Hannibal Sehested (governor)
Hannibal Sehested was a Dano-Norwegian statesman and son-in-law of King Christian IV. He served as Governor-general of Norway from 1642 to 1651, where he fought the Torstenson War against Sweden and implemented many reforms. After a fall from grace leading to his resignation as Governor-general in 1651, he regained the trust of Frederick III in 1660 and negotiated the Treaty of Copenhagen, he worked as lord treasurer and councillor of state until his death in 1666. Sehested was born at Arensborg Castle on Øsel, in Danish Estonia, as the son of Claus Maltesen Sehested and Anne Nielsdatter Lykke, he was named after his maternal uncle Hannibal Mogensen Gyldenstjerne of Restrup. He attended the Sorø Academy from 1626 to 1629, studied abroad in Germany, Holland and England from 1629 to 1639. After completing his education abroad, he returned to Denmark and was attached to the court of King Christian IV. In 1639 he was granted the fiefdom of Tranekær, in 1640 he received the far more lucrative Båhus fiefdom in Norway and was appointed member of the Danish National Council.
In 1640 and 1641 he was sent to Wismar to negotiate a treaty with the Swedish chancellor, Axel Oxenstierna, and, if possible, to bring about the marriage of Christian's son Frederick and Gustavus Adolphus's daughter Christina. Though failing in both particulars, he retained the favor of the king, who had marked him out as a son-in-law, one of seven by whose influence he hoped to increase the influence of the crown. Accordingly, in 1636 he was betrothed to one of the daughters, the countess Christine aged nine, whom he married in 1642. In May 1640, Sehested became a member of the Rigsråd, he believed that the proper field for the exercise of his talents was diplomacy, he aspired to be minister of foreign affairs. Despite a successful embassy to Spain in 1640-1641, he did not obtain the coveted post, but was appointed Governor-General of Norway. In April 1642 he was appointed Governor-General of Norway, where he served until 1651, he now had the opportunity of displaying his administrative and organizing abilities, united with a remarkable zeal for reform.
He made it his main objective to develop Norway's material resources, reorganize her army and fiscal system. During Christian IV's second war with Sweden, Sehested, as governor of Norway, assisted his father-in-law materially, he invaded Sweden four times. The war was referred to in Norway as the Hannibal war. Concerns centered around high taxes required to support the army and the concern that Sweden would be induced to invade Norway. Although Norwegian forces suffered no defeats, as part of the peace settlement and Herjedalen, both Norwegian, were ceded to Sweden by Denmark with Sehested's acquiescence. After the war he renewed his reforming efforts, during the years 1646-1647 strove to withdraw his governorship from the benumbing influence of the central administration at Copenhagen, succeeded with the help of Christian IV in creating a separate defensive fleet for Norway and giving her partial control of her own finances, he was assisted in his endeavours by the fact that Norway was regarded as the hereditary possession of the kings of Denmark.
At the same time, Sehested used his immense wealth and official position to accumulate for himself property and privileges of all sorts. His successes excited the envy and disapprobation of the Danish Rigsraad of his rival, Korfits Ulfeldt one of the king's sons-in-law; the quarrel became acute when Sehested's semi-independent administration of the finances of Norway infringed upon Ulfeldt's functions as lord treasurer of the whole realm. In November 1647, Ulfeldt carried his point, a decree was issued that henceforth the Norwegian provincial leaders should send their rents and taxes direct to Copenhagen. On the accession of Frederick III to the throne, Sehested strove hard to win his favor, but an investigation into his accounts as governor conducted by his enemies brought to light such wholesale embezzlement and peculation that he was summoned to appear before a herredag, or assembly of notables in May 1651 to give an account of his whole administration. Unable to meet the charges brought against him, he compromised matters by resigning his governorship and his senatorship, surrendering all his private property in Norway to the crown.
Throughout his trial, Sehested had shown prudence. He gave back three times. Calculating on the sympathy of Frederick III for a man of his monarchical tendencies, he had nothing to do with the projects of revenge which were the ruin of Korfits Ulfeldt. From 1651 to 1660, he lived abroad. At the end of 1655, he met the exiled Charles II of England at Cologne and lived a part of the following year with him in the Spanish Netherlands. In the summer of 1657, he returned to Denmark, but Frederick III refused to receive him, he hastily quit Copenhagen. During the crisis of the Second Northern War of 1658, he was at the headquarters of Charles X of Sweden. In seeking the help and protection of the worst enemy of his country, Sehested approached the verge of treason, but he never quite went beyond it. When, at last, it seemed probable that the war would not result in the annihilation of Denmark, Sehested strained every nerve to secure his own future by working in the interests of his native land while still residing in Sweden.
