Duchy of Württemberg
The Duchy of Württemberg was a duchy located in the south-western part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was a member of the Holy Roman Empire from 1495 to 1806; the dukedom's long survival for nearly four centuries was due to its size, being larger than its immediate neighbors. During the Protestant Reformation, Württemberg faced great pressure from the Holy Roman Empire to remain a member. Württemberg resisted repeated French invasions in the 18th centuries. Württemberg was directly in the path of French and Austrian armies who were engaged in the long rivalry between the House of Bourbon and the House of Habsburg. In 1803, Napoleon raised the duchy to be the Electorate of Württemberg of the Holy Roman Empire. On 1 January 1806, the last Elector assumed the title of King of Württemberg; this year, on 6 August 1806, the last Emperor, Francis II, abolished the Holy Roman Empire. Much of the territory of the Duchy of Württemberg lies in the valley of the Neckar river, from Tübingen to Heilbronn, with its capital and largest city, Stuttgart, in the center.
The northern part of Württemberg is open, with large rivers making for decent arable land. The southern part of Württemberg is mountainous and wooded, with the Black Forest to the west and the Swabian Alb to the east; the southeastern part of the Duchy, on the other side of the Swabian Alb, is Ulm and the Danube river basin. The Duchy of Württemberg was over 8,000 square kilometres of pastures and rivers. Politically, it was a patchwork of 350 smaller territories governed by many different secular and ecclesiastical landlords; as early as the 14th century, it had dissolved into many districts, which were called "Steuergemeinde," a "small, taxable community." By 1520, the number of these districts had rose to 45, from 38 in 1442, would number 58 by the end of the 16th century. These varied in size vastly, with Urach containing 76 outlying villages to Ebingen, which only contained its eponymous town. Württemberg was one of the most populous regions of the Holy Roman Empire, supporting 300,000-400,000 inhabitants in the 16th century, 70% of which lived in the countryside.
The largest town in the Duchy was Stuttgart, followed by Heilbronn, Schwäbisch Hall and Reutlingen Tübingen and Kirchheim-Teck, over 670 villages that contained the rest of the population. The Duchy of Württemberg was formed when, at the Diet of Worms, 21 July 1495, Maximilian I, King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor, declared the Count of Württemberg, Eberhard V "the Bearded," Duke of Württemberg; this would be the last elevation to Dukedom of the Medieval era. The House of Württemberg had reigned over the territory since the 11th century, Duke Eberhard I himself ascended to the throne in 1450 at the age of 14, over a territory split in two states: the Württemberg ruled by the Württemberg-Stuttgart line, the Württemberg of the Württemberg-Urach line. In 1482, he united the two parts of the future Duchy, fusing the governments of both counties into what would be the basis of the Duchy's central government. After Eberhard's death in 1495, he was succeeded by his cousin, Eberhard II, he would make little change to the government's structure.
Despite having earlier been the Count from 1480 to 1482, he proved to be administratively incompetent, his attempt to begin a war against Bavaria prompted the Estates to request Maximilian I to call a diet in March 1498 to remove Eberhard II. The Emperor made the unprecedented decision to side with the Estates and thus deprived Duke Eberhard II of his principality in May 1498. While the Duke's advisers were arrested or fled, Eberhard II himself was banished to Lindenfels Castle and granted an annuity of 6000 florins until his death in 1504; the one accomplishment of Eberhard II's reign was the establishment of the Hofkapelle for the performance of religious music, this system of music patronage would remain uninterrupted until the Thirty Years' War. Ulrich, of the Urach line of the Württemberg family, succeeded Eberhard II in 1498, in his minority, his regency was controlled by four nobles: Counts Wolfgang von Fürstenberg and Andreas von Waldburg, Hans von Reischach, Diepolt Spät. Two other men, the abbots of Zwiefalten and Bebenhausen held advisory positions in the regency.
