Marco Polo

Marco Polo was an Italian merchant and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo, a book that described to Europeans the mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world, including the wealth and great size of the Mongol Empire and China in the Yuan Dynasty, giving their first comprehensive look into China, India and other Asian cities and countries. Born in Venice, Marco learned the mercantile trade from his father and his uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time; the three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, exploring many places along the Silk Road until they reached Cathay. They were received by the royal court of Kublai Khan, impressed by Marco's intelligence and humility. Marco was appointed to serve as Khan's foreign emissary to India and Burma, he was sent on many diplomatic missions throughout the empire.

As part of this appointment, Marco traveled extensively inside China, living in the emperor's lands for 17 years and seeing many things, unknown to Europeans. Around 1291, the Polos offered to accompany the Mongol princess Kököchin to Persia. After leaving the princess, they travelled overland to Constantinople and to Venice, returning home after 24 years. At this time, Venice was at war with Genoa, he was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant and had three children. He was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice. Though he was not the first European to reach China, Marco Polo was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience; this book inspired many other travellers. There is substantial literature based on Polo's writings. Marco Polo was born around 1254 in capital of the Venetian Republic, his father, Niccolò Polo, had his household in Venice and left Marco's mother pregnant in order to travel to Asia with his brother Maffeo Polo. Their return to Italy in order to "go to Venice and visit their household" is described in the Travels of Marco Polo as follows: they departed from Acre and went to Negropont, from Negropont they continued their voyage to Venice.

On their arrival there, Messer Nicolas found that his wife was dead, that she had left behind her a son of fifteen years of age, whose name was Marco. His first known ancestor was a great uncle, Marco Polo from Venice, who lent some money and commanded a ship in Costantinople. Andrea, Marco's grandfather, lived in Venice in "contrada San Felice", he had three sons: Marco "the older", Matteo e Niccolò; some old Venetian historical sources considered Polo's ancestors to be of far Dalmatian origin. Marco Polo is most mentioned in the archives of the Republic of Venice as Marco Paulo de confinio Sancti Iohannis Grisostomi, which means Marco Polo of the contrada of St John Chrysostom Church. However, he was nicknamed Milione during his lifetime. In fact, the Italian title of his book was Il libro di Marco Polo detto il Milione, which means "The Book of Marco Polo, nicknamed'Milione'". According to the 15th-century humanist Giovan Battista Ramusio, his fellow citizens awarded him this nickname when he came back to Venice, because he kept on saying that Kublai Khan's wealth was counting in millions.

More he was nicknamed Messer Marco Milioni. However, since his father Niccolò was nicknamed Milione, 19th-century philologist Luigi Foscolo Benedetto was persuaded that Milione was a shortened version of Emilione, that this nickname was used to distinguish Niccolò's and Marco's branch from other Polo families. In 1168, his great-uncle, Marco Polo, commanded a ship in Constantinople, his grandfather, Andrea Polo of the parish of San Felice, had three sons, yet another Marco, the traveller's father Niccolò. This genealogy, described by Ramusio, is not universally accepted as there is no additional evidence to support it, his father, Niccolò Polo, a merchant, traded with the Near East, becoming wealthy and achieving great prestige. Niccolò and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage before Marco's birth. In 1260, Niccolò and Maffeo, while residing in Constantinople the capital of the Latin Empire, foresaw a political change. According to The Travels of Marco Polo, they passed through much of Asia, met with Kublai Khan, a Mongol ruler and founder of the Yuan dynasty.

Their decision to leave Constantinople proved timely. In 1261 Michael VIII Palaiologos, the ruler of the Empire of Nicaea, took Constantinople, promptly burned the Venetian quarter and re-established the Eastern Roman Empire. Captured Venetian citizens were blinded, while many of those who managed to escape perished aboard overloaded refugee ships fleeing to other Venetian colonies in the Aegean Sea. Nothing is known about the childhood of Marco Polo until he was fifteen years old, excepting that he spent part of his childhood in Venice. Meanwhile, Marco Polo's mother died, an aunt and uncle raised him, he received a good education, learning mercantile subjects including foreign currency and the handling of cargo ships. His father married Floradis