In April 1660, he obtained permission from Frederick III to come to Copenhagen and was instructe
Jutland known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula, is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany. The names are derived from the Cimbri, respectively; as the rest of Denmark, Jutland's terrain is flat, with a elevated ridge down the central parts and hilly terrains in the east. West Jutland is characterised by open lands, heaths and peat bogs, while East Jutland is more fertile with lakes and lush forests. Southwest Jutland is characterised by the Wadden Sea, a large unique international coastal region stretching through Denmark and the Netherlands. Jutland is a peninsula bounded by the North Sea to the west, the Skagerrak to the north, the Kattegat and Baltic Sea to the east and Germany to the south. Geographically and Jutland comprises the regions of South Jutland, West Jutland, East Jutland and North Jutland. Since the mid-20th century, it has become common to design an area as Central Jutland, but its definition varies a lot.
There are several historical subdivisions and regional names, some of which are still encountered today. They include Nørrejyllland, Sydjylland and others. Politically, Jutland comprises the three contemporary Danish Administrative Regions of North Jutland Region, Central Denmark Region and the Region of Southern Denmark, along with portions of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein; the Danish part of Jutland is divided into three administrative regions: North Jutland Region, Central Denmark Region and Region of Southern Denmark. The northernmost part of Jutland is separated from the mainland by the Limfjord, a narrow stretch of water bisecting the peninsula from coast to coast; the Limfjord was a long brackish water inlet, but a breaching North Sea flood in 1825 created a coast to coast connection. This area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy or Jutland north of the Limfjord; the islands of Læsø, Anholt and Samsø in Kattegat and Als at the rim of the Baltic Sea are administratively and tied to Jutland, although the latter two are regarded as traditional districts of their own.
Inhabitants of Als, known as Alsinger, would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not Jutlanders. The Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight; the largest cities in the Danish section of Jutland are as follows: Aarhus Aalborg Esbjerg Randers Kolding Horsens Vejle Herning Silkeborg FredericiaAarhus, Billund, Kolding, Vejle and Haderslev, along with a number of smaller towns, make up the suggested East Jutland metropolitan area, more densely populated than the rest of Jutland, although far from forming one consistent city. Administratively, Danish Jutland comprises three of Denmark's five regions, namely Nordjylland and the western half of Southern Denmark, which includes Funen; the five administrative regions came into effect on 1 January 2007, following a structural reform. The southern third of the peninsula is made up of the German Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein; the German parts are not seen as Jutland proper, but described more abstract as part of the Jutlandic Peninsula, Cimbrian Peninsula or Jutland-Schleswig-Holstein.
Schleswig-Holstein has two historical parts: the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which have passed back and forth between Danish and German rulers. The last adjustment of the Danish–German border followed the Schleswig Plebiscites in 1920 and resulted in Denmark regaining Northern Schleswig; the historical southern border of Jutland was the river Eider, which forms the border between the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, as well as the border between the Danish and German realms from c. 850 to 1864. Although most of Schleswig-Holstein is geographically part of the peninsula, most German residents there would not identify themselves with Jutland or as Jutlanders, but rather with Schleswig-Holstein; the medieval law Code of Jutland applied to Schleswig until 1900, when it was replaced by the Prussian Civil Code. Some used clauses of the Jutlandic Code still apply north of the Eider; the largest cities in the German part of the Jutland Peninsula are Flensburg. Geologically the Mid Jutland Region and the North Jutland Region as well as the Capital Region of Denmark are located in the north of Denmark, rising because of post-glacial rebound.
Jutland has been one of the three lands of Denmark, the other two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons and Charudes. Many Angles and Jutes migrated from Continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c. 450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England. Saxons and Frisii migrated to the region in the early part of the Christian era. To protect themselves from invasion by the Christian Frankish emperors, beginning in the 5th century, the pagan Danes initiated the Danevirke, a defensi
Funen, with an area of 3,099.7 square kilometres, is the third-largest island of Denmark, after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy. It is the 165th-largest island in the world, it is located in the central part of the country and has a population of 466,284. Funen's main city is Odense, connected to the sea by a seldom-used canal; the city's shipyard, Odense Steel Shipyard, has been relocated outside Odense proper. Funen belongs administratively to the Region of Southern Denmark. From 1970 to 2006 the island formed the biggest part of Funen County, which included the islands of Langeland, Ærø, Tåsinge, a number of smaller islands. Funen is linked to Zealand, Denmark's largest island, by the Great Belt Bridge, which carries both trains and cars; the bridge is in reality three bridges. Two bridges connect Funen to Jutland; the Old Little Belt Bridge was constructed in the 1930s shortly before World War II for both cars and trains. The New Little Belt Bridge, a suspension bridge, was constructed in the 1970s and is used for cars only.
