Livistona is a genus of palms, native to southern and eastern Asia and the Horn of Africa. They are fan palms, the leaves with an armed petiole terminating in a rounded, costapalmate fan of numerous leaflets. Livistona is related to the genus Saribus, for a time Saribus was included in Livistona. Recent studies, have advocated separating the two groups. Livistona species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Batrachedra arenosella and Paysandisia archon. Kho is the tree of Khao Kho District in Thailand; the genus was established by Robert Brown in his Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae to accommodate his descriptions of two species collected during an expedition to Australia. The names published by Brown were Livistona humilis and L. inermis, describing material he had collected in the north of Australia, a partial taxonomic revision in 1963 nominated the first of these as the lectotype. His collaborator Ferdinand Bauer, the botanist and master illustrator, produced artworks to accompany Brown's descriptions, but these were not published until 1838.
Robert Brown named the genus Livistona after Patrick Murray, Baron of Livingston, a botanist and horticulturist, responsible for establishing the botanical gardens in Edinburgh, Scotland. Brown's praise for the early horticulturist begins, "… in memoriam viri nobilis Patricii Murray Baronis de Livistone,", the latinized name of the genus is evidently derived from the name of the family's seat; the classification of the genus has been the subject of partial revisions, the following is an incomplete list of species, Livistona alfredii F. Muell. - Australia: Western Australia Livistona australis Mart. – Cabbage-tree Palm - Australia: New South Wales, Victoria Livistona benthamii F. M. Bailey - Australia: Queensland, Northern Territory. Dransf. & N. W. Uhl - Djibouti, Yemen Livistona chinensis R. Br. Ex Mart. – Chinese Fan Palm - Japan: South and Ryukyu Islands, China: Guangdong, Taiwan. Muell. Ex Drude - Australia: Queensland Livistona eastonii C. A. Gardner - Australia: Western Australia Livistona endauensis J.
Dransf. & K. M. Wong - Peninsular Malaysia Livistona exigua J. Dransf. - Brunei Livistona fulva Rodd - Australia: Queensland Livistona halongensis - Ha Long Bay Islands in Vietnam Livistona humilis R. Br. - Australia: Northern Territory Livistona inermis R. Br. - Australia: Northern Territory, Queensland Livistona jenkinsiana Griff. - Bhutan, India: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam. - Australia: Northern Territory, Western Australia Livistona mariae F. Muell. – three subspecies Livistona muelleri F. M. Bailey - Australia: Queensland. L. Jones - Australia: Western Australia Livistona nitida Rodd – Carnarvon Fan Palm - Australia: Queensland Livistona rigida Becc.. Recognised as Livistona mariae subsp. Rigida Rodd - Australia: Northern Territory, Queensland Livistona saribus Merr. Ex A. Chev. - Indochina, Borneo, Philippines. - Pahang in Malaysia Livistona victoriae Rodd - Australia: Western Australia, Northern Territory Formerly placed herePritchardia gaudichaudii H. Wendl. Pritchardia martii H. Wendl. Saribus rotundifolius Mart.
– Anáhaw Saribus brevifolius Bacon & W. J. Baker - Saribus chocolatinus Bacon & W. J. Baker - Saribus merrillii Bacon & W. J. Baker - Saribus papuanus Kuntze - Saribus surru Bacon & W. J. Baker - Saribus tothur Bacon & W. J. Baker - Saribus woodfordii Bacon & W. J. Baker - The genus was the subject of a taxonomic revision in 1998. Media related to Livistona at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Livistona at Wikispecies
The moose or elk, Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males. Moose inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Hunting and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats. Most moose are found in Canada, New England, Baltic states, Russia, their diet consists of both aquatic vegetation. The most common moose predators are the gray wolf along with humans. Unlike most other deer species, moose do not form herds and are solitary animals, aside from calves who remain with their mother until the cow begins estrus, at which point the cow chases away young bulls. Although slow-moving and sedentary, moose can become aggressive and move if angered or startled, their mating season in the autumn features energetic fights between males competing for a female.
