March on Rome

The March on Rome was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party ascending to power in the Kingdom of Italy. In late October 1922, Fascist Party leaders planned an insurrection; when fascist troops entered Rome, Prime Minister Luigi Facta wished to declare a state of siege, but this was overruled by King Victor Emmanuel III. On the following day, 29 October 1922, the King appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister, thereby transferring political power to the fascists without armed conflict. In March 1919, Benito Mussolini founded the first "Italian Combat Leagues" at the beginning of the "two red years". Mussolini suffered a defeat in the election of November 1919 due to his attempt to "out-socialist the socialists" at the ballot box, but in the general election of 1921, Mussolini was elected to Parliament. Fascists used militia squads, the Squadrismo known as the "Blackshirts" due to their uniform. In August 1920, the militia was used to break the general strike which had started at the Alfa Romeo factory in Milan.

In November 1920, after the assassination of Giulio Giordani, the Blackshirts were active in violent suppression of the socialist movement in the Po Valley. Trade unions were dissolved; the fascists, included on Giovanni Giolitti's "National Union" lists at the May 1921 elections won 35 seats. Mussolini withdrew his support from Giolitti and his Italian Liberal Party and attempted to work out a temporary truce with the Italian Socialist Party by signing a "Pact of Pacification" in summer 1921; this provoked protest with more radical members of the Fascist movement, the Blackshirt Squadristi and their leaders, the Ras. In July 1921, Giolitti attempted without success to dissolve the squadristi; the contract with the socialists was nullified during the Third Fascist Congress on November 7–10, 1921, where Mussolini negotiated a nationalist program and renamed his political party the National Fascist Party, which boasted "2,200 fasci and 320,000 members" by late 1921. In August, an anti-fascist general strike was triggered, but failed to rally the Italian People's Party and was repressed by the fascists.

A few days before the march, Mussolini consulted with the U. S. Ambassador Richard Washburn Child about whether the U. S. government would object to Fascist participation in a future Italian government. Child encouraged him to go ahead; when Mussolini learned that Prime Minister Luigi Facta had given Gabriele d'Annunzio the mission to organize a large demonstration on 4 November 1922 to celebrate the national victory during the war, he decided on the March to accelerate the process and sidestep any possible competition.. The quadrumvirs leading the Fascist Party, General Emilio De Bono, Italo Balbo, Michele Bianchi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi, organized the March, while the Duce was waiting in Milan, he did not participate in the march, though he allowed pictures to be taken of him marching along with the Fascist marchers, he comfortably went to Rome the next day. Generals Gustavo Fara and Sante Ceccherini assisted to the preparations of the March of 18 October. Other organizers of the march included Ulisse Igliori.

On 24 October 1922, Mussolini declared before 60,000 people at the Fascist Congress in Naples: "Our program is simple: we want to rule Italy." Meanwhile, the Blackshirts, who had occupied the Po plain, took all strategic points of the country. On 26 October, the former prime minister Antonio Salandra warned current Prime Minister Luigi Facta that Mussolini was demanding his resignation and that he was preparing to march on Rome. However, Facta did not believe Salandra and thought that Mussolini would govern at his side. To meet the threat posed by the bands of fascist troops now gathering outside Rome, Luigi Facta ordered a state of siege for Rome. Having had previous conversations with the King about the repression of fascist violence, he was sure the King would agree. However, King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign the military order. On 29 October, the King handed power to Mussolini, supported by the military, the business class, the right-wing; the march itself was composed of fewer than 30,000 men, but the King in part feared a civil war since the squadristi had taken control of the Po plain and most of the country, while Fascism was no longer seen as a threat to the establishment.

Mussolini was asked to form his cabinet on 29 October 1922, while some 25,000 Blackshirts were parading in Rome. Mussolini thus reached power, in accordance with the Statuto Albertino, the Italian Constitution; the March on Rome was not the seizure of power which Fascism celebrated but rather the precipitating force behind a transfer of power within the framework of the constitution. This transition was made possible by the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation. Many business and financial leaders believed it would be possible to manipulate Mussolini, whose early speeches and policies emphasized free market and laissez faire economics; this proved overly optimistic, as Mussolini's corporatist view stressed total state power over businesses as much as over individuals, via governing industry bodies controlled by the Fascist party, a model in which businesses retained the responsibilities of property, but few if any of the freedoms. By 1934

Murchison, Texas

Murchison is a city in Henderson County, United States. The population was 594 at the 2010 census. Murchison is located northeast of the center of Henderson County at 32°16′42″N 95°45′19″W. Texas State Highway 31 passes through the center of town, leading southwest 8 miles to Athens, the county seat, east 27 miles to Tyler. According to the United States Census Bureau, Murchison has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 592 people, 217 households, 161 families residing in the city; the population density was 373.9 people per square mile. There were 238 housing units at an average density of 150.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 94.93% White, 0.17% African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 3.55% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.08% of the population. There were 217 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.8% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families.

21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,281, the median income for a family was $36,071. Males had a median income of $30,938 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,986. About 15.7% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.3% of those under age 18 and 23.5% of those age 65 or over. Public education in the city of Murchison is provided by the Murchison Independent School District

Moe Howard and the Three Stooges

Moe Howard and the Three Stooges is the autobiography of Moe Howard of The Three Stooges. He spent his final days writing his autobiography. However, Howard died before it could be completed. Howard's daughter Joan Howard Maurer completed her father's book and it was published in 1977. While some of the dates and incidents are portrayed differently in other books that have since been published about the Stooges, Moe Howard and the Three Stooges offers insight to the team's career from Moe Howard's point of view; the autobiography was re-released in July 2013 by Chicago Review Press. The name change reflected the intended, original title of the book, changed by the publisher shortly before it went to press in 1977. Moe Howard The Three Stooges List of Three Stooges shorts The Three Stooges filmography