Apart from the main city, all major towns are located in coastal areas. Beginning in the north-east of the island and moving clockwise, they are Kerteminde, Svendborg, Fåborg, Assens and Bogense; the populations of the major cities and towns are, as of 1 January 2018: Odense: 178,210 Svendborg: 27,324 Nyborg: 17,164 Middelfart: 15,246 Fåborg: 7,065 Assens: 6,209 Kerteminde: 5,914 Ringe: 5,912 Bogense: 3,891Funen was the birthplace of Hans Christian Andersen, the composer Carl Nielsen, American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Christian Febiger, pop singer MØ and international footballer Christian Eriksen. The highest natural point on Funen is Frøbjerg Bavnehøj. Broholm Den Selvforsynende Landsby Egeskov Castle Fynske Livregiment Horne Church Hvedholm Castle Korshavn, Denmark Skrøbelev Gods The Funen Village an open-air museum. Funen brachteate in the collections of the National Museum of Denmark. Official tourist information site for Funen
Second Northern War
The Second Northern War was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Moscow Tsardom, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Habsburg Monarchy and Denmark–Norway. The Dutch Republic intervened against Sweden. In 1655, Charles X Gustav of Sweden invaded and occupied western Poland–Lithuania, the eastern half of, occupied by Russia; the rapid Swedish advance became known in Poland as the Swedish Deluge. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania became a Swedish fief, the Polish–Lithuanian regular armies surrendered and the Polish king John II Casimir Vasa fled to the Habsburgs. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia supported the estates in Royal Prussia, but allied with Sweden in return for receiving the Duchy of Prussia as a Swedish fief. Exploiting the hurt religious feelings of the Roman Catholic population under Protestant occupation and organizing Polish–Lithuanian military leaders in the Tyszowce Confederation, John II Casimir Vasa managed to regain ground in 1656.
Russia took advantage of the Swedish setback, declared war on Sweden and pushed into Lithuania and Swedish Livonia. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William full sovereignty in the Duchy of Prussia in return for military aid, in the Treaty of Radnot allied himself with the Transylvanian George II Rákóczi who invaded Poland–Lithuania from the southeast. John II Vasa found an ally in Leopold I of Habsburg, whose armies crossed into Poland–Lithuania from the southwest; this triggered Frederick III of Denmark's invasion of the Swedish mainland in the spring of 1657, in an attempt to settle old scores from the Torstenson War while Sweden was busy elsewhere. Brandenburg left the alliance with Sweden when granted full sovereignty in the Duchy of Prussia by the Polish king in the treaties of Wehlau and Bromberg. Frederick III's war on Sweden gave Charles X Gustav a reason to abandon the Polish–Lithuanian deadlock and fight Denmark instead. After marching his army to the west and making a dangerous crossing of the frozen straits in the winter of 1657/58, he surprised the unprepared Frederick III on the Danish isles and forced him into surrender.
In the Treaty of Roskilde, Denmark had to abandon all Danish provinces in what is now Southern Sweden. The anti-Swedish allies meanwhile neutralized the Transylvanian army and Polish forces ravaged Swedish Pomerania. In 1658 Charles X Gustav decided that instead of returning to the remaining Swedish strongholds in Poland–Lithuania, he would rather attack Denmark again; this time, Denmark withstood the attack and the anti-Swedish allies pursued Charles X Gustav to Jutland and Swedish Pomerania. Throughout 1659, Sweden was defending her strongholds in Denmark and on the southern Baltic shore, while little was gained by the allies and a peace was negotiated; when Charles X Gustav died in February 1660, his successor settled for the Treaty of Oliva with Poland–Lithuania, the Habsburgs and Brandenburg in April and the Treaty of Copenhagen with Denmark in May. Sweden was to keep most of her gains from Roskilde, the Duchy of Prussia became a sovereign state, otherwise the parties returned to the status quo ante bellum.
