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Margareten is the fifth district of Vienna. It is near the old town of Vienna and was established as a district in 1850, but borders changed later. Margareten is a residential urban area, with over 25,000 inhabitants per km², one of the most densely populated districts in Vienna; the district of Margareten was formed from six suburbs. The former city of Margareten itself developed from an estate with the same name and was built into a castle, it was rebuilt each time. Nearby lay Nikolsdorf, systemically laid out in the period 1555-1568 and named after the convent of St. Nikolai. Matzleinsdorf was property of the Babenberger family; the name Laurenzergrund comes from an area in Matzleindorf with the Laurenzer gully. After the closing of the convent by Emperor Joseph II, it became an independent city. Reinprechtsdorf was a village in the Middle Ages, abandoned earlier, but the name remained as a path waypoint. In 1730, residential houses were again built in the area. Nearby, a hunting lodge was built, wherefrom the suburb Hundsturm gets its name.

The hunting lodge was replaced with a fort, taken down by 1885. Those six areas, along with a number of others, were incorporated on March 5, 1850, into the fourth district of Wieden. After a long debate over the different social circumstances of the population, in 1861 the fifth district was separated. In 1873 the district lost its southern area to Favoriten. Since the rural district has become a thickly populated urban area with many workers and large residential homes. Margareten is in the southwest of Vienna and is bounded to the north by the Vienna River, in the west and south by the Gürtel belt; the Vienna River is the border to the district Mariahilf, while the belt is the boundary of the districts Favoriten and Meidling. The eastern district boundary with Wieden runs contrary to the other inner districts in the transverse rather than longitudinal. Thus, the district boundary follows the streets: Kettenbrückengasse, Margaretenstraße, Kleine Neugasse, Ziegelofengasse, Blechturmgasse until the Gürtel belt.

Margareten is the only district within the Vienna Belt, not within the Inner City borders. The district area is part of the Katastralgemeinde Margareten, which has a hectare of the territory of the neighboring district Mariahilf; the lowest point in Margareten is nearly 174 metres in the Wiental. In the south, the land rises slightly. Margareten has no sharp altitudes, or mountains: the total height difference is 30 metres; the developed area of Margareten is 63.8%, with around 82% accounted for by residential area. With 31.7%, the traffic area takes the second highest percentage of the district area. The green spaces cover only 4.54 % of the district area. Courtyards, individual trees, groups of trees, green plants are the largest in percentage share of green areas, in addition to the 80 rooftop gardens to count. Only three other districts have less green space than Margareten, which since 2000, has doubled the proportion of green space. Superficial waters, small gardens or agricultural areas are absent from Margareten.

In the seven wells area of Oberreinprechtsdorf, arise many springs. In 1562, the Imperial Court got its own first water supply by the Siebenbrunner Hofwasserleitung, commissioned and built by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I; the water was collected in seven wells and run through cast-iron pipes to a reservoir under the Augustinian bastion in Vienna, from where it was piped into the Hofburg Palace. By Margareten Fountain at Margareten Square, the Emperor permitted from 1829, the citizens to use the Hofwasserleitung. Today, the seven wells are shown through the Siebenbrunnen at Siebenbrunnenplatz. Margareten consists of Pleistocene terrace pebbles, from the period between 1.75 million years ago and 11,500 years ago. The district lies on the Wienerberg terrace, which originated in the Beestonian stage. In the area of the Vienna River, there are loess, loess loam soils in the part of Margareten. Near the river there are extant Vienna deposits, which have a small thickness. Due to origin from the Flyschzone, they are made of clay or sandstone plates and therefore, have little relevance to the groundwater in the city.

