Alphonse Gabriel Capone, sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface", was an American gangster and businessman who attained notoriety during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crime boss ended when he was 33. Capone was born to Italian immigrants, he was a Five Points Gang member. In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago and became a bodyguard and trusted factotum for Johnny Torrio, head of a criminal syndicate that illegally supplied alcohol—the forerunner of the Outfit—and was politically protected through the Unione Siciliana. A conflict with the North Side Gang was instrumental in Capone's fall. Torrio went into retirement after North Side gunmen killed him, handing control to Capone. Capone expanded the bootlegging business through violent means, but his mutually profitable relationships with mayor William Hale Thompson and the city's police meant he seemed safe from law enforcement. Capone reveled in attention, such as the cheers from spectators when he appeared at ball games.
He made donations to various charities and was viewed by many as "modern-day Robin Hood". However, the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven gang rivals were murdered in broad daylight, damaged Chicago's and Capone's image, leading influential citizens to demand government action and newspapers to dub Capone "Public Enemy No. 1". The federal authorities prosecuted him in 1931 for tax evasion. During a publicized case, the judge admitted as evidence Capone's admissions of his income and unpaid taxes during prior negotiations to pay the government taxes he owed, he was sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. After conviction, he replaced his defense team with experts in tax law, his grounds for appeal were strengthened by a Supreme Court ruling, but his appeal failed. Capone showed signs of neurosyphilis early in his sentence and became debilitated before being released after eight years of incarceration. On January 25, 1947, Capone died of cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke. Al Capone was born in Brooklyn, New York on January 17, 1899.
His parents were Teresa Capone. His father was a barber and his mother was a seamstress, both born in Angri, a town in the Province of Salerno. Gabriele and Teresa had nine children: Alphonse "Al" Capone. Ralph and Frank worked with him in his criminal empire. Frank did so until his death on April 1, 1924. Ralph ran the bottling companies early on, was the front man for the Chicago Outfit for some time until he was imprisoned for tax evasion in 1932; the Capone family immigrated to the United States, after first moving to nearby Fiume in Austria-Hungary in 1893. From that port city they traveled on a ship to the U. S. where they settled in the Navy Yard section of downtown Brooklyn. Gabriele Capone worked at a nearby barber shop at 29 Park Avenue; when Al was 11, the Capone family moved to 38 Garfield Place in Brooklyn. Capone showed promise as a student, but had trouble with the rules at his strict parochial Catholic school, his schooling ended at the age of 14, after he was expelled for hitting a female teacher in the face.
He worked at odd jobs including a candy store and a bowling alley. During this time, Capone was influenced by gangster Johnny Torrio, whom he came to regard as a mentor. Capone became involved with small-time gangs that included the Junior Forty Thieves and the Bowery Boys, he joined the Brooklyn Rippers, the powerful Five Points Gang based in Lower Manhattan. During this time, he was employed and mentored by fellow racketeer Frankie Yale, a bartender in a Coney Island dance hall and saloon called the Harvard Inn. Capone inadvertently insulted a woman while working the door at a Brooklyn night club and was slashed by her brother Frank Gallucio; the wounds led to the nickname "Scarface". When he was photographed, he hid the scarred left side of his face, saying that the injuries were war wounds, he was called "Snorky" by a term for a sharp dresser. Capone married Mae Josephine Coughlin at age 19 on December 30, 1918, she was Irish Catholic and earlier that month had given birth to their son Albert Francis "Sonny" Capone.
Capone was under the age of 21, his parents had to consent in writing to the marriage. By all accounts, the two had a happy marriage despite his gang life. At about 20 years of age, Capone left New York for Chicago at the invitation of Johnny Torrio, imported by crime boss James "Big Jim" Colosimo as an enforcer. Capone began in Chicago as a bouncer in a brothel. Timely use of Salvarsan could have cured the infection, but he never sought treatment. In 1923, he purchased a small house at 7244 South Prairie Avenue in the Park Manor neighborhood on the city's south side for US$5,500. In the early years of the decade, his name began appearing in newspaper sports pages where he was described as a boxing promoter. Torrio took over Colosimo's crime empire after Colosimo's murder on May 11, 1920, in which
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Prohibition in the United States
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933. During the nineteenth century, family violence, saloon-based political corruption prompted prohibitionists, led by pietistic Protestants, to end the alcoholic beverage trade to cure the ill society and weaken the political opposition. One result was that many communities in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries introduced alcohol prohibition, with the subsequent enforcement in law becoming a hotly debated issue. Prohibition supporters, called "drys", presented it as a victory for public morals and health. Promoted by the "dry" crusaders, the movement was led by pietistic Protestants and social Progressives in the Prohibition and Republican parties, it gained a national grass roots base through the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. After 1900, it was coordinated by the Anti-Saloon League. Opposition from the beer industry mobilized "wet" supporters from the Catholic and German Lutheran communities.