Sweden had concluded a truce with Russia in 1658, which gave way to a final settlement in the Treaty of Cardis in 1661. In English language, German and Scandinavian historiography, these conflicts were traditionally referred to as First Northern War; the term "Second Northern War", coined in Polish historiography, has been adopted by German and English language historiography. Another ambiguous term referring to the Second Northern War is the Little Northern War, which however might refer to the 1741-43 war. In Poland, the term "The Deluge" is ambiguous, as it is sometimes used for a broader series of wars against Sweden, Russia and the Cossacks. In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia had ended the Thirty Years' War, during which the Swedish Empire emerged as a major European power. In the Torstenson War, a theater of the Thirty Years' War, Sweden had defeated the former Baltic great power Denmark. Sweden had been at peace with Russia since the Treaty of Stolbovo had ended the Ingrian War in 1617. Sweden had remained in a state of war with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth since the Polish–Swedish War, concluded by the renewed truce.
In 1651, an unsuccessful congress was organised in Lübeck to mediate peace talks between Sweden and Poland. On the other hand, the Commonwealth, under king John II Casimir Vasa since 1648, experienced a crisis resulting both from the Cossack Khmelnytsky Uprising in the southeast and from the paralysis of the administration due to the internal quarrels of the nobility, including feuds between the king and the Lithuanian hetman Janusz Radziwiłł and feuds among disagreeing sejmiks, able to stall each other's ambitions with the liberum veto since 1652; as a consequence, the Commonwealth lacked a sufficient defense. In January 1654, the anti-Polish alliance of Pereiaslav was concluded between the rebellious Cossack Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Alexis of Russia, in control of a well-equipped army, undergoing modernization. In 1654, when Charles X Gustav succeeded his cousin Christina on the Swedish throne, Russian forces were advancing into the unprotected Commonwealth, by focusing on the northeast these drew close to the Swedish sphere of interest at the Baltic coast.
Seeing the great success on the Russian side, Sweden decided to intervene, among other reasons using the explanation that it was to protect the Protestant population in Poland. Having a close relationship with the Prin
The Little Belt is a strait between the island of Funen and the Jutland Peninsula in Denmark. It is one of the three Danish Straits that drain and connect the Baltic Sea to the Kattegat strait, which drains west to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean; the Little Belt is about 50 km long and 800 m to 28 km wide, its deepest point is at Marens Hul west of the island of Fænø, at 81 m, which makes it deeper than its sister strait, the Great Belt. Numerous small Danish islands lie within the belt. In part because of its depth, 10% of the water moving between the inner Baltic Sea and the Kattegat flows through the Little Belt; the Little Belt stretches from the town of Juelsminde in the north to the island of Als in the south, with a winding course in between. The northern end is the widest at over 15 km. From there it runs southwest, narrowing to about 1 km at a place called Snævringen, where the two Little Belt Bridges are located. South of Fænø, the strait widens to about 10 km until it reaches the Baltic Sea near Als and the South Funen Archipelago.
The Little Belt's western coastline is broken up by irregular inlets called fjords, both sides feature steep sand bluffs. The area around the Little Belt is shaped by numerous glacial moraines, the first of, formed during the early Weichsel glaciation 22-25,000 years ago. 14-15,000 years ago, during the late Weichsel glaciation, ice arrived from the south and southeast, one part of which became the Little Belt Glacier, causing hilly terrain with deep fjords. The notable tunnel valleys were formed by meltwater; the terminal moraines from the northeast ice's glacial maximum are some of the oldest in Denmark. The Little Belt is a protected wetland under the Ramsar Convention and a important spot for breeding and migrating birds. Protected species in the area include whooper swans, white-tailed eagles, western marsh harriers, spotted crakes, corn crakes, pied avocets, short-eared owls, common terns, Arctic terns, little terns, greater scaups, common eiders, common goldeneyes, red-breasted mergansers.
The Little Belt has the highest known density of harbour porpoises in the world, is home to several thousand individuals. It is the only resident cetacean in the inner Danish waters. Observation tours are accessible nearby as well. Other species such as minke and fin whales visit the waters rather sporadically; the deep waters attract many species of fish, including cod and sea trout, the Little Belt is a destination for recreational fishing. Human populations lived around the Little Belt during the Stone Age, hunting aurochs and other game in the tunnel valleys and forests. Climate and geological changes brought new plants and animals to the area and made the fishery in the fjords and neighboring archipelagoes into an important food source. Around 4000 BC, temperatures rose again, the Funnelbeaker culture was active in the area. There are many archaeological sites from the Funnelbeaker culture and other Neolithic cultures in the area. Throughout the Bronze Age, Iron Age, Viking Age, trade with other populations increased, settlements became larger and more permanent.
