Margaret Tudor

Margaret Tudor was Queen of Scots from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to James IV of Scotland and after her husband died fighting the English, she became regent for their son James V of Scotland from 1513 until 1515. She was born at Westminster Palace as the eldest daughter of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, granddaughter of Margaret Beaufort, Edward IV of England and Queen Elizabeth Woodville. Margaret Tudor had several pregnancies; as queen dowager she married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus. Through her first and second marriages Margaret was the grandmother of both Mary, Queen of Scots, Mary's second husband, Lord Darnley. Margaret's marriage in 1503 to James IV linked the royal houses of England and Scotland, which a century resulted in the Union of the Crowns. Upon his ascent to the English throne, Margaret's great-grandson, James VI and I, was the first person to be monarch of both Scotland and England. Margaret was baptised in Westminster, she was named after Countess of Richmond and Derby, her paternal grandmother.

Daughters were important political assets in a world where diplomacy and marriage were linked. Before Margaret's sixth birthday, Henry VII thought about a marriage between Margaret and James IV as a way of ending the Scottish king's support for Perkin Warbeck, pretender to the throne of England, it is highly that Henry may have believed that such a marriage alliance would be a step towards uniting the English and Scottish thrones, something that his son, the future Henry VIII would attempt during his reign. On 30 September 1497, James IV's commissioner, the Spaniard Pedro de Ayala concluded a lengthy truce with England, now the marriage was again a serious possibility. James was in his late twenties and still unmarried; the Italian historian Polydore Vergil said that some of the English royal council objected to the match, saying that it would bring the Stewarts directly into the line of English succession, to which the wily and astute Henry replied:What then? Should anything of the kind happen, I foresee that our realm would suffer no harm, since England would not be absorbed by Scotland, but rather Scotland by England, being the noblest head of the entire island, since there is always less glory and honour in being joined to that, far the greater, just as Normandy once came under the rule and power of our ancestors the English.

On 24 January 1502, Scotland and England concluded the Treaty of Perpetual Peace, the first peace agreement between the two realms in over 170 years. The marriage treaty was viewed as a guarantee of the new peace; the marriage was completed by proxy on 25 January 1503 at Richmond Palace. Patrick, Earl of Bothwell, was proxy for the Scottish King and wore a gown of cloth-of-gold at the ceremony in the Queen's great chamber, he was accompanied by the Archbishop of Postulate of Moray. The herald, John Young, reported. Prizes were awarded the next morning and the tournament continued another day. Margaret was now regarded as Queen of Scots; the new queen was provided with a large wardrobe of clothes, her crimson state bed curtains made of Italian sarcenet were embroidered with red Lancastrian roses. Clothes were made for her companion, Lady Catherine Gordon, the widow of Perkin Warbeck. In May 1503, James IV confirmed her possession of lands and houses in Scotland, including Methven Castle, Stirling Castle, Doune Castle, Linlithgow Palace and Newark Castle in Ettrick Forest, with the incomes from the corresponding Earldom and Lordship lands.

In 1503, Margaret came to Scotland. She left Richmond Palace on 27 June with Henry VII and they travelled first to Collyweston. At York a plaque commemorates the exact spot. After crossing the border at Berwick upon Tweed on 1 August 1503, Margaret was met by the Scottish court at Lamberton. At Dalkeith Palace, James came to kiss her goodnight, he came again to console her on 4 August after a stable fire had killed some of her favourite horses. Her riding gear, including a new sumpter cloth or pallion of cloth-of-gold worth £127 was destroyed in the fire. On 7 August 1503, Margaret was carried from Dalkeith to Edinburgh on a litter. At a meadow a mile from Edinburgh, there was a pavilion where Sir Patrick Hamilton and Patrick Sinclair played and fought in the guise of knights defending their ladies. On 8 August 1503, the marriage was celebrated in person in Holyrood Abbey; the rites were performed by the Archbishop of York. Two days on St Lawrence's day, Margaret went to mass at St Giles', the town's Kirk, as her first public appointment.

