Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e. without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but include a promise to obeying and upholding that country's laws and subscribing to the oath of allegiance, may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they hold, but whether this renunciation causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved; the massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.
In some rare cases, laws for mass naturalization were passed. As naturalization laws had been designed to cater for the few people who had voluntarily moved from one country to another, many western democracies were not ready to naturalize large numbers of people; this included the massive influx of stateless people which followed massive denationalizations and the expulsion of ethnic minorities from newly created nation states in the first part of the 20th century, but they included the aristocratic Russians who had escaped the 1917 October Revolution and the war communism period, the Spanish refugees. As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation, wherein their country had expelled them or deprived them of their nationality, while they had not been naturalized, thus living in a judicial no man's land. Since World War II, the increase in international migrations created a new category of migrants, most of them economic migrants.
For economic, political and pragmatic reasons, many states passed laws allowing a person to acquire their citizenship after birth, such as by marriage to a national – jus matrimonii – or by having ancestors who are nationals of that country, in order to reduce the scope of this category. However, in some countries this system still maintains a large part of the immigrant population in an illegal status, albeit with some massive regularizations, for example, in Spain by José Luis Zapatero's government and in Italy by Berlusconi's government; the People's Republic of China gives citizenship to persons with one or two parents with Chinese nationality who have not taken residence in other countries. The country gives citizenship to people born on its territory to stateless people who have settled there. Furthermore, individuals may apply for nationality if they have a near relative with Chinese nationality, if they have settled in China, or if they present another legitimate reason. In practice, only few people gain Chinese citizenship.
The naturalization process starts with a written application. Applicants must submit three copies, written with a ball-point or fountain pen, to national authorities, to provincial authorities in the Ministry of Public Security and the Public Security Bureau. Applicants must submit original copies of a foreign passport, a residence permit, a permanent residence permit, four two-and-a-half inch long pictures. According to the conditions outlined in the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, authorities may require "any other material that the authority believes are related to the nationality application"; the Indian citizenship and nationality law and the Constitution of India provides single citizenship for the entire country. The provisions relating to citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution of India. Relevant Indian legislation is the Citizenship Act 1955, amended by the Citizenship Act 1986, the Citizenship Act 1992, the Citizenship Act 2003, the Citizenship Ordinance 2005.
The Citizenship Act 2003 received the assent of the President of India on 7 January 2004 and came into force on 3 December 2004. The Citizenship Ordinance 2005 was promulgated by the President of India and came into force on 28 June 2005. Following these reforms, Indian nationality law follows the jus sanguinis as opposed to the jus soli; the Italian Government grants Italian citizenship for the following reasons. Automatically Jus sanguinis: for birth. Following declaration By descent. Indonesian nationality is regulated by Law No. 12/2006. The Indonesia
Susan Jane Blackmore is a British writer, sceptic, a Visiting Professor at the University of Plymouth. Her fields of research include memes, evolutionary theory, parapsychology and she is best known for her book The Meme Machine, she has written or contributed to over 40 books and 60 scholarly articles and is a contributor to The Guardian newspaper. In 1973, Susan Blackmore graduated from St Hilda's College, with a BA degree in psychology and physiology, she received an MSc in environmental psychology in 1974 from the University of Surrey. In 1980, she earned a PhD in parapsychology from the same university. In the 1980s, Blackmore conducted psychokinesis experiments to see if her baby daughter, could influence a random number generator; the experiments were mentioned in the book to accompany the TV series Arthur C. Clarke's World Of Strange Powers. Blackmore taught at the University of the West of England in Bristol until 2001. After spending time in research on parapsychology and the paranormal, her attitude towards the field moved from belief to scepticism.