In the 14th century, the towns of Kolding and Vejle received merchant town privileges, today they are the area's two largest towns. From the Middle Ages until the end of the 19th century, local fishermen were involved in harbour porpoise hunting. Harbor porpoises winter in Danish waterways, fishermen would wait in the narrow parts of the belt and drive them to the shallows where they would be slaughtered. Porpoise oil, a type of whale oil, was in widespread use as a lamp oil until the spread of electric lighting undermined the porpoise hunting economy. In the winter of 1854-55, 1,742 porpoises were captured, but otherwise, the catch from most winters was around 700-800 porpoises. Porpoise hunting was regulated by laws dating to at least 1593; the law was overturned by a royal resolution on May 4, 1899, although shortages during World War I and II caused short-lived resurgences in porpoise hunting. 19th century proponents of German unification advocated considering the Little Belt as the northern border of Germany, the Belt is mentioned in this context in Ernst Mortiz Arndt's Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland? and the Deutschlandlied, the third stanza of, the current German national anthem.
This reflects the fact that the Denmark-Germany border has shifted several times over the centuries, so that the current Danish region of Southern Jutland was once part of the Duchy of Schleswig. The Little Belt has been an important shipping channel. In the present day, it is popular among divers for its archaeological shipwrecks. Various ferry services have crossed the Little Belt over the years, including the Snoghøj-Middelfart ferry, followed by the Fredericia-Strib ferry, which became Denmark's first train ferry in 1872. Ferry crossings were replaced by the Old Little Belt Bridge in 1935 and the New Little Belt Bridge in 1970. Today, the old bridge carries local traffic and train lines, while the new bridge carries the E20 motorway. Two power lines previously crossed the Little Belt, the first of, dismantled and replaced by an undersea cable in 2013. Danish Straits — includes Little Belt. Great Belt strait Øresund strait
Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden, situated in the south of the country. It borders Småland and the Baltic Sea, it is the country's second-smallest province by area, the smallest province located on the mainland. The name "Blekinge" comes from the adjective bleke, which corresponds to the nautical term for "dead calm"; the historical provinces of Sweden serve no administrative function. However, Blekinge is the only province, besides Gotland, which covers the same area as the administrative county, Blekinge County. Blekinge was granted its current arms in 1660 at the time of the funeral of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden based on a seal from the 15th century. Symbolically the three crowns from the Coat of arms of Sweden had been placed on the trunk of the tree to mark the change in status of the former Danish province, that now belonged to Sweden; the arms is represented with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Azure, an Oak Tree eradicated Or ensigned with three Crowns palewise of the same."
Relative to the rest of Sweden Blekinge has mild winters. Blekinge has a scenic archipelago and is sometimes called "Sweden's garden"; the nature of Blekinge is characterized by its oak forests with occasional hazel and common hornbeam. The relief is an uneven joint valley terrain with straight and narrow valley bottoms that widen towards the coast. Bedrock in Blekinge is granite and gneiss of the Blekinge-Bornholm rock province. Blekinge became part of the kingdom of Denmark at some point in the early 11th century – most 1026, its status before is unknown. It remained a Danish province for over 600 years, together with the provinces of Skåne and Halland, it made up Skåneland; the eastern part of the Danish kingdom where Scanian Law prevailed. As a border province, Blekinge was raided and looted by Swedish troops during Danish–Swedish wars. In 1658, it was ceded to Sweden according to the Treaty of Roskilde and has remained Swedish since. During the Danish era, the port town of Sölvesborg was the seat of the administration in the western part of the province and Kristianopel in the eastern part.
Notable fortifications during this period included sites at Elleholm, Sölvesborg and Avaskär. Towns in Blekinge with city privileges were: Ronneby, Sölvesborg and Kristianopel. After the Swedish takeover two new towns and Karlskrona, were built, the populations of Ronneby and Kristianopel were forcibly relocated to them. Karlskrona has for more than 300 years been the principal naval base in Sweden. Hundreds were the historical subdivisions of a Swedish province. Blekinge's hundreds were Bräkne Hundred, Eastern Hundred, Lister Hundred, Medelstad Hundred. In Blekinge, two main dialects exist; the dividing line between them has been the river Mörrumsån, near the historical site of Elleholm. West of this divide, the dialect was closely related to Danish and eastern Scanian, most an effect of the former administrative links to Scania. East of this divide, the dialect has still much common with danish and scanian but a little more in common with Småland dialects. Today, this divide is not as significant as before, with the exception of Listerlandet with its special language.