Alces alces is called an "elk" in British English. The word "elk" in North American English refers to a different species of deer, the Cervus canadensis called the wapiti. A mature male moose is called a bull, a mature female a cow, an immature moose of either sex a calf; the word "elk" originated in Proto-Germanic, from which Old English evolved and has cognates in other Indo-European languages, e.g. elg in Danish/Norwegian. In the continental-European languages, these forms of the word "elk" always refer to the Alces alces; the word "moose" had first entered English by 1606 and is borrowed from the Algonquian languages, involved forms from multiple languages mutually reinforcing one another. The Proto-Algonquian form was *mo·swa; the moose became extinct in Britain during the Bronze Age, long before the European arrival in the Americas. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are 3,900 years old; the word "elk" remained in usage because of its existence in continental Europe but, without any living animals around to serve as a reference, the meaning became rather vague to most speakers of English, who used "elk" to refer to "large deer" in general.
Dictionaries of the 18th century described "elk" as a deer, "as large as a horse". Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti"; the British began colonizing America in the 17th century, found two common species of deer for which they had no names. The wapiti appeared similar to the red deer of Europe although it was much larger and was not red; the moose was a rather strange-looking deer to the colonists, they adopted local names for both. In the early days of American colonization, the wapiti was called a grey moose and the moose was called a black moose, but early accounts of the animals varied wildly, adding to the confusion; the wapiti is superficially similar to the red deer of central and western Europe, although it is distinctly different behaviorally and genetically. Early European explorers in North America in Virginia where there were no moose, called the wapiti "elk" because of its size and resemblance to familiar-looking deer like the red deer.
The moose resembled the "German elk", less familiar to the British colonists. For a long time neither species were called a variety of things. In North America the wapiti became known as an elk while the moose retained its Anglicized Native-American name. In 1736, Samuel Dale wrote to the Royal Society of Great Britain: The common light-grey moose, called by the Indians and the large or black-moose, the beast whose horns I herewith present; as to the grey moose, I take it to be no larger than what Mr. John Clayton, in his account of the Virginia Quadrupeds, calls the Elke... was in all respects like those of our red-deer or stags, only larger... The black moose is accounted a large creature.... The stag, buck, or male of this kind has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow-deer, but the palm is much longer, more like that of the German elke. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants, cover from predators, protection from hot or cold weather. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements.
Moose are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, heat-retaining coat, a low surface:volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance. Moose survive hot weather by immersion in cool water. In hot weather, moose are found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds; when heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. Also
Elias Magnus Fries
Elias Magnus Fries FRS FRSE FLS RAS was a Swedish mycologist and botanist. Fries was born at the son of the pastor there, he attended school in Wexiö. He acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants from his father. In 1811 Fries entered Lund University where he obtained a doctorate in 1814. In the same year he was appointed an associate professorship in botany, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in 1824, became a full professor. In 1834 he became Borgström professor in applied economics at Uppsala University; the position was changed to "professor of botany and applied economics" in 1851. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849; that year he was appointed director of the Uppsala University Botanical Garden. In 1853, he became rector of the University. Fries most important works were the three-volume Systema mycologicum, Elenchus fungorum, the two-volume Monographia hymenomycetum Sueciae and Hymenomycetes Europaei.
Fries is considered to be, after Christian Hendrik Persoon, a founding father of the modern taxonomy of mushrooms. His taxonomy of mushrooms was influenced by the German romantics, he utilized spore arrangement of the hymenophore as major taxonomic characteristics. He died in Uppsala on 8 February 1878; when he died, The Times commented: "His numerous works on fungi and lichens, give him a position as regards those groups of plants only comparable to that of Linnaeus". Fries was succeeded in the Borgström professorship by John Erhard Areschoug, after whom Theodor Magnus Fries, the son of Elias, held the chair. Monographia Pyrenomycetum Sueciae Systema Mycologicum Systema Orbis Vegetabilis Elenchus Fungorem Lichenographia Europaea Reformata Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici: seu synopsis hymenomycetum His son was Theodor Magnus Fries. "Elias Magnus Fries", Authors of fungal names, the Journal of Wild Mushrooming. Web site of the Descendants of Elias Fries Association "Fries, Elias Magnus". New International Encyclopedia.