In 1987, Blackmore wrote that she had an out-of-body experience shortly after she began running the Oxford University Society for Psychical Research: Within a few weeks I had not only learned a lot about the occult and the paranormal, but I had an experience, to have a lasting effect on me—an out-of-body experience. It happened, it lasted about three hours and included everything from a typical "astral projection," complete with silver cord and duplicate body, to free-floating flying, to a mystical experience. It was clear to me that the doctrine of astral projection, with its astral bodies floating about on astral planes, was intellectually unsatisfactory, but to dismiss the experience as "just imagination" would be impossible without being dishonest about how it had felt at the time. It had felt quite real. Everything looked clear and vivid, I was able to think and speak quite clearly. In a New Scientist article in 2000, she again wrote of this: It was just over thirty years ago that I had the dramatic out-of-body experience that convinced me of the reality of psychic phenomena and launched me on a crusade to show those closed-minded scientists that consciousness could reach beyond the body and that death was not the end.
Just a few years of careful experiments changed all that. I found no psychic phenomena—only wishful thinking, self-deception, experimental error and fraud. I became a skeptic. In an article in The Observer on sleep paralysis Barbara Rowland wrote that Blackmore, "carried out a large study between 1996 and 1999 of'paranormal' experiences, most of which fell within the definition of sleep paralysis."She is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and in 1991, was awarded the CSICOP Distinguished Skeptic Award. Blackmore has done research on evolutionary theory, her book Consciousness: An Introduction, is a textbook that broadly covers the field of consciousness studies. She was on the editorial board for the Journal of Memetics from 1997 to 2001, has been a consulting editor of the Skeptical Inquirer since 1998, she acted as one of the psychologists, featured on the British version of the television show Big Brother, speaking about the psychological state of the contestants. She is a Patron of Humanists UK.
Blackmore debated Christian apologist Alister McGrath in 2007, on the existence of God. In 2018 she debated Jordan Peterson on. In 2017, Blackmore appeared at the 17th European Skeptics Congress in Poland; this congress was organised by the Klub Sceptyków Polskich and Český klub skeptiků Sisyfos. At the congress she joined Scott Lilienfeld, Zbyněk Vybíral and Tomasz Witkowski on a panel on skeptical psychology, chaired by Michael Heap. Susan Blackmore has made contributions to the field of memetics; the term meme was coined by Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene. In his foreword to Blackmore's book The Meme Machine, Dawkins said, "Any theory deserves to be given its best shot, and, what Susan Blackmore has given the theory of the meme." Other treatments of memes, that cite Blackmore, can be found in the works of Robert Aunger: The Electric Meme, Jonathan Whitty: A Memetic Paradigm of Project Management. Blackmore's treatment of memetics insists that memes are true evolutionary replicators, a second replicator that like genetics is subject to the Darwinian algorithm and undergoes evolutionary change.
Her prediction on the central role played by imitation as the cultural replicator and the neural structures that must be unique to humans in order to facilitate them have been given further support by research on mirror neurons and the differences in extent of these structures between humans and the presumed closest branch of simian ancestors. At the February 2008 TED conference, Blackmore introduced. Temes are memes. Blackmore has written critically about both the flaws and redeeming qualities of religion, having said, All kinds of infectious memes thrive in religions, in spite of being false, such as the idea of a creator god, virgin births, the subservience of women, transubstantiation, many more. In the major religions, they are backed up by admonitions to have faith not doubt, by untestable but ferocious rewards and pu
New College of Florida
New College of Florida is a public liberal arts honors college in Sarasota, Florida. It was founded as a private institution and is now an autonomous college of the State University System of Florida, it severed its ties with the University of South Florida in 2001 to become the eleventh independent school in the Florida State University System and adopted its current name: New College of Florida. New College was conceived during the late 1950s, founded in 1960 as a private college by local civic leaders for academically talented students. Financial assistance was provided by the Board of Homeland Missions of the United Church of Christ. George F. Baughman served as the first president from 1961 to 1965; the school offers a liberal arts education in the South and incorporates the core values of freedom of inquiry and the responsibility of individual students for their own education were to be implemented through a unique academic program. Open to students of all races and religious affiliations, New College opened its doors in 1964 to a premier class of 101 students.
