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March of the Volunteers

The "March of the Volunteers" is the national anthem of the People's Republic of China, including its special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. Unlike most previous Chinese state anthems, it is written in the vernacular, rather than in Classical Chinese, its lyrics were composed as a dramatic poem by the poet and playwright, the Japan-educated Tian Han in 1934 and set to music by Nie Er from Yunnan Province the next year for the film Children of Troubled Times. It was adopted as the PRC's provisional anthem in 1949 in place of the "Three Principles of the People" of the Republic of China and the Communist "Internationale"; when Tian Han was imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, the march was and unofficially replaced by "The East Is Red" played without words played with altered words. Restored to its original version, the "March of the Volunteers" was raised to official status in 1982, adopted by Hong Kong and Macau upon their restorations to China in 1997 and 1999 and included in the Chinese Constitution's Article 136 in 2004.

The lyrics of the "March of the Volunteers" formally known as the National Anthem of the People's Republic of China, were composed by Tian Han in 1934 as two stanzas in his poem "The Great Wall", intended either for a play he was working on at the time or as part of the script for Diantong's upcoming film Children of Troubled Times. The film is a story about a Chinese intellectual who flees during the Shanghai Incident to a life of luxury in Qingdao, only to be driven to fight the Japanese occupation of Manchuria after learning of the death of his friend. Urban legends circulated that Tian wrote it in jail on rolling paper or the liner paper from cigarette boxes after being arrested in Shanghai by the Nationalists. During March and April 1935, in Japan, Nie Er set the words to music; the song was performed by Gu Menghe and Yuan Muzhi, along with a small and "hastily-assembled" chorus. On 9 May, Gu and Yuan recorded it in more standard Mandarin for Pathé Orient's Shanghai branch ahead of the movie's release, so that it served as a form of advertising for the film.

Translated as "Volunteers Marching On", the English name references the several volunteer armies that opposed Japan's invasion of Manchuria in the 1930s. In May 1935, the same month as the movie's release, Lü Ji and other leftists in Shanghai had begun an amateur choir and started promoting a National Salvation singing campaign, supporting mass singing associations along the lines established the year before by Liu Liangmo, a Shanghai YMCA leader. Although the movie did not perform well enough to keep Diantong from closing, its theme song became wildly popular: musicologist Feng Zikai reported hearing it being sung by crowds in rural villages from Zhejiang to Hunan within months of its release and, at a performance at a Shanghai sports stadium in June 1936, Liu's chorus of hundreds was joined by its audience of thousands. Although Tian Han was imprisoned for two years, Nie Er fled toward the Soviet Union only to die en route in Japan, Liu Liangmo fled to the U. S. to escape harassment from the Nationalists.

The singing campaign continued to expand after the December 1936 Xi'an Incident reduced Nationalist pressure against leftist movements. Visiting St Paul's Hospital at the Anglican mission at Guide, W. H. Auden and Christopher Isherwood reported hearing a "Chee Lai!" Treated as a hymn at the mission service and the same tune "set to different words" treated as a favorite song of the Eighth Route Army. The Pathé recording of the march appeared prominently in Joris Ivens's 1939 The 400 Million, an English-language documentary on the war in China; the same year, Lee Pao-chen included it with a parallel English translation in a songbook published in the new Chinese capital Chongqing. The New York Times published the song's sheet music on 24 December, along with an analysis by a Chinese correspondent in Chongqing. In exile in New York City in 1940, Liu Liangmo taught it to Paul Robeson, the college-educated polyglot folk-singing son of a runaway slave. Robeson began performing the song in Chinese at a large concert in New York City's Lewisohn Stadium.

