John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle
John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, KG, PC was an English peer. He was born in Edwinstowe, the son of the 3rd Earl of Clare and his wife Grace Pierrepont. Grace was daughter of The Hon. William Pierrepont and granddaughter of the 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull. Holles was elected MP for Nottinghamshire as Lord Houghton on 14 January 1689, but was called to the House of Lords two days when his father died and he became the 4th Earl of Clare, he was created the 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, of the 2nd creation, in 1694. The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne is a title, created three times in British history; the first creation had become extinct when Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne died with out a male heir. On 1 March 1690, he married a daughter of Henry Cavendish, they had one child, Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles, who married the 2nd Earl of Oxford and Mortimer and was mother to Margaret Bentinck, Duchess of Portland. In 1710 he purchased the Manor of Marylebone; the Marylebone lands passed to his son-in-law Harley.
A rivalry was formed between John and his sister, when she married Christopher Vane, 1st Baron Barnard. Correspondence and estate records of John Holles, including letters to his wife, are held at the department of Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham, principally in the Holles Papers, part of the Portland Collection; the duke died in 1711 from injuries received in a fall from his horse while hunting near Welbeck. He left his Cavendish estates to his son-in-law, Edward Harley and the remainder of his property to his nephew Thomas Pelham, subsequently 1st Duke of Newcastle and prime minister; the Hon. John Holles Lord Haughton Lord Haughton, MP The Rt. Hon; the Earl of Clare His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, KG His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, KG, PC Biography of John Holles, Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with links to online catalogues, on the website of Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds; the science of ornithology has a long history and studies on birds have helped develop several key concepts in evolution and ecology such as the definition of species, the process of speciation, learning, ecological niches, island biogeography and conservation. While early ornithology was principally concerned with descriptions and distributions of species, ornithologists today seek answers to specific questions using birds as models to test hypotheses or predictions based on theories. Most modern biological theories apply across taxonomic groups, the number of professional scientists who identify themselves as "ornithologists" has therefore declined. A wide range of tools and techniques is used in ornithology, both inside the laboratory and out in the field, innovations are made; the word "ornithology" comes from the late 16th-century Latin ornithologia meaning "bird science" from the Greek ὄρνις ornis and λόγος logos.
The history of ornithology reflects the trends in the history of biology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, including ecology, physiology and more molecular biology. Trends include the move from mere descriptions to the identification of patterns, thus towards elucidating the processes that produce these patterns. Humans have had an observational relationship with birds since prehistory, with some stone-age drawings being amongst the oldest indications of an interest in birds. Birds were important as food sources, bones of as many as 80 species have been found in excavations of early Stone Age settlements. Waterbird and seabird remains have been found in shell mounds on the island of Oronsay off the coast of Scotland. Cultures around the world have rich vocabularies related to birds. Traditional bird names are based on detailed knowledge of the behaviour, with many names being onomatopoeic, still in use. Traditional knowledge may involve the use of birds in folk medicine and knowledge of these practices are passed on through oral traditions.
Hunting of wild birds as well as their domestication would have required considerable knowledge of their habits. Poultry farming and falconry were practised from early times in many parts of the world. Artificial incubation of poultry was practised in China around 246 BC and around at least 400 BC in Egypt; the Egyptians made use of birds in their hieroglyphic scripts, many of which, though stylized, are still identifiable to species. Early written records provide valuable information on the past distributions of species. For instance, Xenophon records the abundance of the ostrich in Assyria. Other old writings such as the Vedas demonstrate the careful observation of avian life histories and include the earliest reference to the habit of brood parasitism by the Asian koel. Like writing, the early art of China, Japan and India demonstrate knowledge, with examples of scientifically accurate bird illustrations. Aristotle in 350 BC in his Historia Animalium noted the habit of bird migration, egg laying, lifespans, as well as compiling a list of 170 different bird species.