Dendrosenecio kilimanjari is a giant groundsel found atop Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa. It was known as Senecio kilimanjari, but a recent botanical reclassification split off some species in Senecio, putting it and various other species in the new genus Dendrosenecio. Both genera are in the family Asteraceae; the giant grounsels of the genus Dendrosenecio evolved, about a million years ago, from a Senecio that established itself on Mount Kilimanjaro, with those that survived adapting into Dendrosenecio kilimanjari. This colonised other mountains by some means - the standard distance for wind dispersal of seeds is a few metres - and these isolated populations adapted in ways different from the parent population, creating new species; the names for the giant groundsels have become somewhat confusing: Dendrosenecio kilimanjari E. B. Knox subsp. Cottonii E. B. Knox Dendrosenecio johnstonii B. Nord. Subsp. Cottonii B. Nord. Senecio cottonii Hutch. & G. Taylor Senecio johnstonii Oliv. subsp. Cottonii Mabb. Senecio johnstonii Oliv. var. cottonii C.
Jeffrey Dendrosenecio kilimanjari E. B. Knox subsp. Kilimanjari Senecio johnstonii Oliv. var. kilimanjari C. Jeffrey Senecio kilimanjari Mildbr. Data related to Dendrosenecio kilimanjari at Wikispecies Porter, Noah, ed.. "Webster's entry needed". Webster's Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: C. & G. Merriam Co
Organs are groups of tissues with similar functions. Plant and animal life relies on many organs. Organs are composed of main tissue, "sporadic" tissues, stroma; the main tissue is that, unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium, the main tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood vessels, connective tissues. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer. Functionally-related organs cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in most multicellular organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria, the functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle. In plants there are three main organs. A hollow organ is an internal organ that forms a hollow tube, or pouch such as the stomach, intestine, or bladder. In the study of anatomy, the term viscus is used to refer to an internal organ, viscera is the plural form. 79 organs have been identified in the human body. In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between complete organs.
A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues; the study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant morphology. Classical tools for studying tissues include the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and sectioned, the histological stain, the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades, developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of medical diagnosis and prognosis. Two or more organs working together in the execution of a specific body function form an organ system called a biological system or body system.
The functions of organ systems share significant overlap. For instance, the nervous and endocrine system both operate via the hypothalamus. For this reason, the two systems are studied as the neuroendocrine system; the same is true for the musculoskeletal system because of the relationship between the muscular and skeletal systems. Common organ system designations in plants includes the differentiation of root. All parts of the plant above ground, including the functionally distinct leaf and flower organs, may be classified together as the shoot organ system. Animals such as humans have a variety of organ systems; these specific systems are widely studied in human anatomy. Cardiovascular system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart and blood vessels. Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, stomach, gallbladder, intestines, colon and anus. Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid and adrenals, i.e. adrenal glands.
Excretory system: kidneys, ureters and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine. Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it including the Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents with leukocytes, adenoids and spleen. Integumentary system: skin and nails of mammals. Scales of fish and birds, feathers of birds. Muscular system: movement with muscles. Nervous system: collecting and processing information with brain, spinal cord and nerves. Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, vulva, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles and penis. Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, trachea, bronchi and diaphragm. Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage and tendons; the study of plant organs is referred to as plant morphology, rather than anatomy – as in animal systems.
Organs of plants can be divided into reproductive. Vegetative plant organs include roots and leaves; the reproductive organs are variable. In flowering plants, they are represented by the flower and fruit. In conifers, the organ that bears the reproductive structures is called a cone. In other divisions of plants, the reproductive organs are called strobili, in Lycopodiophyta, or gametophores in mosses; the vegetative organs are essential for maintaining the life of a plant. While there can be 11 organ systems in animals, there are far fewer in plants, where some perform the vital functions, such as photosynthesis, while the reproductive organs are essential in reproduction. However, if there is asexual vegetative reproduction, the vegetative organs are those that create the new generation of plants. Many societies have a system for organ donation, in which a living or deceased donor's organ is transplanted into a person with a failing organ; the transplantation of larger solid organs requires immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection or graft-versus-host disease.