The eastern dialect of Danish can be found on the Danish island of Bornholm. The variety is called Blekingska; until 2018, Blekinge was one of the six Swedish provinces. On March 12, 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf gave his newborn granddaughter, Princess Adrienne the title of Duchess of Blekinge. Football in the province is administered by Blekinge Fotbollförbund. Blekinge Institute of Technology Blekinge archipelago Blekinge - Official tourist site
Battle of Żarnów
The Battle of Żarnów was fought on September 16, 1655, between the forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, commanded by John II Casimir and the forces of the Swedish Empire, commanded by Charles X Gustav. The result ended with a Swedish victory; the Swedish army captured Warsaw in late July 1655, after the Polish capital had been abandoned by King John II Casimir. Soon afterwards, the Swedes began chasing the Polish troops. On September 9, near Inowłódz, a unit under Stefan Czarniecki attacked the Swedish rear guard of 500, commanded by George Forgell; the Poles managed to kill some 200 Swedes. The Swedish army continued its march southwards and burning the towns of Inowłódz, Drzewica and Odrzywół. On September 12, the siege of Opoczno began; the town, lacking modern fortifications capitulated, was completely destroyed, with only 20 houses left intact. A similar fate awaited other local towns: in Drzewica, only 21 houses remained, only 22 in Odrzywół. Local residents were shaken by the barbarity of the Swedish invaders, as the northwestern corner of Lesser Poland had not experienced such vast destruction since the 13th century Mongol invasion of Poland.
In early September 1655, Polish forces loyal to John II Casimir concentrated near Wolborz. Charles Gustav decided to confront them, leaving Warsaw on September 12. Polish units in Wolborz consisted of men raised by the nobility through a levée en masse from Mazovia and northern Lesser Poland, no match for experienced Swedish mercenaries. Since morale among the Poles was low, John Casimir planned to withdraw towards Kraków; the nobility disagreed with this plan. On September 15, the Royal Crown army and levée en masse units, altogether numbering some 11,000, reached Żarnów, where Polish king decided to face Charles Gustav; the Swedish army was of similar strength, but with more infantry and 40 artillery pieces, versus six Polish cannons. After an attack by Polish cavalry was fought off by the Swedes, Charles Gustav ordered the infantry forward, with support from the artillery; the Swedes advanced. The Poles tried to prevent this. Soon afterwards, Swedish cavalry entered the fray, but the battle was ended by heavy rain, which saved the Polish army from complete destruction.
Retreating Polish units were chased by the Swedes, who captured the best soldiers and forced them to serve in the Swedish army. The nobility returned to their homes; the Swedish victory opened the road to the province of Lesser Poland. Altogether, the Poles lost some 1,000 men; those units that evaded capture marched towards Włoszczowa and Kraków, commanded by Stefan Czarniecki and King John II Casimir. The King and defeated, reached Kraków on September 19. At first, John Casimir planned to defend the ancient Polish capital at all costs, but changed his mind and left the city, leaving it under the command of Czarniecki. A few days the Polish monarch crossed the Polish-Silesian border. One of the hills located in Żarnów is still called Szwedzka Góra, as, according to a legend, King John II Casimir watched the 1655 battle from this hill; the town of Żarnów itself was burned to the ground by the Swedes to such an extent that 21 years after the battle, the population of Żarnów was only 120, while before the battle, it had reached 1,000.
The northwestern corner of historic Lesser Poland, which had until been prosperous, was turned into a desert, with other towns in the region, such as Opoczno, Inowłódz, Drzewica and Odrzywół, Żarnów never recovered: "It is not an exaggeration to claim that the cataclysm of the Swedish Deluge can be compared with the barbarity of the Nazis in the Second World War", wrote local historian Krzysztof Nawrocki. Total: 6,000 cavalry 4,500 infantry 400 dragoons 40 artillery pieces 6,000 cavalry 900-1,500 dragoons and reiters 3,000-4,000 pospolite ruszenie from the voivodeships of Łęczyca, Kuyavia and Masovia 6 artillery pieces Pod Żarnowem - w czasach szwedzkiego Potopu. Kolejna rocznica historycznej bitwy, by Krzysztof Nawrocki Photos of the Swedish hill in Żarnów