However, he introduced and propagated several myths, such as the idea that swallows hibernated in winter, although he noted that cranes migrated from the steppes of Scythia to the marshes at the headwaters of the Nile. The idea of swallow hibernation became so well established that as late as in 1878, Elliott Coues could list as many as 182 contemporary publications dealing with the hibernation of swallows and little published evidence to contradict the theory. Similar misconceptions existed regarding the breeding of barnacle geese, their nests had not been seen, they were believed to grow by transformations of goose barnacles, an idea that became prevalent from around the 11th century and noted by Bishop Giraldus Cambrensis in Topographia Hiberniae. Around 77 AD, Pliny the Elder described birds, in his Historia Naturalis; the earliest record of falconry comes from the reign of Sargon II in Assyria. Falconry is thought to have made its entry to Europe only after AD 400, brought in from the east after invasions by the Huns and Alans.
Starting from the eighth century, numerous Arabic works on the subject and general ornithology were written, as well as translations of the works of ancient writers from Greek and Syriac. In the 12th and 13th centuries and conquest had subjugated Islamic territories in southern Italy, central Spain, the Levant under European rule, for the first time translations into Latin of the great works of Arabic and Greek scholars were made with the help of Jewish and Muslim scholars in Toledo, which had fallen into Christian hands in 1085 and whose libraries had escaped destruction. Michael Scotus from Scotland made a Latin translation of Aristotle's work on animals from Arabic here around 1215, disseminated and was the first time in a millennium that this foundational text on zoology became available to Europeans. Falconry was popular in the Norman court in Sicily, a number of works on the subject were written in Palermo. Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen learned about an falconry during his youth in Sicily and built up a menagerie and sponsored translations of Arabic texts, among which the popular Arab
Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical, it was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, the social sciences, the natural sciences, it had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism and nationalism. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension and terror, awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature.
It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but spontaneity as a desirable characteristic. In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, industrialism. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society, it promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.
The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. The nature of Romanticism may be approached from the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist; the importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is his law". To William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet "recollect in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion the poet can mold into art. To express these feelings, it was considered the content of art had to come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should consist of. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone.
As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist, able to produce his own original work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, to be derivative was the worst sin; this idea is called "romantic originality". Translator and prominent Romantic August Wilhelm Schlegel argued in his Lectures on Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most phenomenal power of human nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite directions. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature; this in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. In contrast to the very social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves". According to Isaiah Berlin, Romanticism embodied "a new and restless spirit, seeking violently to burst through old and cramping forms, a nervous preoccupation with perpetually changing inner states of consciousness, a longing for the unbounded and the indefinable, for perpetual movement and change, an effort to return to the forgotten sources of life, a passionate effort at self-assertion both individual and collective, a search after means of expressing an unappeasable yearning for unattainable goals"; the group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation.
The application of the term to literature first became common in Germany, where the circle around the Schlegel brothers, critics August and Friedrich, began to speak of romantische Poesie in the 1790s, contrasting it with "classic" but in terms of spirit rather than dating. Friedrich Schlegel wrote in his Dialogue on Poetry, "I seek and find the romantic among th
Welbeck Abbey in the Dukeries in North Nottinghamshire was the site of a monastery belonging to the Premonstratensian order in England and after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, a country house residence of the Dukes of Portland. It is one of four contiguous ducal estates in North Nottinghamshire and the house is a grade I listed building; the estate was mentioned in the Domesday Book, where it is recorded as belonging to Hugh FitzBaldric. Thomas de Cuckney founded the religious house in 1140, it was an abbey of Premonstratensian canons, dedicated to St James the Great. The abbey was enriched by gifts from the Goushills, D’Eyncourts and other families from Nottinghamshire and it received a considerable grant from King Edward I. In 1393 the abbey came under serious investigation by King Richard II. Pardon to William Broun of Norton by Welbeck of suit of the King’s peace for felonies and other offences under the following circumstances: Robert Veel, keeper of the rolls of the King’s Bench, John Wynchecombe, appointed by the king to take carts for the carriage of the rolls, being directed on Saturday before the feast of St Katherine last by Walter Clopton, Chief Justice, other justices to carry the said rolls from York to Nottingham, where upon by reason of excessive rainfall affecting the roads, they could not without additional horses reach Nottingham, where upon by virtue of their commission and the justices order they took at Norton aforesaid two horses of John Levet and John Turnour of Norton, to be paid for in due course.
