Natural History Museum, Vienna
The Natural History Museum Vienna is a large natural history museum located in Vienna, Austria. And one of the most important natural history museums worldwide; the NHM Vienna is one of the largest museums and non-university research institutions in Austria and an important center of excellence for all matters relating to natural sciences. The museum's 39 exhibition rooms present more than 100,000 objects, it is home to 30 million objects available to more than 60 scientists and numerous guest researchers who carry out basic research in a wide range of topics related to human sciences, earth sciences, life sciences. The history of the Natural History Museum Vienna is shaped by the passion for collecting of renowned monarchs, the endless thirst for knowledge of famous scientists, the spirit of adventure of travelling researchers. True to the spirit of the inscription carved into the front of the museum, scientists at the NHM Vienna have over the centuries dedicated themselves and their work “to the realm of nature and its exploration”.
While in the 19th century this was expressed through major imperial research expeditions to little-known corners of the Earth, today it can be found in modern DNA analysis methods and meteorite research providing insights into unfamiliar worlds and the outer extremes of our cosmos. The earliest collections of the Natural History Museum Vienna date back more than 250 years, it was Emperor Franz I Stephan of Lorraine, Maria Theresa’s husband, who in 1750 purchased what was at the time the world's largest and most famous collection of natural history objects from the Florentine scholar and scientist Jean de Baillou. This was the first step on the road to creating the Natural History Museum Vienna. Baillou's collection comprised 30,000 objects, including rare fossils, snails and corals, as well as valuable minerals and precious stones. Franz I Stephan of Lorraine, who founded the Schönbrunn zoo in 1752 and the botanical garden in 1753 organized the first scientific overseas expedition. In 1755 he commissioned Nicolaus Joseph Jacquin to travel to the Caribbean, the Antilles and Colombia.
Jacquin returned from this expedition with many live animals and plants for the zoo and the botanical garden, as well as 67 cases full of other items of interest from the natural world. After the Emperor's death, Maria Theresa gave the natural science collection to the state and opened it up to the general public, thus she created the first museum in line with the visions of the Enlightenment. It was Maria Theresa. Born, who had developed a new method of extracting precious metals, was tasked with classifying and expanding the collections. To this end he had minerals from many different regions sent to Vienna, where they were added to the collection. Under the leadership of Ignaz von Born the cabinet of natural history developed into a center of practical research. To mark the marriage of his daughter Leopoldine to the heir to the Portuguese throne, Dom Pedro, Emperor Franz II organized an expedition to her new home country of Brazil in 1817. Two Austrian frigates accompanied the archduchess on her journey to Rio de Janeiro.
Those taking part in the expedition, carried out under the scientific direction of the head of the history collection, included the researchers Johann Mikan and Johann Emmanuel, as well as the taxidermist Johann Natterer and the landscape painter Thomas Ender. The expedition lasted 18 years aimed to collect all plants and minerals of scientific interest and bring them back to Vienna; the most ambitious Austrian expedition was carried out by the SMS Novara, a frigate which sailed the world between 1857 and 1859. The scientific responsibility for this expedition was shared by the Academy of Sciences and the Geography Society; the man behind the project was Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Commander in Chief of the Austrian Navy. Among the advisors was the famous naturalist and researcher Alexander von Humboldt. Many well-known scientists took part in the two-year journey, including the geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter, ethnologist Karl von Scherzer and zoologist Georg Ritter von Frauenfeld; the entire journey was documented in hundreds of sketches and paintings by the landscape artist Josef Selleny.
