Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher known as the Iron Lady, was a British stateswoman who served as prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her "The Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style; as Prime Minister, she implemented policies known as Thatcherism. Thatcher studied chemistry at Somerville College and worked as a research chemist, before becoming a barrister, she was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Science in his 1970 -- 74 government. In 1975, she defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. On becoming Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election, she introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession.
Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation, flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Her popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her landslide re-election in 1983, she survived an assassination attempt by the Provisional IRA in the 1984 Brighton hotel bombing and achieved a political victory against the National Union of Mineworkers in the 1984–85 miners' strike. Thatcher was re-elected for a third term with another landslide in 1987, but her subsequent support for the Community Charge was unpopular, her Eurosceptic views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet, she resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords.
In 2013, she died of a stroke at the Ritz Hotel in London, at the age of 87. Although a controversial figure in British political culture, Thatcher is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers, her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in the United Kingdom and debate over the complicated legacy of Thatcherism persists into the 21st century. Margaret Hilda Roberts was born on 13 October 1925, in Lincolnshire, her parents were Alfred Roberts, from Northamptonshire, Beatrice Ethel, from Lincolnshire. She spent her childhood in Grantham, where her father owned a grocery shop. In 1938, prior to the Second World War, the Roberts family gave sanctuary to a teenage Jewish girl who had escaped Nazi Germany. Margaret, with her pen-friending elder sister Muriel, saved pocket money to help pay for the teenager's journey. Alfred Roberts was an alderman and a Methodist local preacher, brought up his daughter as a strict Wesleyan Methodist, attending the Finkin Street Methodist Church.
He stood as an Independent. He served as Mayor of Grantham in 1945–46 and lost his position as alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950. Margaret Roberts attended Huntingtower Road Primary School and won a scholarship to Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School, a grammar school, her school reports showed continual improvement. She was head girl in 1942–43. In her upper sixth year she applied for a scholarship to study chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford, a women's college, received a place after another candidate withdrew. Roberts arrived at Oxford in 1943 and graduated in 1947 with Second-Class Honours, in the four-year Chemistry Bachelor of Science degree, specialising in X-ray crystallography under the supervision of Dorothy Hodgkin, her dissertation was on the structure of the antibiotic gramicidin. Roberts did not only study chemistry as she only intended to be a chemist for a short period of time thinking about law and politics, she was prouder of becoming the first Prime Minister with a science degree than becoming the first woman, as Prime Minister attempted to preserve Somerville as a women's college.
During her time at Oxford, Roberts was noted for her isolated and serious attitude. Her first boyfriend, Tony Bray, recalled that she was "very thoughtful and a good conversationalist. That's what interested me, she was good at general subjects". Roberts's enthusiasm for politics as a girl made him think of her as "unusual". Bray met her parents and described them as "slightly austere" and "very proper". At the end of the term at Oxford, Bray became more distant and hoped for their relationship to "fizzle out", he recalled that he thought Roberts had taken the relationship more than he had done. When asked about Bray in life, Thatcher prevaricated but acknowledged the circumstances between herself
City marketing is the promotion of a city, or a district within it, with the aim of encouraging certain activities to take place there. It is used to alter the external perceptions of a city in order to encourage tourism, attract inward migration of residents, or enable business relocation. A significant feature of city marketing is the development of new landmark, or'flagship', buildings and structures; the development of cities as a marketable product has led to competition between them for inward investment and government funding. It is manifested in the attempts by cities to attract international sporting events, such as the Olympic Games. Competition between cities exists at the regional and international level; some places are associated with certain brands and build on each other, but sometimes the commercial brand is so powerful that eclipses the place brand. An example of this is Maranello, which uses the Ferrari headquarters as a primary attraction for tourists. City marketing can occur organically.
An example of strategic city marketing is Las Vegas. The city is promoted through a variety of efforts with the strategic intent of acquiring cultural and economic bonuses. A case of organic city marketing is Jerusalem; the city is marketed without a grand strategy, as disorganized stakeholders over the course of centuries have glorified the city and encouraged pilgrimage, yielding cultural and economic bonuses. Both cases demonstrate city marketing, each with varying organic involvement. Organic marketing occurs alongside strategic marketing, as the perception of the city is impossible to construct with strategic efforts. According to Scott Cutlip, "one of the first, if not the first, municipal promotion programs" was led by Erastus Brainerd for the city of Seattle beginning in 1896. Seattle was in competition with Portland and Victoria as the preferred city in which to get supplied for the Klondike Gold Rush. A Bureau of Public Information was established within the city’s Chamber of Commerce.
