
He scored a total of three championship points. His fifth place in the 1950 Italian Grand Prix made him the oldest driver to score championship points. In 1953, he ran third at the Rouen Grand Prix and at the 12 Hours of Casablanca, decided to retire; the government of France awarded him the Legion of Honour in recognition of his contribution to the sport of automobile racing that spanned four decades. Étancelin retained an interest in racing, making occasional appearances in historic racing through 1974. He died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1981. Major career wins: Algerian Grand Prix 1930 Grand Prix de la Baule 1929 Grand Prix du Comminges 1929, 1931 Dauphiné Circuit 1930, 1931 French Grand Prix 1930 Grand Prix de Dieppe 1931 Grand Prix de la Marne 1929, 1933 Pau Grand Prix 1930, 1936 Grand Prix de Picardie 1932, 1933 Grand Prix de Reims 1927, 1929 Circuit d'Esterel Plage 1931 24 hours of Le Mans 1934 (Races in bold indicate pole position.
1931 Belgian Grand Prix
The 1931 Belgian Grand Prix was a Grand Prix motor race held at Spa-Francorchamps on 12 July 1931
1932 French Grand Prix
The 1932 French Grand Prix was a Grand Prix motor race held at Reims-Gueux on 3 July 1932. The race lasted for 5 hours, was not run over a fixed distance
French Algeria known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. From 1848 until independence, the whole Mediterranean region of Algeria was administered as an integral part of France. One of France's longest-held overseas territories, Algeria became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants known as colons and as pieds-noirs. However, the indigenous Muslim population remained a majority of the territory's population throughout its history. Dissatisfaction among the Muslim population with its lack of political and economic status fueled calls for greater political autonomy, independence from France. Tensions between the two population groups came to a head in 1954, when the first violent events began of what was called the Algerian War; the war concluded in 1962, when Algeria gained independence following the March 1962 Evian agreements and the July 1962 self-determination referendum. During its last years of existence, French Algeria was the founding member state of the United Nations, NATO and the European Economic Community.
Since the 1516 capture of Algiers by the Ottoman admirals, the brothers Ours and Hayreddin Barbarossa, Algeria had been a base for conflict and piracy in the Mediterranean. In 1681, Louis XIV asked Admiral Abraham Duquesne to fight the Berber pirates and ordered a large-scale attack on Algiers between 1682 and 1683 on the pretext of assisting Christian captives. Again, Jean II d'Estrées bombarded Tripoli and Algiers from 1685 to 1688. An ambassador from Algiers visited the Court in Versailles, a Treaty was signed in 1690 that provided peace throughout the 18th century. During the Directory regime of the First French Republic, the Bacri and the Busnach, Jewish negotiators of Algiers, provided important quantities of grain for Napoleon's soldiers who participated in the Italian campaign of 1796. However, Bonaparte refused claiming it was excessive. In 1820, Louis XVIII paid back half of the Directory's debts; the dey, who had loaned to the Bacri 250,000 francs, requested from France the rest of the money.
The Dey of Algiers himself was weak politically and militarily. Algeria was part of the Barbary States, along with today's Tunisia – which depended on the Ottoman Empire led by Mahmud II — but enjoyed relative independence; the Barbary Coast was the stronghold of the Berber pirates, which carried out raids against European and American ships. Conflicts between the Barbary States and the newly independent United States of America culminated in the First and Second Barbary Wars. An Anglo-Dutch force, led by Admiral Lord Exmouth, carried out a punitive expedition, the August 1816 bombardment of Algiers; the Dey was forced to sign the Barbary treaties, while the technological advance of U. S. British, French forces overwhelmed the Algerians' expertise at naval warfare; the name of "Algeria" itself came from the French. Following the conquest under the July monarchy, the Algerian territories, disputed with the Ottoman Empire, were first named "French possessions in North Africa" before being called "Algeria" by Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult, Duke of Dalmatia, in 1839.