The scientists returned home with a vast haul of minerals, animals and items of ethnological interest. The last significant research expedition of the 19th century was the Tegetthoff North Pole Expedition led by Julius von Payer and Carl Weyprecht. On August 30, 1873 the participants on board discovered Franz Joseph Land. With the Tegetthoff at risk of breaking up under the pressure of the ice, the members of the expedition were forced to leave the ship. On May 20, 1874 they began their long retreat to the south, transporting their equipment and provisions on sleds and boats. Despite many sacrifices and great danger, the scientists returned to Vienna with both their invaluable travel journals and observations of the landscape, as well as a number of natural history items of interest welded into metal cases. From 1876, Superintendents: 1876 – 1884 Ferdinand von Hochstetter 1885 – 1896 Franz von Hauer 1896 – 1897 no superintendent, but temporary director: Franz Steindachner 1898 – 1919 Franz Steindachner From 1919, Chairmen of the Museum Council: 1919 – 1922 Ludwig Lorenz von Liburnau 1923 – 1924 Franz Xaver Schaffer From 1924, First Directors 1925 – 1932 Hans Rebel 1933 – 1938 Hermann Michel 1938 – 1939 Otto Pesta, “Acting Director” 1939 – 1945 Hans Kummerlöwe, "First Director of the Scientific Museums in Vienna" 1945 – 1951 Hermann Michel 1951 – 1962 Hans Strouhal 1963 – 1971 Karl Heinz Rechinger 1972 – 1978 Friedrich Bachmayer 1979 – 1987
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, monarch of many other states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation, he was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, as well as the third-longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein. In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc, as part of Minister President Felix zu Schwarzenberg's plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Hungary; this allowed Ferdinand's nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne. Considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains; the Austrian Empire was forced to cede its influence over Tuscany and most of its claim to Lombardy–Venetia to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, following the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859 and the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866.
Although Franz Joseph ceded no territory to the Kingdom of Prussia after the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Peace of Prague settled the German Question in favour of Prussia, which prevented the Unification of Germany from occurring under the House of Habsburg. Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign, he concluded the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary and transformed the Austrian Empire into the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. He ruled peacefully for the next 45 years, but suffered the tragedies of the execution of his brother, the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico in 1867, the suicide of his only son and heir, Crown Prince Rudolf, in 1889, the assassination of his wife, Empress Elisabeth, in 1898. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned its attention to the Balkans, a hotspot of international tension because of conflicting interests with the Russian Empire; the Bosnian Crisis was a result of Franz Joseph's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin.
On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo resulted in Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia, Russia's ally. That activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for 68 years as one of the longest-reigning monarchs in modern history, he was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles. Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl, his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria; because his uncle, from 1835 the Emperor Ferdinand, was weak-minded, his father unambitious and retiring, the young Archduke "Franzl" was brought up by his mother as a future Emperor with emphasis on devotion and diligence. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, who had died shortly before the former's fifth birthday, as the ideal monarch. At the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army.
From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style and for the rest of his life he wore the uniform of a military officer. Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers: Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian. Following the resignation of the Chancellor Prince Metternich during the Revolutions of 1848, the young Archduke, who it was expected would soon succeed his uncle on the throne, was appointed Governor of Bohemia on 6 April, but never took up the post. Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, receiving his baptism of fire on 5 May at Santa Lucia. By all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna for the calmer setting of Innsbruck, in Tyrol. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June, it was at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his future bride a girl of ten, but the meeting made little impression.
Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt it safe to return to Vienna, Franz Joseph travelled with them. But within a few months Vienna again appeared unsafe, in September the court left once more, this time for Olomouc in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, an influential military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne, it was thought that a new ruler would not be bound by the oaths to respect constitutional government to which Ferdinand had been forced to agree, that it was necessary to find a young, energetic emperor to replace the kindly, but mentally unfit Ferdinand. By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, the mild-mannered Franz Karl, Franz Joseph succeeded as Emperor of Austria at Olomouc on 2 December. At this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name; the name "Franz Joseph" was chosen to bring back memories of the new Emperor's great-granduncle, Emperor Joseph II, remembered as a modernising reformer.
Under the guidance of the new prime mini
The Museumsquartier is a 60,000 m2 large area in the 7th district of the city of Vienna, Austria. The Museumsquartier contains Baroque buildings as well as Modern architecture by the architects Laurids and Manfred Ortner; the renovation of the former court stables began in April 1998. Three years the Museumsquartier opened in two stages; the total cost of the construction was 150 Million Euro. The MQ is home to a range of installations from large art museums like the Leopold Museum and the MUMOK to contemporary exhibition spaces like the Kunsthalle Wien and festivals like the Wiener Festwochen, an annual summer event, headquartered in the MuseumsQuartier Wien. Additional highlights include the Tanzquartier, an international, state-of-the-art centre for dance, the Architekturzentrum Wien, production studios for new media, artist studios for artists-in-residence, outstanding art and cultural facilities designed for children, a variety of other events and festivals such as the renowned Viennale film festival, the ImPulsTanz Vienna International Dance Festival, Coded Cultures, Techno Sensual, many others.