Faculty members included the historian and philosopher, Arnold J. Toynbee, lured out of retirement to join the charter faculty. By 1972, New College's ranks had swelled to more than 500 students and it had become known for its teaching-focused faculty, its unique courses and curricula, its fiercely independent and hard-working students; as the 1970s progressed, although New College's academic program continued to mature, inflation threatened to undermine the economic viability of the institution. By 1975, the college was $3.9 million in debt and on the brink of insolvency, the University of South Florida expressed interest in buying the land and facilities of the near-bankrupt college to establish a branch campus for the Sarasota and Bradenton area. In an unusual agreement, the New College Board of Trustees agreed to hand over the school's campus and other assets to the state, at the time valued at $8.5 million, in exchange for the state paying off its debts and agreeing to continue to operate the school as a separate unit within the USF.
The agreement stated that New College was to receive the same funding, per-student, as other programs at USF. The former New College Board of Trustees became the New College Foundation, was required to raise money to supplement the state funds to reach the total necessary to run New College, at the time about a third of New College's $2-million-a-year operating budget. Under the agreement, New College was re-christened the "New College of the University of South Florida". USF started a Sarasota branch program that shared the bayfront campus, the schools began an uneasy relationship that would last for the next twenty-five years, with New College and the University of South Florida through its Sarasota branch program sharing the campus; as part of a major reorganization of Florida's public education system in 2001, New College severed its ties with USF, became the eleventh independent school in the Florida State University System, adopted its current name, New College of Florida. As part of its establishment as an independent university, the University of South Florida was directed to relocate its facilities away from the New College campus, which it did on August 28, 2006, when it opened a new campus for USF Sarasota-Manatee.
Today, as Florida's independent honors college, New College retains its original academic program, while enjoying the benefits and accessibility that being a public university affords. It is a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. New College is governed by a 12-member Board of Trustees. Of the 12 members, three must be residents of Sarasota County and two must be residents of Manatee County. New College's 144-acre bayfront campus is located in west Sarasota, Florida fifty miles to the south of Tampa. Situated between Sarasota Bay and the Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport, the college lies within a public educational and historic district that includes the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art and the Asolo Repertory Theatre; the primary campus is located on the former Charles Ringling estate. The campus includes portions of The Uplands, a residential neighborhood, bounded by the historic bayfront campus to the south, Tamiami Trail to the east, Sarasota Bay to the west, most of which used to be a portion of the estate, the Seagate property to the north.
The campus's most remarkable structures are its three Florida 1920s boom time, grand-scale residences, the former home of Edith and Charles Ringling, the former home of Hester Ringling Lancaster Sanford, the former home of Ellen and Ralph Caples. The well-appointed structures date from the early to mid-1920s, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, are similar in style to the adjacent John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art and their residence, Cà d'Zan. Today, these gracious homes are used as classrooms, meeting rooms, offices and their expansive properties provide sites for the modern developments on the bayfront campus; the campus is home to several examples of high modernist architecture designed by I. M. Pei; these buildings include a complex of student residences known as "Pei", a cafeteria, a student center. The other dormitories are Dort and Palmer B. Five new dormitory buildings have been opened in the 2007–2008 school year, with the most recent opened in October 2007.
They are referred to as V, W, X, Y, Z. For most of the buildings naming donors have not been set in stone but the largest building, "Z" has been named by the Pritzker family, they have donated several times to the col
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
C. Auguste Dupin
Le Chevalier C. Auguste Dupin is a fictional character created by Edgar Allan Poe. Dupin made his first appearance in Poe's "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" considered the first detective fiction story, he reappears in "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" and "The Purloined Letter". Dupin is not a professional detective and his motivations for solving the mysteries change throughout the three stories. Using what Poe termed "ratiocination", Dupin combines his considerable intellect with creative imagination putting himself in the mind of the criminal, his talents are strong enough that he appears able to read the mind of his companion, the unnamed narrator of all three stories. Poe created the Dupin character; the character laid the groundwork for fictional detectives to come, including Sherlock Holmes, established most of the common elements of the detective fiction genre. Dupin is from what was once a wealthy family, but "by a variety of untoward events" has been reduced to more humble circumstances, contents himself only with the basic necessities of life.