Like with any successful marketing effort, cities must be willing to commit to a long-term plan in order for their identity and message to be communicated effectively. A shared vision between stakeholders will help develop a cohesive overarching strategy for a city's image; the City Brand Index is released biannually and ranks the image of 50 cities on 6 components: presence, potential, pulse and prerequisites. In the 2015 report, Paris took the top spot, with London, New York and Los Angeles taking the 2nd–5th spots respectively
All Saints' Day known as All Hallows' Day, the Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints and unknown. In Western Christianity, it is celebrated on November the 1st by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Methodist Church, the Philippine Independent Church or the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, the Church of the Nazarene, the Lutheran Church, the Reformed Church, other Protestant churches, November 1 is the day before All Souls' Day; the Eastern Orthodox Church and associated Eastern Catholic Churches and Byzantine Lutheran Churches celebrate it on the first Sunday after Pentecost. Oriental Orthodox churches of Chaldea and associated Eastern Catholic churches celebrate All Saints' Day on the first Friday after Easter. In the Western Christian practice, the liturgical celebration begins at Vespers on the evening of 31 October, All Hallows' Eve, ends at the close of 1 November, it is thus the day before All Souls' Day.
In many traditions, All Saints' Day is part of the season of Allhallowtide, which includes the three days from 31 October to 2 November inclusive and in some denominations, such as Anglicanism, extends to Remembrance Sunday. In places where All Saints' Day is observed as a public holiday but All Souls' Day is not and grave rituals such as offerings of flowers and prayers or blessings for the graves of loved ones take place on All Saints Day. In Austria and Germany, godparents gift their godchildren Allerheiligenstriezel on All Saint's Day, while the practice of souling remains popular in Portugal, it is a national holiday in many Christian countries. The Christian celebration of All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day stems from a belief that there is a powerful spiritual bond between those in heaven, the living. In Catholic theology, the day commemorates all those who have attained the beatific vision in Heaven. In Methodist theology, All Saints Day revolves around "giving God solemn thanks for the lives and deaths of his saints", including those who are "famous or obscure".
As such, individuals throughout the Church Universal are honoured, such as Paul the Apostle, Augustine of Hippo and John Wesley, in addition to individuals who have led one to faith in Jesus, such as one's grandmother or friend. In some countries, All Saints' Day is a public holiday. People visit graves and conduct other All Souls' Day practices on All Saints Day instead. Countries where All Souls' Day traditions are observed on All Saints' Day in this fashion include Belgium and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Finland, Guatemala, Italy, Macedonia, the Philippians, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden; the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the Byzantine tradition, commemorates all saints collectively on the Sunday after Pentecost, All Saints' Sunday. A hymn by St. Ephraem from 359 mentions a commemoration of all the martyrs at Edessa on May 13. By 411 the East Syrians kept the Chaldean Calendar with a "Commemoratio Confessorum" celebrated on the Friday after Easter. Commemoration on the Friday after Easter.
The 74th homily of St. John Chrysostom from the late 4th or early 5th century marks the observance of a feast of all the martyrs on the first Sunday after Pentecost; some scholars place the location. The Byzantine Rite still celebrates the Feast of All Saints on the first Sunday after Pentecost; the Feast of All Saints achieved greater prominence in the 9th century, in the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI "the Wise". His wife, Empress Theophano – commemorated on 16 December – lived a devout life. After her death in 893, her husband built a church; when he was forbidden to do so, he decided to dedicate it to "All Saints", so that if his wife were in fact one of the righteous, she would be honoured whenever the feast was celebrated. According to tradition, it was Leo who expanded the feast from a commemoration of All Martyrs to a general commemoration of All Saints, whether martyrs or not; this Sunday marks the close of the Paschal season. To the normal Sunday services are added special scriptural readings and hymns to all the saints from the Pentecostarion.
In the late spring, the Sunday following Pentecost Saturday is set aside as a commemoration of all locally venerated saints, such as "All Saints of America", "All Saints of Mount Athos", etc. The third Sunday after Pentecost may be observed for more localised saints, such as "All Saints of St. Petersburg", or for saints of a particular type, such as "New Martyrs of the Turkish Yoke". In addition to the Mondays mentioned above, Saturdays throughout the year are days for general commemoration of all saints, special hymns to all saints are chanted from the Octoechos; the celebration of 1 November in Lebanon as a holiday reflects the influence of Western Catholic orders present in Lebanon and is not Maronite in origin. The traditional Maronite feast equivalent to the honor of all saints in their liturgical calendar is one of three Sundays in preparation for Lent called the Sunday of the Righteous and the Just; the following Sunday is the Sunday of the Faithful Departed. In East Syriac tradition the All Saints Day celebration falls on the first Friday after resurrection Sunday.
This is because all departed faithful are saved by the blood of Jesus and they resurrected with the Christ. Normall