The Museumsquartier hosts quartier21, which features around 60 alternative art groups, for example eSeL. Since 2002, an artist-in-residence programme brought over 735 artists to MuseumsQuartier, who have been working and living in the studio spaces; the residency programme is run together with tranzit.org / ERSTE Stiftung, the Federal Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs and the Research Institute for Arts and Technology. The Museumsquartier station of line U2 of the Vienna U-Bahn, as well as the metro station "Volkstheater" is located next to the premises. There was negative media reaction after it became known that the expensive public buildings had serious shortcomings regarding barrier-free wheelchair accessibility. Not the constructed buildings were able to fulfill the most basic requirements. After many negative reports across the media, the commitment of handicapped interest groups, the majority of the problems were repaired in the following years. Public Netbase, an internet provider and sponsor of electronic art and culture programs, was not invited to be part of Museumsquartier in 2002.
Located in a part of the MQ, it had to leave during the renovations, but after the construction was completed, it was not able to return to its former premises. MUMOK Leopold Museum Kunsthalle Wien ZOOM Kindermuseum Tanzquartier Architekturzentrum Wien Q21 monochrom Modepalast Van Uffelen, Chris. Contemporary Museums - Architecture, Collections, Braun Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-3-03768-067-4, pages 162-163. Museumsquartier website Museumsquartier on Ortner & Ortner Baukunst
The Kunsthistorisches Museum is an art museum in Vienna, Austria. Housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, it is crowned with an octagonal dome; the term Kunsthistorisches Museum applies to the main building. It is the largest art museum in the country, it was opened around 1891 at the same time as the Natural History Museum, Vienna, by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary. The two museums face each other across Maria-Theresien-Platz. Both buildings were built between 1871 and 1891 according to plans drawn up by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer; the two Ringstraße museums were commissioned by the emperor in order to find a suitable shelter for the Habsburgs' formidable art collection and to make it accessible to the general public. The façade was built of sandstone; the building is rectangular in shape, topped with a dome, 60 meters high. The inside of the building is lavishly decorated with marble, stucco ornamentations, gold-leaf, paintings; the museum's primary collections are those of the Habsburgs from the portrait and armour collections of Ferdinand of Tirol, the collections of Emperor Rudolph II, the collection of paintings of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, of which his Italian paintings were first documented in the Theatrum Pictorium.
Notable works in the picture gallery include: Jan van Eyck: Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati Antonello da Messina: San Cassiano Altarpiece Raphael: Madonna of the Meadow St Margaret and the Dragon Albrecht Dürer: Avarice Adoration of the Trinity Titian: The Bravo Portrait of Isabella d'Este Lorenzo Lotto: Madonna and Child with Saint Catherine and Saint James Tintoretto: Susanna and the Elders Pieter Brueghel the Elder: The Fight Between Carnival and Lent Children's Games The Tower of Babel The Procession to Calvary The Gloomy Day The Return of the Herd The Hunters in the Snow The Peasant and the Nest Robber, 1568 The Peasant Wedding The Peasant Dance Giuseppe Arcimboldo: The Four Seasons Summer Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: The Crowning with Thorns Madonna of the Rosary David with the Head of Goliath Peter Paul Rubens: Miracles of St. Francis Xavier Angelica and the Hermit Ildefonso Altarpiece Self-Portrait The Fur Rembrandt: Self Portrait Johannes Vermeer: The Art of Painting Diego Velázquez: Several portraits of the Spanish royal family, a branch of the Habsburg, sent to Vienna.