While the regency would hear the wishes of the people through the Estates, they became opposed to the wishes of the local burghers during the unpopular Swabian War, to which the Estates voted more soldiers and money. Maximilian I declared Ulrich I of age at 16, in the process violating the 1492 Treaty of Esslingen that stipulated that he could only succeed at 20, thus began one of the longest and most tumultuous periods in the history of the region. The young Duke at first made little change to the government, allowing his councilors to decide on policy while he made his greatest marks in the Duchy through the expansion of the realm through war. With the aid of Duke Albert IV of Bavaria and Maximilian I, Ulrich invaded the Rhine Palatinate with an army of 20,000 soldiers, obtaining Maulbronn Abbey, the County of Löwenstein and the districts of Weinsberg, Neuenstadt am Kocher, Möckmühl from the Palatinate as well as Heidenheim an der Brenz and the abbeys of Königsbronn and Herbrechtingen. Ulrich's ability to rule, on the other hand, was less reliable.
The first crisis he faced was financial: since the beginning of his reign to 1514, he had racked up a debt of more than 600,000 florins in addition to the debt
Chotěšov Abbey is a former Premonstratensian nunnery in Chotěšov, about 18 kilometres southwest of Pilsen in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic. The abbey was founded between 1202 and 1210 by the Blessed Hroznata, whose sister Vyslava was first abbess, settled by nuns from Doksany Abbey; the new foundation soon acquired wealth and influence, to the envy of the surrounding lordships and territories. In 1421, during the Hussite Wars the nunnery was occupied and destroyed by a Hussite army under Jan Žižka. During the Thirty Years' War, in 1618, the nunnery was plundered. Between 1737 and 1756 the abbey was extensively rebuilt to Baroque designs by Jakub Auguston. On 21 January 1782 however it was dissolved under the rationalist reforms of the Emperor Joseph II; the lands and buildings were bought in 1822 by the Prince of Thurn und Taxis In 1878 part of the premises were leased to the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary known as the Visitandines or Salesian Sisters, for refugees of their Order from Moselweiss near Koblenz in Germany.
They established a community and a girls' school here, which became well-known for the study of languages. After World War I a group of sisters set up a community in Marchtal Abbey. At the beginning of World War II the school was closed and instead the sisters took over the running of a home for elderly women, established in part of the premises. All German sisters were obliged to leave the abbey and the country in 1945 after the end of World War II, leaving about 30 Czech sisters to run the home. All occupants of the abbey were evicted in 1950, when the abbey was requisitioned as accommodation for the Czech army until 1975 when the army left, leaving an estimated 10 million crowns' worth of damage for which compensation has never been received; the buildings have stood empty since. After some years under the control of government agencies, in 1991 ownership of the buildings was divided between the town of Chotěšov and the Visitandine nuns at Chlumec, whose share has since passed to the town.
The abandoned buildings are in part in a state approaching the derelict and are threatened with collapse, despite their architectural and historical value and the great efforts of the local community to save them. Chotěšov municipal website Civic Association for the restoration of the abbey: webpages in English
Abbey of Saint Gall
The Abbey of Saint Gall is a dissolved abbey in a Roman Catholic religious complex in the city of St. Gallen in Switzerland; the Carolingian-era monastery has existed since 719 and became an independent principality between 9th and 13th centuries, was for many centuries one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in Europe. It was founded by Saint Othmar on the spot; the library at the Abbey is one of the richest medieval libraries in the world. The city of St. Gallen originated as an adjoining settlement of the abbey. Following the secularization of the abbey around 1800 the former Abbey church became a Cathedral in 1848. Since 1983 the whole remaining abbey precinct has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Around 613 Gallus, according to tradition an Irish monk and disciple and companion of Saint Columbanus, established a hermitage on the site that would become the monastery, he lived in his cell until his death in 646. in Arbon. The people kept looking for protection at Gallus' cell in time of danger.
Following Gallus' death, Charles Martel appointed Otmar as custodian of St Gall's relics. Several different dates are given for the foundation of the monastery, including 719, 720, 747 and the middle of the 8th century. During the reign of Pepin the Short, in the 8th century, Othmar founded the Carolingian style Abbey of St Gall, where arts and sciences flourished; the abbey grew many Alemannic noblemen became monks. At the end of abbot Otmar's reign, the Professbuch mentions 53 names. Two monks of the Abbey of St Gall, Magnus von Füssen and Theodor, founded the monasteries in Kempten and Füssen in the Allgäu. With the increase in the number of monks the abbey grew stronger economically. Much land in Thurgau, Zürichgau and in the rest of Alemannia as far as the Neckar was transferred to the abbey due to Stiftungen. Under abbot Waldo of Reichenau copying of manuscripts was undertaken and a famous library was gathered. Numerous Anglo-Saxon and Irish monks came to copy manuscripts. At Charlemagne's request Pope Adrian I sent distinguished chanters from Rome, who propagated the use of the Gregorian chant.