In communication with the original lyricist Tian Han, the pair translated it into English and recorded it in both languages as "Chee Lai!" for Keynote Records in early 1941. Its 3-disc album included a booklet whose preface was written by Soong Ching-ling, widow of Sun Yat-sen, its initial proceeds were donated to the Chinese resistance. Robeson gave further live performances at benefits for the China Aid Council and United China Relief, although he gave the stage to Liu and the Chinese themselves for the song's performance at their sold-out concert at Washington's Uline Arena on 24 April 1941. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor and beginning of the Pacific War, the march was played locally in India and other locales in Southeast Asia.

Agnes McWhinney

Agnes McWhinney was a solicitor in Queensland, Australia. She was the first female solicitor in Australia. Agnes McWhinney was born on 25 September 1891 at Ravenswood Junction in Queensland, the daughter of Andrew McWhinney and his wife Margaret, she attended Townsville Grammar School. McWhinney's ambition was to become a doctor, but the cost of attending medical school in Sydney was expensive, her brother Joseph McWhinney was completing his Articles of Clerkship at solicitors and Ryan, in Townsville and he persuaded her to pursue the law instead. In 1910, Wilson and Ryan accepted Agnes McWhinney as an articled clerk. Although Justice Pope Cooper of the Northern Supreme Court of Queensland disliked the idea of women entering the legal profession, he was unable to find any basis to refuse her and so admitted her to practise as a solicitor on 7 December 1915. However, she had to protest to be paid a comparable wage to male solicitors. On 23 March 1920, McWhinney married Lowell Mason Osborne and discontinued her paid employment and only did legal work as a community service.

On 5 October 1926, McWhinney was present when Katherine Elizabeth McGregor became the first female barrister in Queensland when she was admitted to the Queensland Bar Association. Agnes Osborne died in Brisbane on 2 August 1985, she was buried in Toowong Cemetery. The Queensland Law Society has an annual Agnes McWhinney Award to recognise the contributions of a female lawyer. First women lawyers around the world

Kambhampadu, Pedakurapadu mandal

Kambhampadu is a village in the Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located in Pedakurapadu mandal of Guntur revenue division. Kambhampadu gram panchayat is the local self-government of the village, it is divided into wards and each ward is represented by a ward member. The ward members are headed by a Sarpanch; the village forms a part of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region and is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA. As per the school information report for the academic year 2018–19, the village has a total of 2 Mandal Parishad schools. List of villages in Guntur district


Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad-tipped instrument, brush, or other writing instrument. A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive and skillful manner". Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable. Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, memorial documents, it is used for props and moving images for film and television, for testimonials and death certificates and other written works. The principal tools for a calligrapher are the brush. Calligraphy pens round, or pointed.

For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have been created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. There are some styles such as Gothic script, that require a stub nib pen. Writing ink is water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing. Certain specialty paper with high ink absorption and constant texture enables cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and a light-box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. Light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are used; this is the case with litterea unciales, college-ruled paper acts as a guideline well. Common calligraphy pens and brushes are: Quill Dip pen Ink brush Qalam Fountain pen Chinese calligraphy is locally called shūfǎ.

The calligraphy of East Asian characters is an important and appreciated aspect of traditional East Asian culture. In ancient China, the oldest Chinese characters existing are Jiǎgǔwén characters carved on ox scapulae and tortoise plastrons, because the dominators in Shang Dynasty carved pits on such animals' bones and baked them to gain auspice of military affairs, agricultural harvest, or procreating and weather. During the divination ceremony, after the cracks were made, the characters were written with a brush on the shell or bone to be carved.. With the development of Jīnwén and Dàzhuàn "cursive" signs continued. Mao Gong Ding is one of the most famous and typical Bronzeware scripts in the Chinese calligraphy history, it has 500 characters on the bronze, the largest number of bronze inscription we have discovered so far. Moreover, each archaic kingdom of current China had its own set of characters. In Imperial China, the graphs on old steles—some dating from 200 BC, in Xiaozhuan style—are still accessible.