There is considerable interest throughout the world in creating laboratory-grown or artificial organs. The English word "organ" dates back in reference to any musical instrument. By the late 14th
Witch-hazels or witch hazels are a genus of flowering plants in the family Hamamelidaceae, with four species in North America, one each in Japan and China. The North American species are called winterbloom; the witch-hazels are deciduous shrubs or small trees growing to 10–25 feet tall to 40 feet tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, oval, 2–6 inches long and 1–4 inches broad, with a smooth or wavy margin; the genus name, means "together with fruit", referring to the simultaneous occurrence of flowers with the maturing fruit from the previous year. H. virginiana blooms in September–November while the other species bloom from January–March. Each flower has four slender strap-shaped petals 3⁄8–3⁄4 inch long, pale to dark yellow, orange, or red; the fruit is a two-part capsule 3⁄8 inch long, containing a single 1⁄4 inch glossy black seed in each of the two parts. The name witch in witch-hazel has its origins in Middle English wiche, from the Old English wice, meaning "pliant" or "bendable", is not related to the word witch meaning a practitioner of magic.
Jacob George Strutt's 1822 book, Sylva Britannica attests that "Wych Hazel" was used in England as a synonym for wych elm, Ulmus glabra. The Persian ironwood, a related tree treated as Hamamelis persica, is now given a genus of its own, as Parrotia persica, as it differs in the flowers not having petals. Other allied genera are Parrotiopsis and Sycopsis. Witch-hazels are not related to the true Corylus hazels, though they have a few superficially similar characteristics which may cause one to believe that they are, they are popular ornamental plants, grown for their clusters of rich yellow to orange-red flowers which begin to expand in the autumn as or before the leaves fall, continue throughout the winter. Hamamelis virginiana was introduced into English gardens by Peter Collinson, who maintained correspondence with plant hunters in the American colonies. Nowadays, it is seen in the nursery trade except for woodland/wildlife restoration projects and native plant enthusiasts. Much more common is H. mollis, which has bright yellow flowers that bloom in late winter instead of the yellow blossoms of H. virginiana which tend to be lost among the plant's fall foliage.
The plant-hunter Charles Maries collected for Veitch Nurseries in the Chinese district of Jiujiang in 1879. It languished in nursery rows for years until it was noticed and put on the market in 1902. Numerous cultivars have been selected for use as garden shrubs, many of them derived from the hybrid H. × intermedia Rehder. Jelena and Robert de Belder of Arboretum Kalmthout, selecting for red cultivars, found three: the first, with bronze flowers, was named'Jelena', it may be used as a supposed remedy for psoriasis and eczema. Clinical studies supporting its effectiveness for these skin conditions are absent. Despite this lack of evidence, it is used in folk medicine to "ease discomfort" involving vaginal soreness and hemorrhoids while they heal after childbirth. There is no good clinical evidence for its other purported traditional uses, including gastrointestinal illnesses, common colds and inflammation. Distilled witch-hazel water does not contain the tannic acid found in Hamamelis bark, does not have the therapeutic attributes claimed for it.
The leaves and bark of the North American witch-hazel, Hamamelis virginiana, may be used to produce an astringent decoction as a cooling agent for various uses in traditional medicine and skincare products. This decoction was used for medicinal purposes by Native Americans and is sold in modern pharmacies as witch-hazel water and as semisolid ointments, creams and salves, it is used to treat diaper rash in infants. Witch-hazel water can be produced by distillation; as an ingredient and as topical agent, witch hazel water is regulated in the United States as an over-the-counter drug for external use only to soothe minor skin irritations. The main constituents of witch-hazel extract include calcium oxalate, gallotannins and chemicals found in the essential oil. Witch hazel is used externally on hemorrhoids, minor bleeding, skin irritation. Native Americans used extract of witch-hazel extensively for medicinal purposes. Many people produced witch hazel extract by boiling the stems of the shrub and producing a decoction, used to treat swellings and tumors.
Early Puritan settlers in New England adopted this remedy from the natives, its use became established in the United States. A missionary, Dr. Charles Hawes, learned of the preparation's therapeutic properties, determined through extensive study that the product of distillation of the plant's twigs was more efficacious. "Hawes Extract" was first produced and sold in Essex