There upon the said William Broun, John Northeryn, Robert Bocher, all of Norton, Hugh Matt, servant of John Baukwell, Abbot of Welbeck, with divers other evil doers came armed with bows and arrows and swords, at dusk of the same day raised all the men of Norton to insurrection, pursued the said Robert and John to Warsop and instigated by Simon de Castleton, canon of Welbeck, John Worsop, vicar of Cuckney and canon of Welbeck, assaulted them, shot at and pierced the books in the carriage and took the horses, would have carried the same away but that by the grace of God and their help they made too good a defence. With so much wealth at his disposal, the Abbot of Welbeck was an influential man, in 1512 all the houses of the order in England were placed under his care. In 1538, the abbot, Richard Bentley was awarded a pension of £50, the 17 canons received pensions of between £40 and £4 a year. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the site was granted by King Henry VIII to Richard Whalley, of Screveton.
After being owned by a City of London clothier, the abbey was purchased by Gilbert, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury for the sum of £555 6s 6d in 1599, sold to Sir Charles Cavendish, son of Bess of Hardwick in 1607. It passed to his son William Cavendish first Duke of Newcastle. Members of the Cavendish family converted it into a country house and added a riding house in the 17th century to the design of Robert Smythson and his son John. Only basements and inner walls were retained from the original fabric of the old abbey buildings. In the 18th century, it passed through an heiress into the Bentinck family and became the seat of the Earls and Dukes of Portland. One of the oldest parts of the building, the Oxford Wing, burned down in October 1900; the wing was rebuilt, to the designs of Ernest George, by 1905. Archduke Franz Ferdinand accepted an invitation from the 6th Duke of Portland to stay at Welbeck Abbey and arrived with his wife, Sophie von Hohenberg, by train at Worksop on 22 November 1913 ten months before his assassination, which triggered World War I.
The Archduke narrowly avoided being killed in a hunting accident during his stay when a loader fell and caused a shotgun to go off within feet of the Archduke and his host. Over the course of the War between 1914 and 1919 the kitchen block was used as an army hospital. After World War II Welbeck was let by the Dukes to the Ministry of Defence and was operated as Welbeck College, an army training college, until 2005. Author Bill Bryson describes his visit to the Abbey while it was occupied by the Ministry of Defence in his book Notes from a Small Island. Lady Anne, the unmarried elder daughter of the 7th Duke, lived at Welbeck Woodhouse, owned most of the 17,000-acre estate until her death in late 2008 when William Henry Marcello Parente inherited, son of her younger sister, Lady Victoria and her husband Gaetano Parente, Prince of Castel Viscardo. Since the Ministry of Defence moved out in 2005, Welbeck Abbey has been his home; the family-controlled Welbeck Estates Company and the charitable Harley Foundation have converted some estate buildings to new uses, there is access to them from the A60 road on the western side of the estate.
They include the Dukeries Garden Centre in the estate glasshouses, the School of Artisan Food in the former Fire Stables, the Harley Gallery and Foundation and the Welbeck Farm shop in the former estate gasworks, a range of craft workshops, designed by John Outram in a former kitchen garden. Pedestrian access across the Welbeck estate is confined to footpaths forming part of the Robin Hood Way; the first No Direction Home Festival was held at Welbeck Abbey over the weekend of 8 to 10 June 2012. The End of the Road affiliated festival was headlined by Richard Hawley, The Low Anthem and Andrew Bird. In 2016 it was used as the location for the BBC's baking series Bake Off: Crème de la Crème; the 5th Duke of Portland undertook the most substantial building works at Welbeck. The kitchen gardens covered 22 acres and were surrounded by high walls with recesses in wh
Jonathan Swift was an Anglo-Irish satirist, political pamphleteer and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Swift is remembered for works such as A Tale of a Tub, An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity, Gulliver's Travels, A Modest Proposal, he is regarded by the Encyclopædia Britannica as the foremost prose satirist in the English language, is less well known for his poetry. He published all of his works under pseudonyms – such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, M. B. Drapier – or anonymously, he was a master of two styles of the Horatian and Juvenalian styles. His deadpan, ironic writing style in A Modest Proposal, has led to such satire being subsequently termed "Swiftian". Jonathan Swift was born on 30 November 1667 in Ireland, he was the second child and only son of Jonathan Swift and his wife Abigail Erick of Frisby on the Wreake. His father was a native of Goodrich, but he accompanied his brothers to Ireland to seek their fortunes in law after their Royalist father's estate was brought to ruin during the English Civil War.