In Margareten, there is no official weather station with long-term metrics. Its proximity to the Inner City and similar areas with a high concentration of buildings and roads, a small amount of green space, the official ZAMG weather are used inside the city for the climate data in Margareten; as in Vienna, the climate in Margareten has oceanic influences from the West and continental influences from the east. Margareten's climate is of lower precipitation, little snow, lots of cloudy, moderately cold days in winter and hot days in summer; the winters are mild, compared to the suburbs (outside of the Gürtel belt, on average up to 2 °C. The average air temperature during the years 1971 to 2000 was 11.4 °C. The average annual precipitation is around 548 mm. There are: 67.6 summer and 17.9 hot days. Margareten has had 1883.6 hours of sunshine that are incurred, while in December only 50.6 hours of sunshine, but in July, however, 260.4 hours of sunshi

German submarine U-255

German submarine U-255 was a Type VIIC U-boat that served in Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 21 December 1940 at the Bremer Vulkan yard at Bremen-Vegesack, launched on 8 October 1941 and commissioned on 29 November 1941 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Reinhart Reche. One of the most successful U-boats to operate in Arctic waters, she operated from Norway during 1942–1943, from France in 1944–1945, sailing on 15 combat patrols, sinking ten merchant ships totalling 47,640 GRT and damaging another of 7,191 GRT enough for it to be written off as a total loss, she sank the 1,200-tons Edsall-class destroyer escort USS Leopold. At the end of the war U-255 surrendered to the British, was sunk during Operation Deadlight on 13 December 1945. U-255 was ordered by the Kriegsmarine on 23 September 1939 and laid down more than a year on 21 December 1940 at the Bremer Vulkan yard at Bremen-Vegesack as yard number 20. U-255 was launched 8 October 1941, commissioned on 29 November that same year with Kptlt.

Reinhart Reche in command. German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-255 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the surface and 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two shafts and two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-255 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, two twin 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns.

The boat had a complement of between sixty. After a period of training with the 8th U-boat Flotilla, based at Königsberg in the Baltic Sea, U-255 was transferred to the 11th U-boat Flotilla, based at Bergen, Western Norway, for front-line service on 1 July 1942. On 15 June 1942, U-255 sailed under the command of Kptlt. Reche, arriving at Narvik on the 20th, she departed on her first patrol on 23 June, sailing into the Barents Sea, north of Russia. She made her first kill on 6 July, sinking the 7,191-ton American Liberty ship John Witherspoon about 20 miles off Novaya Zemlya; the ship, en route from Baltimore to Arkhangelsk with 8,575 tons of ammunition and tanks aboard, had been a part of Convoy PQ 17 which had dispersed on Admiralty orders in the Barents Sea on 4 July. After being hit by four torpedoes, the ship broke in two, sank within minutes; the crew abandoned ship, one seaman fell overboard and drowned. U-255 questioned the survivors, offered food and water, gave directions to the nearest land, left.

The crew were picked up by Royal Navy ships on 9 July. The next day, 7 July, she sank the 5,116 ton American Hog Islander Alcoa Ranger from Convoy PQ 17. A single torpedo struck the ship, causing the vessel to list to starboard; the crew abandoned ship in three lifeboats within 15 minutes. After she questioned the crew, she began to shell the ship from a distance of about 100 metres, firing at least 60 shells until the ship sank; the crewmen were rescued by Soviet patrol boats that day. Early on 8 July, U-255 caught another ship from Convoy PQ 17, the 6,069-ton American merchant ship Olopana, loaded with 6,000 tons of explosives and trucks as deck cargo. A single torpedo hit the ship, blowing out all the bulkheads, killing seven of the crew; the surviving crewmen abandoned ship on four rafts, as U-255 surfaced and fired 20 shells at the ship, which sank after 20 minutes. U-255 questioned the survivors, gave them a course to land, asked if they had enough food and water before leaving; the survivors landed at Novaya Zemlya, two days later.