He now lives in Paris with the anonymous narrator of the stories. The two met by accident while both were searching for "the same rare and remarkable volume" in an obscure library; this scene, the two characters searching for a hidden text, serves as a metaphor for detection. They promptly move to an old manor located in Faubourg Saint-Germain. For hobbies, Dupin is "fond" of enigmas and hieroglyphics, he bears the title Chevalier. Dupin shares some features with the gentleman detective, a character type that became common in the Golden Age of Detective Fiction, he is acquainted with police prefect "G". In "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", Dupin investigates the murder of a daughter in Paris, he investigates another murder in "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt". This story was based on the true story of Mary Rogers, a saleswoman at a cigar store in Manhattan whose body was found floating in the Hudson River in 1841. Dupin's final appearance, in "The Purloined Letter", features an investigation of a letter stolen from the French queen.
Poe called this story "perhaps, the best of my tales of ratiocination". Throughout the three stories, Dupin travels through three distinct settings. In "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", he travels through city streets. Dupin is not a professional detective, his motivations change through his appearances. In "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", he investigates the murders for his personal amusement, to prove the innocence of a falsely accused man, he refuses a financial reward. However, in "The Purloined Letter", Dupin purposefully pursues a financial reward, but it is in matters beyond the limits of mere rule. He makes in silence a host of observations and inferences.... While discussing Dupin's method in the light of Charles Sanders Peirce's logic of making good guesses or abductive reasoning, Nancy Harrowitz first quotes Poe's definition of analysis and shows how "Poe the semiotician is running the gamut of possibilities here—inferences, reasoning backwards, visual and aural signs, reading faces. Playing cards with the man would have been an interesting experience."There is considerable controversy about the philosophical nature of Dupin's method.
According to biographer Joseph Krutch, Dupin is portrayed as a dehumanized thinking machine, a man whose sole interest is in pure logic. However, Krutch has been accused elsewhere of a "lazy reading" of Poe. According to Krutch, Dupin's deductive prowess is first exhibited when he appears to read the narrator's mind by rationally tracing his train of thought for the previous fifteen minutes, he employs what he terms "ratiocination". Dupin's method is to put himself in his mind. By knowing everything that the criminal knows, he can solve any crime, his attitude towards life seems to portray him as a snob who feels that due to his aptitude normal human interaction and relationships are beneath him. In this method, he combines his scientific logic with artistic imagination; as an observer, he pays special attention to what is unintended, such as hesitation, eagerness or a casual or inadvertent word. Dupin's method emphasizes the importance of reading and writing: many of his clues come from newspapers or written reports from the Prefect.
This device engages the readers, who follow along by reading the clues themselves. Poe may have gotten the last name "Dupin" from a character in a series of stories first published Burton's Gentleman's Magazine in 1828 called "Unpublished passages in the Life of Vidocq, the French Minister of Police"; the name implies "duping" or deception, a skill Dupin shows off in "The Purloined Letter." Detective fiction, had no real precedent and the word detective had not yet been coined when Poe first introduced Dupin. The closest example in fiction is Voltaire's Zadig, in which the main character performs similar feats of analysis, themselves borrowed from The Three Princes of Serendip, an Italian rendition of Amir Khusrau's Hasht Bihisht. In writing the series of Dupin tales, Poe capitalized on contemporary popular interest, his use of an orangutan in "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" was inspired by the popular reaction to an orangutan, on display at the Masonic Hall in Philadelphia in July 1839. In "The Mystery of Mary Rogêt", he used a true story.
