Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft. Some nations require a specific amount of military service from every citizen, except for special cases, such as physical or mental disorders or religious belief. Most countries that use conscription systems only conscript men. For example, Sweden, North Korea, Eritrea, Malaysia and Peru conscript both men and women. However, only Norway and Sweden have a gender-neutral conscription system, where men and women are conscripted and serve on equal formal terms; some nations with conscription systems do not enforce them. Nations which conscript for military service also rely on citizens choosing to join the armed forces as a career; some nations with armed forces do not conscript their personnel. Instead, they promote military careers to select recruits; some of these nations reserve the right in law to conscript personnel in the future. Some smaller, nations have no armed forces at all, or rely on an armed domestic security force.
In this summary, 195 countries are included. The following 109 countries and territories have been identified as having no enforced conscription: The following ten countries and colonies have been identified as having both compulsory and voluntary military service: The following eleven countries have been identified as having selective conscription: The following fifteen countries have been identified as having a civilian, unarmed or non-combatant service optional alternative to compulsory military service: The following twenty countries have been identified as having compulsory military service limited to 1 year or less: The following 12 countries have been identified to having compulsory military service limited to 18 months or less: The following 27 countries have been identified as having compulsory military service terms longer than 18 months: As of 2019, four countries have been identified as intending to abolish conscription in the near future: Ukraine Kazakhstan Georgia Moldova Cape Verde Chad Eritrea Israel Morocco Norway North Korea China Sweden The following nineteen countries have been identified as having no defense forces or as having no standing army but having limited military forces: * Countries having no standing army, but having limited military forces.
Compulsory military service has declined since 1970. A 2016 study finds "that the probability of a shorter military service time is positively associated with smaller country populations, smaller lagged army sizes, increases in primary schooling among young males, having common law legal origins." Albania had compulsory military service. Albania's armed forces announced an objective to create a professional army by the end of 2010. Argentina suspended military conscription in 1995 and replaced it with a voluntary military service, yet those in service had to finish their time in service; this came as a result of political and social distrust of the military, dwindling budgets which forced the military to induct fewer conscripts every year, the experience of the 1982 Falklands War which proved the superiority of professional servicemen over conscripts and a series of conscription-related brutality scandals which came to a head with the murder of Private Omar Carrasco at an Army base in 1994, following a brutal disciplinary action.
It should be noted. Conscription was known in Argentina as la colimba; the word colimba is a composite word made from the initial syllables of the verbs correr and barrer, as it was perceived that all a conscript did during service was running and sweeping. Conscripts themselves were known and referred to as "colimbas". Voluntary service in the Boer War was from a number of the separate colonies before federation in 1901 and volunteers were deployed as an Australian force. Two conscription referendums were defeated during World War 1. Military service during WW1 was voluntary as was service in WW2. Volunteer militia units were to be used only within the Commonwealth of Australia but in 1942 some militia units were deployed to Papua New Guinea, as it was considered part of Australia at that time, to fight the advancing and withdrawing Japanese invasion army. Various levels of conscription were in force during the 1950s but only for service in Australia during times of conflicts but the saw NS deployed to war with over 500 KIA and thousands WIA with about half of the casualties being NS.
The Vietnam War was lost on 1 May 1975 over three years after the ADF withdrew in late 1971. All forms of conscription were abolished by the Whitlam Government in 1972. Barbados has no conscription; the country has set the minimum age for voluntary recruitment into the Barbados Defence Force at 18. Younger recruits may be conscripted with parental consent. Belgium suspended conscription on 31 December 1992 by amending the 1962 L
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Boys on the Outside
Boys on the Outside is a 1990 Italian drama film directed by Marco Risi in the neo-neorealistic style and written by Aurelio Grimaldi. Released in 1990, it is the sequel to the 1989 film Forever Mery, it stars Alessandro Di Sanzo and Salvatore Termini. Boys on the Outside is the sequel of the 1989 drama film Forever Mery, features most of the same characters; the film is set in ZEN, a bleak, economically deprived quarter on the northern outskirts of Palermo, Sicily, at the end of the 1980s. Its protagonist is Natale Sperandeo, a young man who has just been released from Malaspina, a juvenile detention centre. Unable to find legitimate work, he takes up with his former gang, consisting of unemployed youths like himself, perpetrates an armed robbery; the film traces the divergent paths taken by his former inmates at Rosaspina, such as Mario "Mery" Libassi, the 17-year-old transvestite, who resumes his previous sordid career as a male prostitute while awaiting trial for the assault on a client. Boys on the Outside depicts the social problems faced by Natale and his companions, such as crime, unemployment, teenage pregnancy, police harassment, which were indelible features of life in the poorer districts of Palermo and other Sicilian cities during that time period.