His maternal grandfather, James Ericke, was the vicar of England. In 1634 the vicar was convicted of Puritan practices; some time thereafter and his family, including his young daughter Abilgail, fled to Ireland. Swift's father joined Godwin, in the practice of law in Ireland, he died in Dublin. He died of syphilis. At the age of one, child Jonathan was taken by his wet nurse to her hometown of Whitehaven, England, he said. His nurse returned him still in Ireland, when he was three, his mother returned to England after his birth, leaving him in the care of his Uncle Godwin, a close friend and confidant of Sir John Temple whose son employed Swift as his secretary. Swift's family had several interesting literary connections, his grandmother Elizabeth Swift was the niece of Sir Erasmus Dryden, grandfather of poet John Dryden. The same grandmother's aunt Katherine Dryden was a first cousin of Elizabeth, wife of Sir Walter Raleigh, his great-great grandmother Margaret Swift was the sister of Francis Godwin, author of The Man in the Moone which influenced parts of Swift's Gulliver's Travels.
His uncle Thomas Swift married a daughter of poet and playwright Sir William Davenant, a godson of William Shakespeare. Swift's benefactor and uncle Godwin Swift took primary responsibility for the young man, sending him with one of his cousins to Kilkenny College, he arrived there at the age of six, where he was expected to have learned the basic declensions in Latin. He had so started at a lower form. Swift graduated in 1682, when he was 15, he attended Dublin University in 1682, financed by Godwin's son Willoughby. The four-year course followed a curriculum set in the Middle Ages for the priesthood; the lectures were dominated by Aristotelian philosophy. The basic skill taught the students was debate and they were expected to be able to argue both sides of any argument or topic. Swift was an above-average student but not exceptional, received his B. A. in 1686 "by special grace."Swift was studying for his master's degree when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the Glorious Revolution forced him to leave for England in 1688, where his mother helped him get a position as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple at Moor Park, Farnham.
Temple was an English diplomat who arranged the Triple Alliance of 1668. He had retired from public service to his country estate to write his memoirs. Gaining his employer's confidence, Swift "was trusted with matters of great importance". Within three years of their acquaintance, Temple had introduced his secretary to William III and sent him to London to urge the King to consent to a bill for triennial Parliaments. Swift took up his residence at Moor Park where he met Esther Johnson eight years old, the daughter of an impoverished widow who acted as companion to Temple's sister Lady Giffard. Swift was her tutor and mentor, giving her the nickname "Stella", the two maintained a close but ambiguous relationship for the rest of Esther's life. In 1690, Swift left Temple for Ireland because of his health but returned to Moor Park the following year; the illness consisted of fits of vertigo or giddiness, now known to be Ménière's disease, it continued to plague him throughout his life. During this second stay with Temple, Swift received his M.