They had funding to fight back, but by 1917–18 the German community had been marginalized by the nation's war against Germany, the brewing industry was shut down in state after state by the legislatures and nationwide under the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920. Enabling legislation, known as the Volstead Act, set down the rules for enforcing the federal ban and defined the types of alcoholic beverages that were prohibited. For example, religious use of wine was allowed. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol were not made illegal under federal law, but local laws were stricter in many areas, with some states banning possession outright. Criminal gangs were able to gain control of the liquor supply for many cities. By the late-1920s a new opposition mobilized nationwide. Wets attacked prohibition as causing crime, lowering local revenues, imposing "rural" Protestant religious values on "urban" United States. Prohibition ended with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 5, 1933.
Some states continued statewide prohibition. Research shows that prohibition reduced overall alcohol consumption by half during the 1920s, consumption remained below pre-Prohibition levels until the 1940s, suggesting that Prohibition did socialize a significant proportion of the population in temperate habits, at least temporarily. Rates of liver cirrhosis "fell by 50% early in Prohibition and recovered promptly after Repeal in 1933." Criticism remains that Prohibition led to unintended consequences such as a century of Prohibition-influenced legislation and the growth of urban crime organizations, though some scholars have argued that violent crime did not increase while others have argued that crime during the Prohibition era was properly attributed to increased urbanization, rather than the criminalization of alcohol use. As an experiment it lost supporters every year, lost tax revenue that governments needed when the Great Depression began in 1929. In the United States, once the battle against slavery was won, social moralists turned to other issues, such as Mormon polygamy and the temperance movement.
On November 18, 1918, prior to ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment, the U. S. Congress passed the temporary Wartime Prohibition Act, which banned the sale of alcoholic beverages having an alcohol content of greater than 1.28%. The Wartime Prohibition Act took effect June 30, 1919, with July 1, 1919 becoming known as the "Thirsty-First"; the U. S. Senate proposed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 18, 1917. Upon being approved by a 36th state on January 16, 1919, the amendment was ratified as a part of the Constitution. By the terms of the amendment, the country went dry one year on January 17, 1920. On October 28, 1919, Congress passed the Volstead Act, the popular name for the National Prohibition Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto; the act established the legal definition of intoxicating liquors as well as penalties for producing them. Although the Volstead Act prohibited the sale of alcohol, the federal government lacked resources to enforce it. Prohibition was successful in reducing the amount of liquor consumed, cirrhosis death rates, admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis, arrests for public drunkenness, rates of absenteeism.
While some allege that Prohibition stimulated the proliferation of rampant underground and widespread criminal activity, many academics maintain that there was no increase in crime during the Prohibition era and that such claims are "rooted in the impressionistic rather than the factual." By 1925, there were anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000 speakeasy clubs in New York City alone. Wet opposition talked of personal liberty, new tax revenues from legal beer and liquor, the scourge of organized crime. On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Cullen–Harrison Act, legalizing beer with an alcohol content of 3.2% and wine of a low alcohol content. On December 5, 1933, ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment. However, United States federal law still prohibits the manufacture of distilled spirits without meeting numerous licensing requirements that make it impractical to produce spirits for personal beverage use. Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been a contentious topic in America since the colonial period.
In May 1657, the General Court of Massachusetts made the sale of strong li
In finance, a short sale is the sale of an asset that the seller has borrowed in order to profit from a subsequent fall in the price of the asset. After borrowing the asset, the short seller sells it to a buyer at the market price at that time. Subsequently, the resulting short position is "covered" when the seller repurchases the same asset in a market transaction and delivers the purchased asset back to the lender to replace the asset, borrowed. In the event of an interim price decline, the short seller will profit, since the cost of purchase will be less than the proceeds received upon the initial sale. Conversely, the short position will result in a loss if the price of a shorted asset rises prior to repurchase. "Shorting" can refer more to the use of derivatives or other techniques to achieve the same effect, such that the investor profits from the fall in the value of an asset without undertaking the borrowing of securities. Potential loss on a short sale is theoretically unlimited, as there is no theoretical limit to a rise in the price of the instrument.
However, in practice, the short seller is required to post margin or collateral to cover losses, inability to do so in a timely way would cause its broker or counterparty to liquidate the position. In the securities markets, the seller must borrow the securities to effect delivery in the short sale. In some cases, the short seller must pay a fee to borrow the securities and must additionally reimburse the lender for cash returns the lender would have received had the securities not been loaned out. Short selling is most done with instruments traded in public securities, futures or currency markets, due to the liquidity and real-time price dissemination characteristic of such markets and because the instruments defined within each class are fungible. In practical terms, "going short" can be considered the opposite of the conventional practice of "going long", whereby an investor profits from an increase in the price of the asset. Mathematically, the return from a short position is equivalent to that of owning a negative amount of the instrument.