The conquest of Algeria was initiated in the last days of the Bourbon Restoration by Charles X, as an attempt to increase his popularity amongst the French people in Paris, where many veterans of the Napoleonic Wars lived. His intention was to bolster patriotic sentiment, distract attention from ineptly handled domestic policies by "skirmishing against the dey". In the 1790s, France had contracted to purchase wheat for the French army from two merchants in Algiers, Messrs. Bacri and Boushnak, was in arrears paying them; these merchants and Boushnak who had debts to the dey, claimed inability to pay those debts until France paid its debts to them. The dey had unsuccessfully negotiated with Pierre Deval, the French consul, to rectify this situation, he suspected Deval of collaborating with the merchants against him when the French government made no provisions for repaying the merchants in 1820. Deval's nephew Alexandre, the consul in Bône, further angered the dey by fortifying French storehouses in Bône and La Calle against the terms of prior agreements.
After a contentious meeting in which Deval refused to provide satisfactory answers on 29 April 1827, the dey struck Deval with his fly whisk. Charles X used this slight against his diplomatic representative to first demand an apology from the dey, to initiate a blockade against the port of Algiers. France demanded; when the dey responded with cannon fire directed toward one of the blockading ships, the French determined that more forceful action was required. Pierre Deval and other French residents of Algiers left for France, while the Minister of War, Clermont-Tonnerre, proposed a military expedition. However, the Count of Villèle, an ultra-royalist, President of the Council and the monarch's heir, opposed any military action; the Restoration decided to blockade Algiers for three years, but the overpowering presence of the French naval force prevented an incursion beyond the coastal perimeter. Meanwhile, the Berber pirates were able to exploit the geography of the coast with ease. Before the failure of the blockade, the Restoration decided on 31 January 1830 to engage a military expedition against Algiers.
Admiral Duperré commandeered an armada of 600 ships that originated from Toulon, leading it to Algiers. Using Napoleon's 1808 contingency plan f
The Vendée is a department in the Pays-de-la-Loire region in west-central France, on the Atlantic Ocean. The name Vendée is taken from the Vendée river which runs through the southeastern part of the department; the area today called the Vendée was known as the Bas-Poitou and is part of the former province of Poitou. In the southeast corner, the village of Nieul-sur-l'Autise is believed to be the birthplace of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Eleanor's son, Richard I of England had his base in Talmont; the Hundred Years' War turned much of the Vendée into a battleground. Since the Vendée held a considerable number of influential Protestants, including control by Jeanne d'Albret mother of Henry IV of France, the region was affected by the French Wars of Religion which broke out in 1562 and continued until 1598. In April of that year King Henri IV issued; the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 caused many Huguenots to flee from the Vendée. In the void, the region became rigorously Catholic due to the influence of a preacher and Marian missionary Louis de Montfort who radically changed the spirituality of the region.
Many attribute the affect of his preaching to prepare the Vendeans for their revolt against the French Revolution. The Vendeans revolted against the Revolutionary government in 1793, which opened with a massacre at Machecoul in March, they resented the harsh conditions imposed on the Roman Catholic Church by the provisions of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy act and broke into open revolt after the Revolutionary government's imposition of military conscription. A guerrilla war, known as the Revolt in the Vendée, led at the outset by peasants who were chosen in each locale, cost more than 240,000 lives before it ended in 1796; the Revolt in the Vendée must not be confused with the revolt of the Chouans, which took place at the same time in Maine and Brittany. In 1804, Napoleon I chose La Roche-sur-Yon to be the capital of the department. At the time, most of La Roche had been eradicated in the Vendée Revolt. Napoléonville was designed to accommodate 15,000 people. In 1815, when Napoleon escaped exile on Elba for his Hundred Days, the Vendée refused to recognise him and stayed loyal to King Louis XVIII.