It is a drama with realistic scenes of sex, police brutality, rape. It ends with the discovery of the body of a young man, burnt beyond recognition, on a refuse tip, it is presumed to be that of Claudio. The Italian language is spoken throughout the film mixed with the Palermo dialect of the Sicilian language. Francesco Benigno - Natale Sperandeo Alessandra Di Sanzo - Mario Libassi Roberto Mariano - Antonio Patanè Maurizio Prollo - Claudio Catalano Alfredo Li Bassi - Carmelo Vella Salvatore Termini - Giovanni Trapani Filippo Genzardi - Matteo Mondello Vincenza Attardo - Carlo Berretta - Salvo Giuseppe Pirico - Marcello Giuseppe Lucania - Santino Alessandro Calamia - Tommaso Tano Cimarosa - Site manager Guia Jelo - Prostitute Tony Sperandeo - Warder Turris Francesco Benigno won two awards, the Ciak d'Oro at the Venice Film Festival, Premio Piper, for Best Actor in his portrayal of Natale Sperandeo. In 1991, Marco Risi won the David di Donatello Award for Best Director, Claudio Bonivento won for Best Producer.
Franco Fraticelli was nominated for Best Editing. List of Italian films of 1990 Boys on the Outside on IMDb
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Fort Apache Napoli
Fort Apache Napoli is a 2009 film directed by Marco Risi about the brief life and death of journalist Giancarlo Siani, played by Libero De Rienzo. The film tells the story of Giancarlo Siani, a young Neapolitan journalist who works in the editorial room of Il Mattino in Torre Annunziata, he works. While writing about crimes and murders by the Camorra, Siani begins to investigate the Camorra's alliances with the politicians of Torre Annunziata, to discover large areas of corruption and collusion between politicians and organized crime. Despite the somewhat veiled threats of the local political class, Siani continues his inquiries after the "massacre of the circle of fishermen", his articles annoy the local Camorra bosses because they undermine their political and criminal alliances. So, after he was transferred to Naples by his paper, the Camorra meet, decide to kill, Siani. Siani is shot outside his girlfriend's house, in the residential district of Vomero, on 23 September 1985. Siani was only 26.
Libero De Rienzo as Giancarlo Siani Valentina Lodovini as Daniela Michele Riondino as Rico Massimiliano Gallo as Valentino Gionta Ernesto Mahieux as Sasà Salvatore Cantalupo as Ferrara Ennio Fantastichini as sindaco Cassano Duccio Camerini as Angelo Nuvoletta Renato Carpentieri as Amato Lamberti Gianfelice Imparato as pretore Rosone Daniele Pecci as capitano Sensales Gianfranco Gallo as Donnarumma Antonio Buonomo as Lorenzo Nuvoletta Raffaele Vassallo as Ciro Kiung Mi Lee as Yu Mimmo Mignemi as Cifù Paco De Rosa as killer Siani 3 Ciak d'oro: Best Cinematography, Best Score and Best Poster 1 Globo d'Oro: Best Director The soundtrack includes the following tracks: Ogni Volta - Vasco Rossi La torre di Babele - Edoardo Bennato Tu ca nun chiagne - Ciro Capano Pe' sempre - Ciro Capano O bene mio - Ciro Capano Napule e - Pino Daniele Jesce sole - R. De Simone Centro di gravità permanente - Franco Battiato Pop corn e patatine - Nino D'Angelo Casanova'70 - performed by Antonio Buonomo Dicitencello vuje - performed by Mario Abbate O ritratto'e Nanninella - performed by Antonio Buonomo Nocturne from String Quartet No. 2 in D Major by A. Borodin - performed by the Pessoa Quartet Quanno chiove - Pino Daniele River runs deep - JJ Cale Scumbinata - Mammoliti, Mambelli, Di Carlo, Poggiani Noi ragazzi di oggi - performed by Luis Miguel The film grossed € 703,000.
Fort Apache Napoli on IMDb
Dino Risi was an Italian film director. With Mario Monicelli, Luigi Comencini, Nanni Loy and Ettore Scola, he was one of the masters of Commedia all'italiana, he was born in Milan. Risi had two brothers, an older brother, Fernando, a cinematographer and a younger brother, Nelo a director and writer. At the age of twelve, Risi became an orphan and was looked after by relatives and friends of his family, he studied medicine and became a psychiatrist. Risi started his career in cinema as an assistant director to cinema figures such as Mario Soldati and Alberto Lattuada, he began directing his own films and was credited with giving early opportunities to future acting stars such as Sophia Loren and Vittorio Gassman. His 1966 film Treasure of San Gennaro was entered into the 5th Moscow International Film Festival where it won a Silver Prize, his biggest hits were Poor, But Handsome, followed by two sequels, which he directed. In 2002, he was awarded the Golden Lion – Honorary Award at the Venice Film Festival for his life-time work.
Two of his films, Il giovedì and Il commissario Lo Gatto, were shown in a retrospective section on Italian comedy at the 67th Venice International Film Festival. He died on 7 June 2008 at his residence in Rome, he was 90 and is survived by two children and Marco. Dino Risi on IMDb BBC obituary