A short sale may have a variety of objectives. Speculators may sell short hoping to realize a profit on an instrument that appears overvalued, just as long investors or speculators hope to profit from a rise in the price of an instrument that appears undervalued. Traders or fund managers may hedge a long position or a portfolio through one or more short positions. In contrast to a traditional merchant who sets out to "buy low, sell high", a short-seller sets out to "sell high, buy low", or to "buy high, sell low" when this buy is in fact "on tick". Research indicates that banning short selling has negative effects on markets. Short selling is subject to criticism and periodically faces hostility from society and policymakers; the following example describes the short sale of a security. To profit from a decrease in the price of a security, a short seller can borrow the security and sell it expecting that it will be cheaper to repurchase in the future; when the seller decides that the time is right, the seller buys equivalent securities and returns them to the lender.
The process relies on the fact. A short seller borrows through a broker, holding the securities for another investor who owns the securities; the lender does not lose the right to sell the securities while they have been lent, as the broker holds a large pool of such securities for a number of investors which, as such securities are fungible, can instead be transferred to any buyer. In most market conditions there is a ready supply of securities to be borrowed, held by pension funds, mutual funds and other investors; the act of buying back the securities that were sold short is called "covering the short" or "covering the position". A short position can be covered at any time. Once the position is covered, the short seller is not affected by subsequent rises or falls in the price of the securities, as he holds the securities required to repay the lender. Short selling refers broadly to any transaction used by an investor to profit from the decline in price of a borrowed asset or financial instrument.
However some short positions, for example those undertaken by means of derivatives contracts, are not technically short sales because no underlying asset is delivered upon the initiation of the position. Derivatives contracts include futures and swaps. Shares in ACME Inc. trade at $10 per share. A short seller investor borrows from a lender 100 shares of ACME Inc. and sells them for a total of $1,000. Subsequently, the price of the shares falls to $8 per share. Short seller now buys 100 shares of ACME Inc. for $800. Short seller returns the shares to the lender, who must accept the return of the same number of shares as was lent despite the fact that the market value of the shares has decreased. Short seller profits from the $200 difference between the price at which the short seller sold th
Enoch Malachi "Nucky" Thompson is a fictional character and the protagonist of the HBO TV series Boardwalk Empire, portrayed by Steve Buscemi. Nucky is loosely based on former Atlantic City, New Jersey political figure Enoch Lewis "Nucky" Johnson. Nucky is employed as treasurer of Atlantic County, but in effect controls the region as a political boss, he is a corrupt and powerful politician who leads a double life as a gangster, continuously struggles to meet his interests on both fronts. Charming and intelligent, he is adored by the people of Atlantic City its poor and immigrant inhabitants, for his numerous acts of charity. However, in private he has a tight grip on the city's vice. Throughout the series he is portrayed as a Machiavellian politician who makes his henchmen do the dirty work, while showing a more humane side to his friends and family. However, by the end of season 2 he is shown becoming more ruthless in order to compete in the violent bootlegging business. Buscemi won Best Actor in Dramatic Series at the 68th Golden Globe Awards for his performance as Nucky.
In flashbacks throughout the fifth season, he is played by Nolan Lyons as a child and Marc Pickering as a young man. Nucky was born around 1870 and raised in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the eldest child of a poor Irish Catholic family, his father was an abusive alcoholic who at one point scarred Nucky's hand with a fireplace poker, his sister Susan died of tuberculosis. As a child, Nucky began working for Atlantic City political boss Commodore Louis Kaestner, who became his mentor in politics. For a time, Nucky attended New Jersey State Normal School in Trenton and planned on becoming a teacher. However, he left college and returned to Atlantic City, working his way up the ladder to become deputy sheriff. Nucky became sheriff after he arranged for the Commodore to rape Gillian Darmody, only 13 years old at the time. Fifteen years prior to the series' timeline, Nucky lost his infant son, Enoch Jr. to pneumonia, a tragedy that drove his wife, Mabel, to commit suicide. Nucky helped raise Jimmy Darmody, the Commodore's son with Gillian, pulled strings to get him into Princeton University.
He is disappointed when Jimmy drops out to enlist in World War I, but still gives him a job as his personal driver after the war ends. When Jimmy finds out that Nucky enabled the Commodore to rape Gillian, it creates a rift between them that sets the stage for a major conflict in season two. In series premiere, set the day before Prohibition is to take effect, Nucky — despite publicly supporting the ban of alcohol — conspires with other local politicians to profit from a bootlegging scheme, he is assisted by Atlantic County Sheriff Eli Thompson. Nucky makes a deal with mobsters Arnold Rothstein, Lucky Luciano and Johnny Torrio to let them purchase his seaborne liquor shipments exclusively. However, Jimmy conspires with Torrio's driver, Al Capone, to rob Nucky's shipment to Rothstein after the New York mobster takes Nucky's casino for over $90,000; the heist ends in bloodshed as Capone kill Rothstein's men. Nucky gets Jimmy out of trouble, while reproaching him and banishing him from Atlantic City.