C. Auguste Dupin is acknowledged as the first
Thomas Albert Sebeok was a polymath American semiotician and linguist. Sebeok, a professor emeritus at Indiana University, expanded the purview of semiotics to include non-human signaling and communication systems, coining the term "zoosemiotics" and raising some of the issues addressed by the philosophy of mind, he was among the founders of biosemiotics. As a linguist, he published several books analyzing aspects of the Mari language, his transdisciplinary work and professional collaborations spanned the fields of anthropology, folklore studies, linguistics and semiotics. He was renowned for his ability to bring together specialists from neighboring fields in order to generate path-breaking perspectives on, for example, the study of myth, psycholinguistics, animal communication and biosemiotics. Based on his field of competence, Sebeok rejected the experiments on the putative linguistic abilities of apes, such as those described by David Premack, assuming the existence of a deeper, more universal and more meaningful underlying substrate: the "semiotic function".
In 1944, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. In 1941, Sebeok earned a bachelor's degree at University of Chicago, he earned a master's degree at University of Chicago in 1943 and, in 1945, a doctorate at Princeton University. In 1943, he arrived at Indiana University in Bloomington, to assist the Amerindianist Carl Voegelin in managing the country's largest Army Specialized Training Program in foreign languages, he created the university's department of Uralic and Altaic Studies, covering the languages of Eastern Europe and Asia. He was the chair of the university's Research Center for Language and Semiotic Studies, retiring in 1991. Sebeok was the editor-in-chief of the journal Semiotica, the leading periodical in the field, from its establishing in 1969, until 2001, he was the editor of several book series and path-breaking encyclopedias, including "Approaches to Semiotics", "Current Trends in Linguistics", the "Encyclopedic Dictionary of Semiotics". In the early 1980s, Sebeok composed a report for the US Office of Nuclear Waste Management titled Communication Measures To Bridge Ten Millennia, discussing solutions to the problem of nuclear semiotics, a system of signs aimed at warning future civilizations from entering geographic areas contaminated by nuclear waste.
The report proposed a "folkloric relay system" and the establishment of an "atomic priesthood" of physicists, semioticians to preserve the true nature of hazardous site. In addition to his steady intellectual contributions to a number of fields over more than sixty years, Sebeok was a quintessential entrepreneurial scholar, organizing hundreds of international conferences and institutes, playing a key role in organizations such as the Linguistic Society of America, International Association for Semiotic Studies and the Semiotic Society of America, in supporting the creation of linguistic and semiotics teaching programs and scholarly associations throughout the world. Sebeok's personal library on semiotics, comprising more than 4,000 volumes of books and 700 journals, is preserved at the Department of Semiotics at the University of Tartu in Estonia. Sebeok is survived by his wife, Jean Umiker-Sebeok, three daughters: Veronica C. Wald, Jessica A. Sebeok, Erica L. Sebeok. Sebeok is survived by one grandson, Oliver Thomas Sebeok Shuchart, one granddaughter, Miranda Lynn Sebeok Shuchart.
The "Sebeok fellow" award is the highest honor given by the Semiotic Society of America. The complete list of Sebeok fellows: David Savan John Deely Paul Bouissac Jesper Hoffmeyer Kalevi Kull Floyd Merrell Susan Petrilli Irmengard Rauch Paul Cobley Vincent Colapietro Eco, Umberto; the Sign of Three: Dupin, Peirce, Bloomington, IN: History Workshop, Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-35235-4, 236 pages. Ten essays on methods of abductive inference in Poe's Dupin, Doyle's Holmes and many others. Indiana University School of Library and Information Science Press Release: Thomas A. Sebeok, Senior Fellow at SLIS, Passes On Obituary The Estonian connection by Thomas A. Sebeok
Paul Kurtz was a prominent American scientific skeptic and secular humanist. He has been called "the father of secular humanism", he was Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Buffalo, having also taught at Vassar and Union colleges, the New School for Social Research. Kurtz founded the publishing house Prometheus Books in 1969, he was the founder and past chairman of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, the Council for Secular Humanism, the Center for Inquiry. He was editor in chief of Free Inquiry magazine, a publication of the Council for Secular Humanism, he was co-chair of the International Humanist and Ethical Union from 1986 to 1994. He was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Humanist Laureate, president of the International Academy of Humanism and Honorary Associate of Rationalist International; as a member of the American Humanist Association, he contributed to the writing of Humanist Manifesto II. He was an editor of The Humanist, 1967–78.