On 13 July U-255 found the 7,168-ton Dutch merchant ship Paulus Potter abandoned and drifting, with 2,250 tons of general goods, ammunition, 34 tanks, 15 aircraft and 103 trucks aboard. The ship had been attacked by Ju 88 dive bombers of III./KG 30 east-north-east of Bear Island on 5 July, the day after Convoy PQ 17 dispersed. The crew had abandoned the badly damaged ship. All 76 of the crew had taken five days to reach land at Novaya Zemlya being rescued by a Soviet whaling vessel. After finding her the II. WO and two mates from U-255 boarded the ship, attempted to start the engines, but the engine room was flooded, they searched the vessel, taking blankets and other useful materials, including confidential documents found on the bridge, the ship's ensign as a prize, before the ship was sunk with a single torpedo. U-255 returned to Narvik on 15 July. U-255 left Narvik on 18 July 1942, she sailed from Bergen on 4 August for her second combat patrol, heading deep into Soviet waters, but had no success, although she shelled two Soviet wireless stations as part of Operation Wu

Ingolstadt–Kralupy–Litvínov pipeline

The Ingolstadt–Kralupy–Litvínov pipeline is a crude oil pipeline in Central Europe. It facilitates the transport of crude oil from Germany to the Czech oil refineries of Kralupy and Litvínov; the name of the Ingolstadt–Kralupy–Litvínov pipeline is misleading, as the pipeline does not start in Ingolstadt and does not run to Kralupy and Litvínov. Negotiations to construct the Ingolstadt–Kralupy–Litvínov pipeline started in October 1990 and were concluded in 1992; the pipeline was planned to run from Ingolstadt to Litvínov, but the route was changed to run from Vohburg to Nelahozeves. However, the original name of the pipeline was kept. Construction of the pipeline started on 1 September 1994 and was completed in December 2005, it was inaugurated on 13 March 1996. It is the main pipeline in the Czech Republic allowing oil supplies other than those of Russian origin. In 2003, the pipeline was modernized by increasing capacity; the 347-kilometer pipeline starts from Vohburg in Germany, where it is connected with the Transalpine Pipeline, ends at the oil depot in Nelahozeves near Prague in the Czech Republic.

The German section of the pipeline is 178 kilometers and the Czech section is 169 kilometers long. The pipeline has a diameter of 714 millimeters, the pressure varies from 65 bars in Vohburg to 20 bars in Nelahozeves; the capacity of the pipeline is around ten million tonnes per year, of which 30% is in use. The additional capacity is reserved for securing oil supplies in case of disruption of Russian supplies through the Druzhba pipeline, as happened in July 2008; the control center, which controls the whole pipeline, is located in Vohburg. The backup control center is located in Nelahozeves; the tank farm in Vohburg consists with a total capacity of 200,000 cubic meters. The tank farm in Nelahozeves, serving the IKL and Druzhba pipelines, consists of sixteen tanks with a total capacity of 1,550,000 cubic meters; the pipeline is operated by MERO Pipeline GmbH. Energy in the Czech Republic

Barred owlet-nightjar

The barred owlet-nightjar is a species of bird in the owlet-nightjar family Aegothelidae. It is found in New Guinea; the species was thought to be the same species as the Australian owlet-nightjar, until that species was found within the range of the barred owlet-nightjar. It was considered to be the same species as the Vogelkop owlet-nightjar. There are three subspecies, the nominate, from south-eastern New Guinea, A. b. wiedenfeldi from northern New Guinea, A. b. plumifer from the D’Entrecasteaux Islands. The barred owlet-nightjar weighs 45 -- 47 g; the back is dark grey with pale undersides with dark barring. The face has broad buff eyebrows; the sexes are similar. Its natural habitat is tropical moist lowland forests, or forest edge, up to 1,100 m, or 800 m for the nominate race. A nest has been found in a dead trunk; the eggs are white, the clutch size of the known nests is two eggs. The species is not thought to be threatened, as large areas of suitable habitat remain