In 744, the Alemannic nobleman Beata sells several properties to the abbey in order to finance his journey to Rome. In the subsequent century, St Gall came into conflict with the nearby Bishopric of Constance which had acquired jurisdiction over the Abbey of Reichenau on Lake Constance, it was not until Emperor Louis the Pious confirmed in 813 the imperial immediacy of the abbey, that this conflict ceased. The abbey became an Imperial Abbey. King Louis the German confirmed in 833 the immunity of the abbey and allowed the monks the free choice of their abbot. In 854 the Abbey of St Gall reached its full autonomy by King Louis the German releasing the abbey from the obligation to pay tithes to the Bishop of Constance. From this time until the 10th century, the abbey flourished, it was home to several famous scholars, including Notker of Liège, Notker the Stammerer, Notker Labeo and Hartker. During the 9th century a new, larger church was built and the library was expanded. Manuscripts on a wide variety of topics were purchased by the abbey and copies were made.
Over 400 manuscripts from this time are still in the library today. Between 924 and 933 the Magyars threatened the abbey and the books had to be removed to Reichenau for safety. Not all the books were returned. On 26 April 937 a fire broke out and destroyed much of the abbey and the adjoining settlement, though the library was undamaged. About 954 they started to protect the monastery and buildings by a surrounding wall. Around 971/974 abbot Notker finalized the walling and the adjoining settlements started to become the town of St Gall. In 1006, the abbey was the northernmost place; the death of abbot Ulrich on 9 December 1076 terminated the cultural silver age of the monastery. In 1207, abbot Ulrich von Sax becomes a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire by King Philip of Swabia; the abbey became a Princely Abbey. As the abbey became more involved in local politics, it entered a period of decline; the city of St. Gallen proper progressively freed itself from the rule of the abbot, acquiring Imperial immediacy, by the late 15th century was recognized as a Free imperial city.
By about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king King Sigismund. During the 14th century Humanists were allowed to carry off some of the rare texts from the abbey library. In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the farmers of the abbot's personal estates began seeking independence. In 1401, the first of the Appenzell Wars broke out, following the Appenzell victory at Stoss in 1405 they became allies of the Swiss Confederation in 1411. During the Appenzell Wars, the town of St. Gallen sided with Appenzell against the abbey. So when Appenzell allied with the Swiss, the town of St. Gallen followed just a few months later; the abbot became an ally of several members of the Swiss Confederation in 1451. While Appenzell and St. Gallen became full members of the Swiss Confederation in 1454. In 1457 the town of St. Gallen became free from the abbot. In 1468 the abbot, Ulrich Rösch, bought the County of Toggenburg from the representatives of its counts, after the family died out in 1436.
In 1487 he
Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)
The Imperial Diet was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire. It was not a legislative body in the contemporary sense, its members were the Imperial Estates, divided into three colleges. The diet as a permanent, regularized institution evolved from the Hoftage of the Middle Ages. From 1663 until the end of the empire in 1806, it was in permanent session at Regensburg; the Imperial Estates had, according to feudal law, no authority above them besides the Holy Roman Emperor himself. The holding of an Imperial Estate entitled one to a vote in the diet. Thus, an individual member might have multiple votes in different colleges. In general, members did not attend the permanent diet at Regensburg, but sent representatives instead; the late imperial diet was in effect a permanent meeting of ambassadors between the Estates. The precise role and function of the Imperial Diet changed over the centuries, as did the Empire itself, in that the estates and separate territories gained more and more control of their own affairs at the expense of imperial power.
There was neither a fixed time nor location for the Diet. It started as a convention of the dukes of the old Germanic tribes that formed the Frankish kingdom when important decisions had to be made, was based on the old Germanic law whereby each leader relied on the support of his leading men. For example under Emperor Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars, the Diet, according to the Royal Frankish Annals, met at Paderborn in 777 and determined laws concerning the subdued Saxons and other tribes. In 803, the Frankish emperor issued the final version of the Lex Saxonum. At the Diet of 919 in Fritzlar the dukes elected the first King of the Germans, a Saxon, Henry the Fowler, thus overcoming the longstanding rivalry between Franks and Saxons and laying the foundation for the German realm. After the conquest of Italy, the 1158 Diet of Roncaglia finalized four laws that would alter the constitution of the Empire, marking the beginning of the steady decline of the central power in favour of the local dukes.