A. from Hart Hall, Oxford, in 1692. He left Moor Park despairing of gaining a better position through Temple's patronage, to become an ordained priest in the Established Church of Ireland, he was appointed to the prebend of Kilroot in the Diocese of Connor in 1694, with his parish located at Kilroot, near Carrickfergus in County Antrim. Swift appears to have been miserable in his new position, being isolated in a small, remote community far from the centres of power and influence. While at Kilroot, however, he may well have become romantically involved with Jane Waring, whom he called "Varina", the sister of an old college friend. A letter from him survives, offering to remain if she would marry him and promising to leave and never return to Ireland if she refused, she refused, because Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple's service at Moor Park in 1696, he remained there until Temple's death. There he was employ
Matthew Prior was an English poet and diplomat. He is known as a contributor to The Examiner. Prior was born in Middlesex, he was the son of a Nonconformist joiner at East Dorset. His father moved to London, sent him to Westminster School, under Dr. Busby. On his father's death, he left school, was cared for by his uncle, a vintner in Channel Row. Here Lord Dorset found him reading Horace, set him to translate an ode, he did so well that the Earl offered to contribute to the continuation of his education at Westminster. One of his schoolfellows and friends was 1st Earl of Halifax, it was to avoid being separated from Montagu and his brother James that Prior accepted, against his patron's wish, a scholarship founded at St John's College, Cambridge. He took his B. A. degree in 1686, two years became a fellow. In collaboration with Montagu he wrote in 1687 the City Mouse and Country Mouse, in ridicule of John Dryden's The Hind and the Panther, it was an age when satirists could be sure of promotion. Montagu was promoted at once, Prior, three years became secretary to the embassy at the Hague.
After four years of this, he was appointed a gentleman of the King's bedchamber. He acted as one of the King's secretaries, in 1697 he was secretary to the plenipotentiaries who concluded the Peace of Ryswick. Prior's talent for affairs was doubted by Pope, who had no special means of judging, but it is not that King William would have employed in this important business a man who had not given proof of diplomatic skill and grasp of details; the poet's knowledge of French is specially mentioned among his qualifications, this was recognized by his being sent in the following year to Paris in attendance on the English ambassador. At this period Prior could say with good reason that "he had business enough upon his hands, was only a poet by accident." To verse, which had laid the foundation of his fortunes, he still trusted as a means of maintaining his position. His occasional poems during this period include an elegy on Queen Mary in 1695. After his return from France Prior became under-secretary of state and succeeded John Locke as a commissioner of trade.
In 1701 he sat in Parliament for East Grinstead. He had been in William's confidence with regard to the Partition Treaty. In consequence of this for nine years there is no mention of his name in connection with any public transaction, but when the Tories came into power in 1710 Prior's diplomatic abilities were again called into action, until the death of Anne he held a prominent place in all negotiations with the French court, sometimes as secret agent, sometimes in an equivocal position as ambassador's companion, sometimes as accredited but unpunctually paid ambassador. His share in negotiating the Treaty of Utrecht, of which he is said to have disapproved led to its popular nickname of "Matt's Peace." Prior is known as a contributor to The Examiner newspaper. When the Queen died and the Whigs regained power, he was impeached by Robert Walpole and kept in close custody for two years. In 1709, he had published a collection of verse. During this imprisonment, maintaining his cheerful philosophy, he wrote his longest humorous poem, Alma.
This, along with his most ambitious work and other Poems on several Occasions, was published by subscription in 1718. The sum received for this volume, with a present of £4000 from Lord Harley, enabled him to live in comfort, he died at Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, a seat of the Earl of Oxford, was buried in Westminster Abbey, where his monument may be seen in Poets' Corner. A History of his Own Time was issued by J Bancks in 1740; the book pretended to be derived from Prior's papers, but it is doubtful how far it should be regarded as authentic. Prior's poems show a pleasant scholarship and great executive skill; the most ambitious, i.e. Solomon, the paraphrase of The Nut-Brown Maid, are the least successful, but Alma, an admitted imitation of Samuel Butler, is a delightful piece of wayward easy humour, full of witty turns and well-remembered allusions, Prior's mastery of the octo-syllabic couplet is greater than that of Jonathan Swift or Pope. His tales in rhyme, though objectionable in their themes, are excellent specimens of narrative skill.
The majority of his love songs are academic, mere wax-flowers of Parnassus. "Prior's"—says Thackeray, himself no mean proficient in this kind—"seem to me amongst the easiest, the richest, the most charmingly humorous of English lyrical poems. Horace is always in his mind, his song and his philosophy, his good sense, his happy easy turns and melody, his loves and his Epicureanism, bear a great resemblance to that most delightful and accomplished master." Wittenham Clumps in Oxfordshire is said to be where Prior wrote Henry and Emma, this is now commemorated by a plaque. Prior has been commemorated by other poets as well.