General Lamarque led 10,000 men into the Vendée to pacify the region. A failed rebellion in the Vendée in 1832 in support of Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchess de Berry, the former King Charles X's widowed daughter-in-law, was an unsuccessful attempt to restore the Legitimist Bourbon dynasty during the reign of the Orléanist monarch, King Louis Philippe of the French. In 1850, English author Anthony Trollope published his book La Vendée, detailing the history of the region and the war. In the preface he pays tribute to Madame de la Rochejaquelein, on whose memoirs of the war he based his story. Vendée's highest point is Puy-Crapaud; the department is crossed by four rivers: the Sèvre Nantaise, the Vendée, the Lay and the Sèvre Niortaise. Vendée's inhabitants are referred to as Vendeans; the main University of this department is the Catholic Institute of Higher Studies - ICES in La Roche-sur-Yon. The main goal of this institute is to achieve academic excellence through an enhancement of the Christian and human dimension in seven areas of study.
Founded in 1989, Catholic Institute of Higher Studies - ICES has pioneered a new concept in higher education, that of the “University School”: halfway between the French Grande École and the traditional state university. The primary drivers of the Vendéen economy are: Tourism Agriculture Food Processing Light/Medium Industry; the Vendée has been cited as the most economically dynamic department in France by L'Express magazine in a 2006 survey. Its economy is characterised by a low rate of unemployment and a high proportion of small and medium-sized businesses; the coast of the Vendée extends over 200 kilometres of sandy beaches. Tourists from overseas and locally frequent them; some resorts include La Tranche-sur-Mer and Saint-Jean-de-Monts. Some beaches are certified for the FEE Blue Flag for cleanliness. With more than 160 kilometres of sandy beaches edged with dunes and pine woods. There is a nude beach just south of La Faute sur Mer on the Pointe d'Arçay; the department has churches and abbeys, and—for nature lovers—thousands of marked footpaths, a signposted bicycle route running along the coastal mudflats, marshes that attract unusual birds.
There is fishing in the Vendée's lakes. Inland, the chief attractions include the Marais Poitevin, the forested area around the village of Mervent and the rolling countryside of the Bocage. In the north of the department, the historical theme park Puy du Fou attracts more than 1.45 million of visitors per year. Agriculture remains a significant source of employment in the Vendée. Among departments, it has the second highest level of revenue from agriculture in France; the major arable crops grown are maize, colza and sunflowers. Meat and dairy production feature, as does the offshore farming
Bugatti Type 51
The Bugatti Type 51 series succeeded the famous Type 35 as Bugatti's premier racing car for the 1930s. Unlike the dominant Type 35s of the prior decade, the Type 51 were unable to compete with the government-supported German and Italian offerings; the original Type 51 emerged in 1931. Its engine was a 160 hp twin overhead cam evolution of the supercharged 2.3 L single overhead cam straight-8 found in the Type 35B. A victory in the 1931 French Grand Prix was a rare case of success for the line. About 40 examples of the Type 51 and 51A were produced; the Type 51 is visually similar to the Type 35. The obvious external differences of a Type 51 are: the supercharger blow-off outlet is lower the bonnet in the louvered section; however many Type 35 cars have been fitted with wheels, so, not a reliable signal. Grand Prix car of 1931, fitted with a twin overhead-cam 4.9 liter engine delivering 300 hp. Four or five were built. Chassis number 54201 was the first type 54 built and was the works car for Achille Varzi, factory number plate 4311-NV1 The final Bugatti race car of the 1930s was the Type 59 of 1934.
It used an enlarged 3.3 L version of the straight-eight Type 57's engine sitting in a modified Type 54 chassis. The engine was lowered for a better center of gravity, the frame was lightened with a number of holes drilled in the chassis; the signature piano wire wheels used splines between the brake drum and rim, relied on the radial spokes to handle cornering loads. 250 hp was on tap, eight were made. 1933 Bugatti Type 59 Grand Prix racer from the Ralph Lauren collection Bugatti Type 53 – Four wheel drive Type 51 racer Bugatti Type 57 – luxury 1930s car Bugatti Trust Type 53 article