The Golden Bull of 1356 cemented the concept of "territorial rule", the independent rule of the dukes over their respective territories, limited the number of electors to seven. The Pope, contrary to modern myth, was never involved in the electoral process but only in the process of ratification and coronation of whomever the Prince-Electors chose. However, until the late 15th century, the Diet was not formalized as an institution. Instead, the dukes and other princes would irregularly convene at the court of the Emperor. Only beginning in 1489 was the Diet called the Reichstag, it was formally divided into several collegia; the two colleges were that of the prince-electors and that of the other dukes and princes. The imperial cities, that is, cities that had Imperial immediacy and were oligarchic republics independent of a local ruler that were subject only to the Emperor himself, managed to be accepted as a third party. Several attempts to reform the Empire and end its slow disintegration, notably starting with the Diet of 1495, did not have much effect.
In contrast, this process was only hastened with the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, which formally bound the Emperor to accept all decisions made by the Diet, in effect depriving him of his few remaining powers. From to its end in 1806, the Empire was not much more than a collection of independent states; the most famous Diets were those held in Worms in 1495, where the Imperial Reform was enacted, 1521, where Martin Luther was banned, the Diets of Speyer 1526 and 1529, several in Nuremberg. Only with the introduction of the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg in 1663 did the Diet permanently convene in a fixed location; the Imperial Diet of Constance opened on 27 April 1507. Since 1489, the Diet comprised three colleges: The Electoral College, led by the Prince-Archbishop of Mainz in his capacity as Archchancellor of Germany; the seven Prince-electors were designated by the Golden Bull of 1356: three ecclesiastical Prince-Bishops, the Prince-Archbishop of Mainz as Archchancellor of Germany the Prince-Archbishop of Cologne as Archchancellor of Italy the Prince-Archbishop of Trier as Archchancellor of Burgundy four secular Princes, the King of Bohemia as Archcupbearer the Elector of the Palatinate as Archsteward the Elector of Saxony as Archmarshal the Margrave of Brandenburg as ArchchamberlainThe number increased to eight, when in 1623 the Duke of Bavaria took over the electoral dignity of the Count Palatine, who himself received a separate vote in the electoral college according to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, including the high office of an Archtreasurer.
In 1692 the Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg became the ninth Prince-elector as Archbannerbearer during the Nine Years' War. In the War of the Bavarian Succession, the electoral dignities of the Palatinate and Bavaria were merged, approved by the 1779 Treaty of Teschen; the German Mediatisation of 1803 entailed the dissolution of the Cologne and Trier Prince-archbishoprics, the Prince-Archbishop of Mainz and German Archchancellor received—as compensation for his lost territory occupied by Revolutionary France—the newly establ
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 30 km south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers; as of 2014 about one in three people living in Tübingen is a student. North of the city lies the Schönbuch, a densely wooded nature park; the Swabian Alb mountains rise about 13 km to the southeast of Tübingen. The Ammer and Steinlach rivers discharge into the Neckar river, which flows right through the town, just south of the medieval old town in an easterly direction. Large parts of the city are hilly, with the Schlossberg and the Österberg in the city centre and the Schnarrenberg and Herrlesberg, among others, rising adjacent to the inner city; the highest point is at about 500 m above sea level near Bebenhausen in the Schönbuch forest, while the lowest point is 305 m in the town's eastern Neckar valley. Nearby the Botanical Gardens of the city's university, in a small forest called Elysium, lies the geographical centre of the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Tübingen is the capital of an eponymous district and an eponymous administrative region, before 1973 called Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern. Tübingen is, with nearby Reutlingen, one of the two centre cities of the Neckar-Alb region. Administratively, it is not part of the Stuttgart Region, bordering it to the west. However, the city and northern parts of its district can be regarded as belonging to that region in a wider regional and cultural context; the area was first settled in the 12th millennium BC. The Romans left some traces here in AD 85. Tübingen itself dates from the 7th century, when the region was populated by the Alamanni; some argue that the Battle of Solicinium was fought at Spitzberg, a mountain in Tübingen, in AD 367, although there is no evidence for this. Tübingen first appears in official records in 1191, the local castle, Hohentübingen, has records going back to 1078 when it was besieged by Henry IV, king of Germany, its name transcribed in Medieval Latin as Tuingia and Twingia.