Canton of Geneva
The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on all sides by France. As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation; the canton of Geneva is located in the southwestern corner of Switzerland and is considered one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a great influence on the canton, which consists of the city and its hinterlands. Geneva was controlled by the Allobroges tribe until 121 BC, it was annexed to the Roman Empire in 121 BC and remained part of it until 443. In 443, Burgundians took over Geneva. In 532, the land controlled by Burgundians became part of the Frankish Empire. Geneva became a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy in 888. Geneva became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1032 and remained in it until the Peace of Westphalia; the Prince-Bishopric of Geneva was a Prince-Bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire from 1154, but from 1290, secular authority over the citizens was divided from the bishop's authority, at first only lower jurisdiction, the office of vidame given to François de Candie in 1314, but from 1387 the bishops granted the citizens of Geneva full communal self-government.
As from 1416, the Dukes of Savoy attempted to annex the city, both by claiming secular authority and by installing members of the Savoy dynasty as bishops, the city sought assistance in allying itself with the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Republic of Geneva was proclaimed in 1541, under John Calvin, given a constitution in 1543; the Republic of Geneva reinforced its alliance to the Protestant cantons of the Swiss Confederacy, becoming an "everlasting ally" in 1584. The French Revolution reached Geneva in 1792, in February 1794, the Republic gave itself a new, revolutionary constitution which proclaimed the equality of all citizens. After the death of Robespierre in July of the same year, there was a counter-revolution, which gained the upper hand by 1796. Robespierre's death prompted the French invasion of 1798, the annexation of Geneva which became the capital of the French département du Léman; the Napoleonic army left Geneva on December 30, 1813, on the next day the return of the Republic was proclaimed.
Geneva joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nd canton, having been enlarged by French and Savoyard territories at the Congress of Vienna. The area of the canton of Geneva is 282 square kilometers; the canton is surrounded on all sides by France and bordered by the Swiss canton of Vaud on the northeast. The adjoining French départements are Haute-Savoie; the current boundaries of the canton were established in 1815. There are 45 municipalities in the canton. Geneva does not have any administrative districts. There are 13 cities with a population of over 10,000 as of 2017: Genève, 200,548 residents Vernier, 35,132 residents Lancy, 31,942 residents Meyrin, 24,144 residents Carouge, 22,336 residents Onex, 18,977 residents Thônex, 14,091 residents Versoix, 13,329 residents Le Grand-Saconnex, 12,131 residents Chêne-Bougeries, 11,862 residents Veyrier, 11,540 residents Plan-les-Ouates, 10,697 residents Bernex, 10,007 residents The constitution of the canton was established in 1847 and has, since been amended several times.
The cantonal government has seven members. The legislature, the Grand Council, has 100 seats, with deputies elected for four years at a time; the last election was held on 7 October 2013. In a similar way to what happens at the Federal level, any change to the Constitution is subject to compulsory referendum. In addition, any law can be subject to a referendum if it is demanded by 7,000 persons entitled to vote, 10,000 persons may propose a new law; the Republique and Canton of Geneva has 11 seats in the National Council. On 18 October 2015, in the federal election the most popular party was The Liberals which received three seats with 20.5% of the votes. The next two most popular parties were the Social Democratic Party with 3 seats, followed by UDC/SVP with two seats, the Christian Democratic People's Party, Green Party, the Geneva Citizens' Movement each with one seat. In the federal election, a total of 106,852 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 42.9%. On 8/16 November 2015, in the federal election, Councilor Liliane Maury Pasquier, member of the Social Democratic Party, was re-elected in the second round as Conseillère des États of the canton of Geneva with a majority of 44,215 votes.
She is part of the Council of States since 2007. Councilor Robert Cramer, member of the Green Party, was re-elected in the second round with a majority of 42,075 votes, he is part of the Council of States since 2007. ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Part of the FDP for this election ^d Combined with the SD for this election The population of the canton is 495,249. As of 2013, the population included 194,623 foreigners from 187 different nations, or about 40.1% of the total population. The population of the canton, as of December