The details of the proxy marriage, progress and reception in Edinburgh were recorded by the Somerset Herald, John Young. The Queen's arrival was celebrated by the poet William Dunbar in poems including The Thrissil and the Rois, thoue Queyne of Scottis Regioun, the song Now Fayre, Fayrest of Every Fayre. Another poem's welcome to Aberdeen. Dunbar had been in London during the treaty negotiations. In Dunbar's Thistle and the Rose, forest birds serenade the conjoined York and Lancastrian roses, a symbol of Margaret's parentage.


Dynamix, Inc. was an American developer of video games from 1984 to 2001, best known for the flight simulator Red Baron, the puzzle game The Incredible Machine, the Front Page Sports series, the acclaimed Betrayal at Krondor, their online multiplayer game Tribes. The company was founded in Eugene, Oregon in 1984 by Damon Slye, their first title, Stellar 7, was released before company founding and was re-released with the Dynamix name on it. They made a number of games for the Commodore 64, among them Project Firestart, one of the most atmospheric titles for the C64. In the following years, Dynamix created a line of action games for Penguin Software and Electronic Arts, including one of the first games for the Commodore Amiga, Arcticfox. Titles were developed for Activision. After self-publishing their games for a short while, in 1990 Dynamix was bought by Sierra On-Line. Dynamix had published A-10 Tank Killer and distributed it through Mediagenic but the acquisition occurred during the development of Red Baron, which became the first game in Dynamix's "Great Warplanes" flight simulator series published by Sierra.

Dynamix created some of their most famous games, including a line of adventures and simulators that included Red Baron and The Adventures of Willy Beamish. They created the puzzle game The Incredible Machine, along with the spinoff Sid & Al's Incredible Toons. Another successful product line was the Front Page Sports series, designed by Pat Cook and Allen McPheeters which included Football and Golf. Versions of Red Baron and Front Page Sports Football were included as part of the ImagiNation Network. By 1994 Slye agreed with a Computer Gaming World statement that "Now when someone hears'Dynamix' they think'flight simulator'". In 1994, the first game in a new series called Metaltech was released, a giant robot combat game with similarities to the BattleTech universe and games; this series resulted in two Earthsiege games and Starsiege. As a side development of the Starsiege game, the successful Tribes series was created. Dynamix created Outpost 2: Divided Destiny, the second game in Sierra's strategy/survival franchise, Outpost.

The Dynamix studio was closed by Sierra On-Line on August 14, 2001, as part of Sierra's restructuring under Vivendi Universal Interactive Publishing. Several veterans of the studio, stayed in Eugene and founded a new studio / electronic publisher, GarageGames; some of the core Dynamix members started GarageGames, an independent-friendly engine developer and game publisher. They negotiated an agreement with Sierra for the source code to the Tribes 2 game engine. After reworking the code, GarageGames released it as V12 but were soon told that an engine had the name so it was called the Torque Game Engine; the source code for TGE, a professional-grade 3D engine, was available to nearly anyone for fees starting at USD$100, but has since been released as open source under the MIT License. Dynamix at MobyGames

Aphonopelma xwalxwal

Aphonopelma xwalxwal is a species of spiders in the family Theraphosidae, found in United States. A. xwalxwal is pronounced like "hwal-hwal", with "hw" like the rasping noise of blowing out a candle, "a" as in "father", "l" like "light". It comes from the Cahuilla language and means "a small spider"; the Cahuilla tribe owned the land where this species is only known from, the Coachella Valley and Borrego Springs. Aphonopelma xwalxwal is only known from the Palm Springs and Borrego Springs, it is restricted to the Sonoran Mountains and Sonoran Mountain Woodland and Shrubland. A. xwalxwal is most similar to only larger and a different breeding period. It is one of the largest dwarf Aphonopelma species; the fourth femur is from 1 cm to 1.05 cm long. It is only known from the male