From 1146, Count Hugo V was promoted to count palatine, as Hugo I, establishing Tübingen as the capital of a County Palatine of Tübingen. By 1231, Tübingen was a civitas indicating recognition of a court system. In 1262, an Augustinian monastery was established by Pope Alexander IV in Tübingen, in 1272, a Franciscan monastery followed; the latter existed until Duke Ulrich of Würtemmberg disestablished it in 1535 in course of the Protestant Reformation, which the Duchy of Württemberg followed. In 1300, a Latin school was founded. In 1342, the county palatine was sold to Ulrich III, Count of Württemberg and incorporated into the County of Württemberg. Between 1470 and 1483, St. George's Collegiate Church was built; the collegiate church offices provided the opportunity for what soon afterwards became the most significant event in Tübingen's history: the founding of the Eberhard Karls University by Duke Eberhard im Bart of Württemberg in 1477, thus making it one of the oldest universities in Central Europe.
It became soon renowned as one of the most influential places of learning in the Holy Roman Empire for theology. Today, the university is still the biggest source of income for the residents of the city and one of the biggest universities in Germany with more than 22,000 students. Between 1622 and 1625, the Catholic League occupied Lutheran Württemberg in the course of the Thirty Years' War. In the summer of 1631, the city was raided. In 1635/36 the city was hit by the Plague. In 1638, Swedish troops conquered Tübingen. Towards the end of the war, French troops occupied the city from 1647 until 1649. In 1789, parts of the old town burned down, but were rebuilt in the original style. In 1798 the Allgemeine Zeitung, a leading newspaper in early 19th-century Germany, was founded in Tübingen by Johann Friedrich Cotta. From 1807 until 1843, the poet Friedrich Hölderlin lived in Tübingen in a tower overlooking the Neckar. In the Nazi era, the Tübingen Synagogue was burned in the Kristallnacht on November 9, 1938.
The Second World War left the city unscathed because of the peace initiative of a local doctor, Theodor Dobler. It became part of the French occupational zone. From 1946 to 1952, Tübingen was the capital of the newly formed state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, before the state of Baden-Württemberg was created by merging Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the French troops had a garrison stationed in the south of the city until the end of the Cold War in the 1990s. In the 1960s, Tübingen was one of the centres of the German student movement and the Protests of 1968 and has since shaped left and green political views; some radicalized Tübingen students supported the leftist Rote Armee Fraktion terrorist group, with active member Gudrun Ensslin, a local and a Tübingen student from 1960 to 1963, joining the group in 1968. Although noticing such things today is impossible, as as the 1950s, Tübingen was a socioeconomically divided city, with poor local farmers and tradesmen living along the Stadtgraben and students and academics residing around the Alte Aula and the Burse, the old university buildings.
There, hanging on the Cottahaus, a sign commemorates Goethe's stay of a few weeks while visiting his publisher. The Ge
Reutlingen is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is the capital of the eponymous district of Reutlingen; as of June 2018, it has a population of 115,818. Reutlingen has a university of applied sciences, founded in 1855 as a weavers' school. Today Reutlingen is home to an established textile industry and houses machinery, leather goods and steel manufacturing facilities, it has the narrowest street in Spreuerhofstraße. Reutlingen is located about 35 km south of the State capital of Stuttgart, it lies in the Southwest corner of Germany, right next to the Swabian Jura, and, why it is called The gateway to the Swabian Jura. The Echaz river, a tributary of the Neckar, flows through the town centre. Along with the old university town of Tübingen, Reutlingen is the centre of the Neckar-Alb region, it is part of the larger Stuttgart Metropolitan Region. The first settlements in the area are believed to date from the 5th century; some time around 1030, Count Egino started to build a castle on top of the Achalm, one of the largest mountains in Reutlingen district.