Thomas Gainsborough: Landscape in Suffolk The collections of the Kunsthistorisches Museum: Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection Collection of Greek and Roman Antiquities Collection of Sculpture and Decorative Arts Coin Cabinet Library Ephesus Museum Collection of Ancient Musical Instruments Collection of Arms and Armour Archive Secular and Ecclesiastical Treasury Museum of Carriages and Department of Court Uniforms Collections of Ambras Castle the Austrian Theatre Museum in Palais LobkowitzAlso affiliated are the: Museum of Ethnology in the Neue Burg. It was featured in an episode of Museum Secrets on the History Channel, it had been the biggest art theft in Austrian history. The museum is the subject of Johannes Holzhausen's documentary film The Great Museum, filmed over two years in the run up to the re-opening of the newly renovated and expanded Kunstkammer rooms in 2013. Imperial Treasury, Vienna List of largest art museums Media related to Kunsthistorisches Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Photoartkalmar.com: Spherical panorama of entrance Flickr.com: Hofburg's Armory photo gallery
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Croatia, Transylvania, Milan and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress, she started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it, he neglected the advice of Prince Eugene of Savoy, who averred that a strong military and a rich treasury were more important than mere signatures. He left behind a weakened and impoverished state due to the War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War. Moreover, upon his death, Prussia and France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Frederick II of Prussia promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the seven-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
In defiance of the grave situation, she managed to secure the vital support of the Hungarians for the war effort. Over the course of the war, despite the loss of Silesia and a few minor territories in Italy, Maria Theresa defended her rule over most of the Habsburg empire. Maria Theresa unsuccessfully tried to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, had eleven daughters, including the Queen of France, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Duchess of Parma, five sons, including two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II. Of the sixteen children, ten survived to adulthood. Though she was expected to cede power to Francis and Joseph, both of whom were her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia, Maria Theresa was the absolute sovereign who ruled with the counsel of her advisers. Maria Theresa promulgated institutional and educational reforms, with the assistance of Wenzel Anton of Kaunitz-Rietberg, Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gerard van Swieten.
She promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, reorganised Austria's ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing. However, she despised the Jews and the Protestants, on certain occasions she ordered their expulsion to remote parts of the realm, she advocated for the state church and refused to allow religious pluralism. Her regime was criticized as intolerant by some contemporaries; the second and eldest surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Archduchess Maria Theresa was born on 13 May 1717 in Vienna, a year after the death of her elder brother, Archduke Leopold, was baptised on that same evening. The dowager empresses, her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, were her godmothers. Most descriptions of her baptism stress that the infant was carried ahead of her cousins, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia, the daughters of Charles VI's elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, before the eyes of their mother, Wilhelmine Amalia.
It was clear that Maria Theresa would outrank them though their grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, had his sons sign the Mutual Pact of Succession, which gave precedence to the daughters of the elder brother. Her father was the only surviving male member of the House of Habsburg and hoped for a son who would prevent the extinction of his dynasty and succeed him. Thus, the birth of Maria Theresa was the people of Vienna. Maria Theresa replaced Maria Josepha as heir presumptive to the Habsburg realms the moment she was born. Charles sought the other European powers' approval for disinheriting his nieces, they exacted harsh terms: in the Treaty of Vienna, Great Britain demanded that Austria abolish the Ostend Company in return for its recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction. In total, Great Britain, Saxony, United Provinces, Prussia, Denmark, Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Saxony and Prussia reneged. Little more than a year after her birth, Maria Theresa was joined by a sister, Maria Anna, another one, named Maria Amalia, was born in 1724.
The portraits of the imperial family show that Maria Theresa resembled Elisabeth Christine and Maria Anna. The Prussian ambassador noted that she had large blue eyes, fair hair with a slight tinge of red, a wide mouth and a notably strong body. Unlike many other members of the House of Habsburg, neither Maria Theresa's parents nor her grandparents were related to each other. Maria Theresa was a reserved child who enjoyed singing and archery, she was barred from horse riding by her father, but she would learn the basics for the sake of her Hungarian coronation ceremony. The imperial family staged opera productions conducted by Charles VI, in which she relished participating, her education was overseen by Jesuits. Contemporaries thought her Latin to be quite good, but in all else, the Jesuits did not educate her well, her spelling and punctuation were unconventional and she lacked the formal manner and speech which had characterised her Habsburg predecessors. Maria Theresa developed a close relationship with Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard
Vienna Ring Road
The Ringstrasse is a circular grand boulevard that serves as a ring road around the historic Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria. The road is located where medieval city fortifications once stood, including high walls and the broad open field ramparts, criss-crossed by paths that lay before them, it was constructed after the dismantling of the city walls in the mid-19th century. From the 1860s to 1890s, many large public buildings were erected along the Ringstrasse in an eclectic historicist style, sometimes called Ringstraßenstil, using elements of Classical, Gothic and Baroque architecture; because of its architectural beauty and history, the Vienna Ringstrasse has been called the "Lord of the Ring Roads" and is designated by UNESCO as part of Vienna's World Heritage Site.. This grand boulevard was built to replace the city walls, built during the 13th century and funded by the ransom payment derived from the release of Richard the Lion Heart, Richard I of England, reinforced as a consequence of the First Turkish Siege in 1529.