About 220 BC, the emperor Qin Shi Huang, the first to conquer the entire Chinese basin, imposed several reforms, among them Li Si's character unification, which created a set of 3300 standardized Xiǎozhuàn(小篆) characters. Despite the fact that the main writing implement of the time was the brush, few papers survive from this period, the main examples of this style are on steles; the Lìshū style, more regularized, in some ways similar to modern text, have been authorised under Qin Shi Huangdi. Between clerical script and traditional regular script, there is another transition type of calligraphy works called Wei Bei, it had ended before Tang Dynasty. Kǎishū style —still in use today—and attributed to Wang Xizhi and his followers, is more regularized, its spread was encouraged by Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang, who ordered the printing of the classics using new wooden blocks in Kaishu. Printing technologies here allowed a shape stabilization; the Kaishu shape of characters 1000 years ago was similar to that at the end of Imperial China.

But small changes have been made, for example in the shape of 广, not the same in the Kangxi Dictionary of 1716 as in modern books. The Kangxi and current shapes have tiny differences, while stroke order is still the same, according to old style. Styles which did not survive include Bāfēnshū, a mix made of Xiaozhuan style at 80%, Lishu at 20%; some variant Chinese characters were locally used for centuries. They were understood but always rejected in official texts; some of these unorthodox variants, in addition to some newly created characters, compose the Simplified Chinese character set. Traditional East Asian writing uses the Four Treasures of the Study: the ink brushes known as máobǐ to write Chinese characters, Chinese ink and inkstone, known as the Four Friends of the Study in Korea. In addition to these four tools, desk pads and paperweights are used; the shape, size and hair type of the ink brush, the color, color density and water density of the ink, as well as the paper's water absorption

Clermont Township, Fayette County, Iowa

Clermont Township is one of twenty townships in Fayette County, Iowa, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 894. According to the United States Census Bureau, Clermont Township covers an area of 36.34 square miles. Clermont Bloomfield Township, Winneshiek County Post Township, Allamakee County Grand Meadow Township, Clayton County Marion Township, Clayton County Pleasant Valley Township Union Township Dover Township The township contains Saint Peters Cemetery. U. S. Route 18 Dale Delight Airport Postville Community School District North Fayette Valley Community School District Iowa's 1st congressional district State House District 18 State Senate District 9 United States Census Bureau 2008 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas

Boris Svistunov

Boris Vladimirovich Svistunov is Russian-American physicist specialised in the Condensed Matter Physics. He received his MSc in physics in 1983 from Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Russia. In 1990, he received his PhD in theoretical physics from Kurchatov Institute, where he worked from 1986 to 2003. In 2003, he joined the Physics Department of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst where he is full professor, he is also an affiliated faculty member of Wilczek Quantum Center in Shanghai at SJTU and is a participant of Simons collaboration on many electron systems. Boris Svistunov is recognised for his works on superfluidity, superfluid turbulence correlated systems and pioneering numerical approaches. With his collaborators and students he made important contributions to superfluid turbulence, theory of supersolids, in collaboration with Nikolay Prokof'ev including the theory of superfluidity of crystalline defects and superglass phase, he is a co-inventor, with Nikolay Prokof'ev and Igor Tupitsyn of the used Worm Monte-Carlo algorithm.

With Nikolay Prokof'ev he invented Diagrammatic Monte-Carlo method, stochastic summation of Feynman diagrammatic series. Because the method is free from the Numerical sign problem it allowed to solve untreatable fermionic problems, he is elected Fellow of the American Physical Society for his influential works in superfluidity and supersolidity. His research was recognised by his election as Fellow of the American Physical Society; the citation associated with of his Fellow election in the American Physical Society, for "pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of Monte Carlo simulations for correlated quantum and classical systems, the invention of the worm algorithm and diagrammatic Monte Carlo techniques, fundamental theoretical results on superfluid phenomena in quantum gases and solids." He is Outstanding Referee for American Physical Society and Distinguished Referee for Europhysics letters. He coauthored the book on modern theory of Superfluidity