One of the towers of this castle is open to visitors. The name Reutlingen was first mentioned in writing in the so-called Bempflingen Treaty, dated 1089–90. Around 1180, Reutlingen received market rights and, between 1220 and 1240 it was promoted to city status and city-walls and fortifications were built. Shortly thereafter, from 1247–1343, the town's landmark, the St. Mary's Church was built. In 1377 Reutlingen was the scene of a victory by the Swabian League, formed in the previous year by 14 Swabian cities, led by Ulm, over the Count of Württemberg. In 1519, a Swabian League came to Reutlingen's help when Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg attempted to seize the city. In 1495 and 1516 the jews were exiled from the town; as a result of such struggles, Reutlingen became an Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire, free from allegiance to the Duke of Württemberg. In 1530, Reutlingen's city council signed the Augsburg Confession, in 1580 and the Formula of Concord, key documents of Lutheranism. In 1803, in the wake of the French Revolutionary Wars, Reutlingen lost its independence in the German Mediatisation, being restored to Württemberg.
The worst disaster in the history of Reutlingen happened in 1726, when a major fire swept through the city, destroying 80% of all residential houses and all public buildings, making 1,200 families homeless. The impact of this fire, which lasted three days, is still visible today. During World War II, the wings of the V-1 flying bomb were manufactured in Reutlingen, making the city the target of several allied bombing raids. On 24 July 2016 a Syrian asylum seeker killed a pregnant woman in a machete attack. 1929–1933: Karl Haller 1933–1945: Richard Dederer, NSDAP, 1945–1973: Oskar Kalbfell, SPD, 1973–1994: Manfred Oechsle, CDU, 1995–2003: Stefan Schultes, CDU, since 2003: Barbara Bosch, independent, On Mutscheltag, townspeople gather in halls and homes to play games of dice, the winner of which earns parts or whole Mutschel loaves of bread. The Mutschelspiele consist of small games scored by tally marks, are won both independently and by grand total at the end of the hour or night; this tradition is unique to the city of Reutlingen.
Ernst Boepple, German Nazi official and SS officer executed for war crimes Ferdinand Heim, the "Scapegoat of Stalingrad" Erwin Fischer, jurist Helmuth Naumer, German artist Friedrich Schlotterbeck, resistance fighter and author Walter Vielhauer, trade unionist, resistance fighter Gertrud Lutz, resistance fighter Willy Hack, German SS officer and concentration camp official executed for war crimes Martin Hengel, Protestant parson and historian Willi Betz, founder of biggest forwarding agency in Europe Friedrich Wilhelm Schnitzler, business manager and politician Roland Kayn and composer Ernst Messerschmid, German Space Shuttle astronaut and physicist, D1-Space-Shuttle-Mission Claus Kleber, German television journalist Friedrich List and American economist Dominik Kuhn, Swabian comedian City buses are run by Reutlinger Stadtverkehr, while trains from Reutlingen Hauptbahnhof and Reutlingen West, -Sondelfingen and Reutlingen-Betzingen are ran by Deutsche Bahn. Church of the Virgin Mary, built in Gothic style in the 13th–14th centuries.
Nearby is a statue of emperor Frederick II. Marktbrunnen, surmounted by the statue of emperor Maximilian II. Spitalhof, built as a hospital in the 14th century. Damaged by a fire, it was rebuilt in the 18th century. Church of St. Nicholas, built in the 14th century as a chapel. Gerber- und Färberbrunnen, 1920. City Hall, built in 2013. Spreuerhofstraße, the world's narrowest street. Reutlingen University is a university of applied sciences, focusing on hands-on learning, apparent in their mandatory internship for all business majors; the university is an internationally friendly school with 111 cooperative campuses worldwide. Classes are taught in German. Reutlingen is tw
Thurn und Taxis
The Princely House of Thurn and Taxis is a family of German nobility, part of the Briefadel. It was a key player in the postal services in Europe during the 16th century, until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, became well known as the owner of breweries and builder of many castles; the current head of the house is 12th Prince of Thurn and Taxis. The family is one of the wealthiest in Germany and has resided at St. Emmeram Castle in Regensburg since 1748; the Tasso family was a Lombard family in the area of Bergamo. The earliest records place them in Almenno in the Val Brembana around 1200 before they fled to the more distant village of Cornello to escape feuding between Bergamo's Guelf Colleoni and the Ghibelline Suardi families. Around 1290, after Milan had conquered Bergamo, Omodeo Tasso organized 32 of his relatives into the Company of Couriers and linked Milan with Venice and Rome; the recipient of royal and papal patronage, his post riders were so comparatively efficient that they became known as bergamaschi throughout Italy.