Vanabins are a specific group of vanadium-binding metalloproteins. Vanabins are found exclusively in the blood cells, or vanadocytes of some ascidians and tunicates; the vanabins extracted from tunicate vanadocytes are called hemovanadins. These organisms are able to concentrate vanadium to a level more than, sometimes much more than, 100 times higher than in the surrounding seawater. Vanabin proteins seem to be involved in accumulating this metal ion. At present there is no conclusive understanding of. German chemist Martin Henze discovered vanadium in ascidiaceans in 1911; because of the high concentration of vanadium in the blood, it has been assumed that vanabins are used for oxygen transport like iron-based hemoglobin or copper-based hemocyanin. No scientific evidence can be found to back this hypothesis; the highest concentration of vanadium found so far, 350 mM, was found in the blood cells of Ascidia gemmata belonging to the suborder Phlebobranchia. This concentration is 10,000,000 times higher than that in seawater.

Vanabins accumulate vanadium in the blood cells and produce V species and vandanyl ions from orthovanadate ions, with the use of NADPH as a reducing agent. Vanabins transport the reduced vanadium species into the vacuoles of vanadocytes; the vacuoles are kept at a acidic pH of 1.9, made possible by pumping hydrogen ions into the vacuoles by use of energy intensive H+-ATPase. All the use of NADPH and ATP to collect and maintain the vanadium is energy intensive, unusual for oxygen transporting proteins. Other oxygen transporting proteins have a low dissociation constant with their metal prosthetic group and bind these groups tightly. Vanabins on the other hand have a moderate dissociation constant and do not bind vanadium. Most because of this moderate dissociation constant, vanadium is found free-floating and separated from any proteins inside the vacuoles; this is different from other oxygen transporting proteins. The most convincing evidence against vanadium in use for oxygen transport is that many ascidians and tunicates have hemocyanin in their blood that could be assumed to handle all oxygen transport.

The use of vanabins and vanadium for oxygen transport in ascidians and tunicates is doubtful. Another hypothesized reason for these organisms collecting vanadium is to make themselves toxic to predators and microorganisms; the world oceans carry diluted concentrations of rare minerals. Total amount of gold, silver and platinum in all the world's oceans rivals that of terrestrial mines, yet because of the low concentration of these minerals in sea water, extraction has been considered impractical. Understanding the mechanisms behind how some organisms concentrate rare minerals from sea water could make it biotechnologically possible to grow and farm organisms to filter sea water and extract these minerals, similar to bioleaching. Characterization of Vanabins, Vanadium-Binding Proteins, Key Substances of Vanadium Accumulation in Ascidians at the Wayback Machine Transferring vanabin genes to bacteria

Antigoni Goni

Antigoni Goni is a Greek guitarist, recording artist, performer, the founder and Chair of the Pre-College Division of the Guitar Department at the Juilliard School Goni was born in Athens and studied with Evangelos Assimakopoulos at the National Conservatory of Athens, with John Mills at the Royal Academy of Music in London and extensively in master classes with Julian Bream. She continued her studies with Sharon Isbin at the Juilliard School in New York, she has performed throughout the United States, Portugal and other countries. Her career blossomed in the mid-1990s after winning the Guitar Foundation of America competition, which resulted in some 65 concerts in North America and a contract with Naxos Records for which she has recorded three successful CDs. Goni released an additional solo album, Hymn to the Muse, under Timespan Recordings in 2016. Goni is a professor at the Royal Conservatory in Brussels, artist-in-residence for San Francisco Performances, she was Chairman of the Guitar Department at Juilliard Pre-College Division between 1995 and 2004, she holds positions at Columbia University and the Royal Academy of Music in London, splitting her time between both coasts of the United States and Athens.

In 2007 Goni founded The Volterra Project, a holistic guitar workshop held in Volterra, Italy each summer. Guitar Recital: Antigoni Goni Barrios Mangore, A.: Guitar Music, Vol. 1 DUARTE: Guitar Music RODRIGO: Joaquin Rodrigo - A Portrait compilation album Hymn to the Muse Official website The Volterra Project