The walls were surrounded by a glacis about 500m wide, where buildings and vegetation were prohibited for military defensive reason. But by the late 18th century these fortifications had become obsolete. Under Emperor Joseph II, streets and walkways were built in the glacis, lit by lanterns and lined by trees. Craftsmen built open-air workshops, stalls were set up, but the Revolution of 1848 was required to trigger a more significant change. In 1850, the suburbs or Vorstädte were incorporated into the municipality, which made the city walls an impediment to traffic. In 1857, Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria issued the decree "I have resolved to command" ordering the demolition of the city walls and moats. In his decree, he laid out the exact size of the boulevard, as well as the geographical positions and functions of the new buildings; the Ringstraße and the planned buildings were intended to be a showcase for the grandeur and glory of the Habsburg Empire. On the practical level, Emperor Napoléon III of France's boulevard construction in Paris had demonstrated how enlarging and widening the size of streets made the erection of revolutionary barricades difficult and thus an easier target for artillery.
Since the Ringstraße had always been meant for show, a parallel Lastenstraße was built on the outside of the former glacis. This street is known as 2-er Linie, named after the number "2" in the identifiers of the various streetcar or tram lines which used it, it is still an important traffic thoroughfare. After some disputes about competence between the government and the municipality, a "City Extension Fund" was created, administered by the government. Only the city hall or town hall was planned by the city. During the following years, a large number of opulent public and private buildings were erected. Both the nobility and the plutocracy rushed to build showy palaces along the boulevard. One of the first buildings was the Heinrichshof, owned by the beer brewer Heinrich Drasche, located opposite the Imperial and Royal Court Opera House or opera house until 1945. One of the earliest art historians to study the Ringstraße is Renate Wagner-Rieger, a professor and alumnus at the University of Vienna.
Sigmund Freud was known to take a daily recreational walk around the Ring. Adolf Hitler was supposed to be a great admirer of the architecture of this area and that influenced Nazi architecture Many of the buildings that line the Ringstraße date back to the time before 1870; the following are some of the more notable buildings: Vienna State Opera in neo-romantic style by August Sicard von Sicardsburg and Eduard van der Nüll Academy of Fine Arts Vienna Palace of Justice Austrian Parliament Building, in neo-attic style by Theophil Freiherr von Hansen, Rathaus in Flemish-gothic style by Friedrich Schmidt, Burgtheater by Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer, University of Vienna, in neo-renaissance style, Votivkirche, in neo-gothic style by Heinrich Freiherr von Ferstel Wiener Börse Urania observatory Österreichische Postsparkasse, in Jugendstil by Otto Wagner Museum für Angewandte Kunst in neo-renaissance style by Heinrich Freiherr von Ferstel Hotel Imperial Palais Schey von Koromla Palais EphrussiThe only sacred building on the boulevard is the Votivkirche, built in dedication after Emperor Franz Joseph had survived an assassination attempt in 1853.
The Winter Palace or Hofburg was extended by an annex, the Neue Hofburg, which houses the Museum of Ethnology and the Austrian National Library today. On the other side of the boulevard, there are the Kunsthistorisches Museum and the Naturhistorisches Museum, which were built for the imperial collections. There should have been a parallel wing opposite the Neue Hofburg, which would have been located across the Ringstrasse from the Museum of Natural History. Together with the Heldenplatz and the Maria-Theresien-Platz this plan would have constituted the Imperial Forum/Kaiserforum. However, that plan was shelved for lack of funds; the construction ended only in 1913 with the completion of the Kriegsministerium. At that time, the Ringstraßenstil was somewhat outdated