Ruggiero de Tassis was named to the court of the emperor Frederick the Peaceful in 1443. He organized a post system between Bergamo and Vienna by 1450. Upon his success, Ruggiero was made a gentleman of the Chamber. Jannetto de Tassis was appointed Chief Master of Postal Services at Innsbruck in 1489. Philip of Burgundy elevated Janetto's brother Francisco de Tassis to captain of his post in 1502. Owing to a payment dispute with Philip, Francisco opened his post to public use in 1506. By 1516, Francisco had moved the family to Brussels in the Duchy of Brabant, where they became instrumental to Habsburg rule, linking the rich Habsburg Netherlands to the Spanish court; the normal route passed through France, but a secondary route across the Alps to Genoa was available in times of hostility. The name Thurn und Taxis arose from the translation into German of the family's French title. Charles V named Giovanni Battista de Tassis as master of his post in 1520. In 1624, the family were elevated to grafen and they formally adopted the German form of their name in 1650.
They were named "princely" in 1695 at the behest of Emperor Leopold I. The family operated the Thurn-und-Taxis Post, successor to the Imperial Reichspost of the Holy Roman Empire, between 1806 and 1867, their postal service was lost over the centuries, with the Spanish network being bought by the crown in the 18th century and the German post being purchased by Prussia after the fall of the Free City of Frankfurt in 1866. The family seat was established in Regensburg and has remained at St. Emmeram Castle there since 1748. Rainer Maria Rilke wrote his Duino Elegies while visiting Princess Marie of Thurn and Taxis at her family's Duino Castle. Rilke dedicated his only novel to the princess, his patroness. Princess Marie's relation to Regensburg's Thurn and Taxis family is rather distant, however – she was married to Prince Alexander of Thurn and Taxis, a member of the family's Czech branch that in the early 19th century settled in Bohemia and became connected to Czech national culture and history.
Several members of the family have been Knights of Malta. Until 1919, the titles of the respective head of the princely house were Seine Durchlaucht der Fürst von Thurn und Taxis, Fürst zu Buchau und Fürst von Krotoszyn, Herzog zu Wörth und Donaustauf, gefürsteter Graf zu Friedberg-Scheer, Graf zu Valle-Sássina, auch zu Marchtal, Neresheim usw. Erbgeneralpostmeister; the current head of the house of Thurn and Taxis is HSH Albert II, 12th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, son of Johannes and his wife, Gloria. The family is one of the wealthiest in Germany; the family's brewery was sold to the Paulaner Group of Munich in 1996, but it still produces beer under the brand of Thurn und Taxis. The Thurn and Taxis family came to massive media attention during the late 1970s through mid-1980s when the late Prince Johannes married Countess Mariae Gloria of Schönburg-Glauchau, a member of an impoverished but mediatized noble family; the couple's wild, "jet set" lifestyle and Princess Gloria's over-the-top appearance earned her the nickname of "Princess TNT".
The mail monopoly of Thurn and Taxis is central to the plot of The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon. The board game Thurn and Taxis, by Karen Seyfarth, is inspired by the family; the protagonist of Walter Jon Williams's Elegy for Angels and Dogs is the head of the Thurn und Taxis family. Thurn und Taxis are mentioned in several volumes of the 163x series by Eric Flint and others, e.g. 1635: The Dreeson Incident and 1636: The Saxon Uprising. The credits for Season 3, Episode 4 of the television show The Good Place features a character named "The Baroness von Thurn und Taxis," played by Ilka Urbach. Brussels' Tour & Taxis Czech branch of the House of Thurn and Taxis Donaustauf Castle Dukes of Castel Duino, an Italian branch House of Thurn and Taxis line of succession Order of Parfaite Amitié Thurn-und-Taxis Post Notes SourcesWolfgang Behringer, Thurn und Taxis, Die Geschichte ihrer Post und ihrer Unternehmen, München, Zürich 1990 ISBN 3-492-03336-9 Mar