He recruits Jimmy back from Chicago when Rothstein seeks revenge for the hijacking. Nucky is investigated by Nelson Van Alden, a federal Prohibition agent who suspects he knows more about the hijacking than he admits. Meanwhile, Nucky is forced to demote Eli, he reinstates his brother, but their relationship is badly strained. Nucky meets Margaret Schroeder, a pregnant member of the Women's Temperance League who seeks work for her abusive husband, Hans. Nucky is taken with her and gives her some money, he has Hans killed after he beats her so badly that she miscarries the child, gets her a job at a boutique after she gets out of the hospital. Nucky and Margaret soon become lovers, by the end of the season he informally adopts her children and Emily; this creates his former mistress, Lucy Danziger. Margaret learns the extent of Nucky's corruption, including his order to have Hans killed, she leaves him. When she finds out that Nucky had lost a child, she meets with him to express her sympathy, he tells her that the time he spent with her and her children was the happiest of his life.
Moved by his sincerity — and realizing that she and her children would starve without his support — Margaret renews their relationship. At the end of the season and Rothstein come to a truce: all will be forgiven and Nucky will use his political connections to help Rothstein dodge a federal indictment for fixing the 1919 World Series in exchange for $1 million; as Nucky rings in the new year with Margaret at his side, Jimmy and the Commodore conspire to overthrow him and take over Atlantic City. A few months Nucky is arrested for voter fraud concerning his behind-the-scenes role in the election of Mayor Edward Bader, with corruption and murder charges soon to follow. Nucky suspects that the Commodore and Eli are plotting against him, a suspicion confirmed when his cronies defect to Jimmy's side. After the Commodore suffers a debilitating stroke, Eli panics and goes to Nucky for help, but Nucky gets into a violent argument with his brother and disowns him. Shortly afterward, one of Jimmy's men makes an attempt on Nucky's life.
Following his father's death, Nucky resigns as treasurer and tells Jimmy and the Commodore that they have won. It is a ruse, however.
HBO is an American premium cable and satellite television network owned by the namesake unit Home Box Office, Inc. a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. The program which featured on the network consists of theatrically released motion pictures and original television shows, along with made-for-cable movies and occasional comedy and concert specials. HBO is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, having been in operation since November 8, 1972. In 2016, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.93 billion, compared to the US$1.88 billion it accrued in 2015. HBO has 130 million subscribers worldwide as of 2016; the network provides seven 24-hour multiplex channels, including HBO Comedy, HBO Latino, HBO Signature, HBO Family. It launched the streaming service HBO Now in April 2015 and has over 2 million subscribers in the United States as of February 2017; as of July 2015, HBO's programming is available to 36,493,000 households with at least one television set in the United States, making it the second largest premium channel in the United States.
In addition to its U. S. subscriber base, HBO distributes content in at least 151 countries, with 130 million subscribers worldwide. HBO subscribers pay for an extra tier of service that includes other cable- and satellite-exclusive channels before paying for the channel itself. However, a regulation imposed by the Federal Communications Commission requires that cable providers allow subscribers to get just "limited" basic cable and premium services such as HBO, without subscribing to expanded service. Cable providers can require the use of a converter box—usually digital—in order to receive HBO. HBO provides its content through digital media. HBO maintains near-ubiquitous distribution in hotels across the United States through agreements with DirecTV, Echostar, SONIFI Solutions, Satellite Management Services, Inc. Telerent Leasing Corporation, Total Media Concepts and World Cinema as well as cable providers that maintain hospitality service arrangements with individual hotels and local franchises of national hotel/motel chains.
Since June 2018, through a content partnership with Enseo, HBO Go is distributed to some Marriott International hotels around the U. S.. Many HBO programs have been syndicated to other networks and broadcast television stations, a number of HBO-produced series and films have been released on DVD. Since HBO's more successful series air on over-the-air broadcasters in other countries, HBO's programming has the potential of being exposed to a higher percentage of the population of those countries compared to the United States; because of the cost of HBO, many Americans only view HBO programs through DVDs or in basic cable or broadcast syndication—months or years after these programs have first aired on the network—and with editing for both content and to allow advertising, although several series have filmed alternate "clean" scenes intended for syndication runs. In 1965, Charles Dolan—who had done pioneering work in the commercial use of cables and had developed Teleguide, a closed-circuit tourist information television system distributed to hotels in the New York metropolitan area—won a franchise to build a cable television system in the Lower Manhattan section of New York City.
The new system, which Dolan named "Sterling Information Services", became the first urban underground cable televisi
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or