Kurtz authored and edited over 50 books. Many of his books have been translated into over 60 languages. Kurtz was born in New Jersey, into a Jewish family, the son of Sara Lasser and Martin Kurtz. Kurtz received his bachelor's degree from New York University, the Master's degree and Doctor of Philosophy degree from Columbia University. Kurtz was left-wing in his youth, but has said that serving in the United States Army in World War II taught him the dangers of ideology, he saw the Buchenwald and Dachau concentration camps after they were liberated, became disillusioned with Communism when he encountered Russian slave laborers, taken to Nazi Germany by force but refused to return to the Soviet Union at the end of the war. Kurtz was responsible for the secularization of humanism. Before Kurtz embraced the term "secular humanism," which had received wide publicity through fundamentalist Christians in the 1980s, humanism was more perceived as a religion that did not include the supernatural; this can be seen in the first article of the original Humanist Manifesto which refers to "Religious Humanists" and by Charles and Clara Potter's influential 1930 book Humanism: A New Religion.
Kurtz used the publicity generated by fundamentalist preachers to grow the membership of the Council for Secular Humanism, as well as strip the religious aspects found in the earlier humanist movement. He founded the Center for Inquiry in 1991. There are now some 40 Centers and Communities worldwide, including in Los Angeles, New York City, Amsterdam, Moscow, Hyderabad, Dakar, Buenos Aires and Kathmandu. In 1999 Kurtz was given the International Humanist Award by the International Humanist and Ethical Union, he had been a board member of IHEU between 1969 and 1994, in a tribute by former colleague at both IHEU and the Council for Secular Humanism Matt Cherry, Kurtz was described as having "had a strong commitment to international humanism – a commitment to humanism beyond US borders never seen matched by another American. He did a lot to expand IHEU as a member of the IHEU Growth and Development Committee and when he was co-chair with Rob and Levi, he always pushed IHEU to be bigger and bolder."In 2000 he received the International Rationalist Award by Rationalist International.
In 2001, he debated Christian philosopher William Lane Craig over the nature of morality. Kurtz believed. Religious skepticism, according to Paul Kurtz, is only one aspect of the secular humanistic outlook. In an interview with D. J. Grothe, he stated that a categorical imperative of secular humanism is "genuine concern for the well-being of other humans."At the Council of Secular Humanism's Los Angeles conference, tension over the future of humanism was on display as Kurtz urged a more accommodationist approach to religion while his successors argued for a more adversarial approach. On May 18, 2010, he resigned from all these positions. Moreover, the Center for Inquiry accepted his resignation as chairman emeritus, board member, as editor in chief of Free Inquiry as being the culmination of a years-long "leadership transition", thanking him "for his decades of service" while alluding to "concerns about Dr. Kurtz's day-to-day management of the organization". Kurtz renewed his efforts in organized humanism by founding The Institute for Science and Human Values and its journal The Human Prospect: A NeoHumanist Perspective in June 2010.
Another aspect in Kurtz's legacy is his critique of the paranormal. In 1976, CSICOP started its official journal. Like Martin Gardner, Carl Sagan, Isaac Asimov, James Randi, Ray Hyman and others, Kurtz has popularized scientific skepticism and critical thinking about claims of the paranormal. Concerning the founding of the modern skeptical movement, Ray Hyman states that in 1972, he, along with James Randi and Martin Gardner, wanted to form a skeptical group called S. I. R.. The three of them felt they had no administration experience, saying "we just had good ideas", were soon joined by Marcello Truzzi who provided structure for the group. Truzzi involved Paul Kurtz and they together formed CSICOP in 1976. Kurtz wrote: explanation for the persistence of the paranormal, I submit, is due to the transcendental temptation. In my book by that name, I present the thesis that paranormal and religious phenomena have similar functions in human experience.