1982 California Angels season

The California Angels 1982 season involved the Angels finishing 1st in the American League West with a record of 93 wins and 69 losses. December 6, 1981: Bob Boone was purchased by the Angels from the Philadelphia Phillies. December 7, 1981: José Moreno was selected by the Angels from the San Diego Padres in the rule 5 draft. December 8, 1981: Dave Smith was selected by the Angels from the New York Mets in the minor league draft. December 11, 1981: Brian Harper was traded by the Angels to the Pittsburgh Pirates for Tim Foli. January 22, 1982: Reggie Jackson was signed as a free agent by the California Angels. January 28, 1982: Dan Ford was traded by the California Angels to the Baltimore Orioles for Doug DeCinces and Jeff Schneider. April 27, 1982: Reggie Jackson returned to Yankee Stadium with the Angels, he broke out of a terrible season-starting slump to hit a home run off former teammate Ron Guidry. The at-bat began with Yankee fans, angry at owner George Steinbrenner for letting Jackson get away, starting the "Reg-GIE!" chant, ended it with the fans chanting "Steinbrenner sucks!"

By the time of Jackson's election to the Hall of Fame, Steinbrenner had begun to say that letting him go was the biggest mistake he has made as Yankee owner. April 11, 1982: Ron Jackson was signed as a Free Agent with the California Angels. May 12, 1982: Tom Brunansky, Mike Walters, $400,000 were traded by the Angels to the Minnesota Twins for Doug Corbett and Rob Wilfong. August 2, 1982: Luis Tiant was purchased by the Angels from Tabasco of the Mexican League. August 31, 1982: The Angels traded a player to be named to the New York Yankees for Tommy John; the Angels completed the trade by sending Dennis Rasmussen to the Yankees on November 24. Note: Pos = Position. = Batting average. The Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball. Durham, North Carolina: Baseball America. ISBN 978-0-9637189-8-3. 1982 California Angels at Baseball Reference 1982 California Angels at Baseball Almanac

List of mammals of Cape Verde

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Cape Verde. There are thirteen mammal species in Cape Verde, of which one is endangered and two are vulnerable; the following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature: Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of near threatened and least concern categories: The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals. Family: Vespertilionidae Subfamily: Vespertilioninae Genus: Hypsugo Savi's pipistrelle, Hypsugo savii LR/lc Genus: Pipistrellus Kuhl's pipistrelle, Pipistrellus kuhlii LC Genus: Plecotus Grey long-eared bat, Plecotus austriacus LR/lc The order Cetacea includes whales and porpoises, they are the mammals most adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

Suborder: Mysticeti Family: Balaenopteridae Subfamily: Balaenopterinae Genus: Balaenoptera Common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata VU Sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis EN Bryde's whale, Balaenoptera brydei EN Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus EN Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus EN Subfamily: Megapterinae Genus: Megaptera Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae VU Suborder: Odontoceti Superfamily: Platanistoidea Family: Phocoenidae Genus: Phocoena Harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena VU Family: Physeteridae Genus: Physeter Sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus VU Family: Kogiidae Genus: Kogia Pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps DD Dwarf sperm whale, Kogia sima DD Family: Ziphidae Genus: Mesoplodon Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris DD Gervais' beaked whale, Mesoplodon europaeus DD Genus: Ziphius Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris DD Family: Delphinidae Genus: Orcinus Killer whale, Orcinus orca DD Genus: Feresa Pygmy killer whale, Feresa attenuata DD Genus: Pseudorca False killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens DD Genus: Delphinus Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis LR/cd Genus: Lagenodelphis Fraser's dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei DD Genus: Stenella Pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata LR/cd Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene DD Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba DD Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis DD Spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris LR/cd Genus: Steno Rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis DD Genus: Tursiops Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus LC Genus: Globicephala Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus DD Genus: Grampus Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus DD Genus: Peponocephala Melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra DD There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which eat meat as their primary dietary item.

They have dentition. Suborder: Feliformia Family: Herpestidae Genus: Galerella Slender mongoose, Galerella sanguinea LR/lc Wildlife of Cape Verde List of chordate orders Lists of mammals by region List of prehistoric mammals Mammal classification List of mammals described in the 2000s "Mammal Species of the World". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2007. "Animal Diversity Web". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 1995–2006. Retrieved 22 May 2007