Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
Warner Bros. Television
Warner Bros. Television is the television production arm of Warner Bros. Entertainment; the division was started on March 21, 1955 with its first and most successful head being Jack L. Warner's son-in-law William T. Orr. ABC had major success against its competition with Walt Disney's Disneyland TV series and approached Warner Bros. with the idea of purchasing the studio's film library. WB formally entered television production with the premiere of its self-titled anthology series Warner Bros. Presents on ABC; the one-hour weekly show featured rotating episodes of television series based on the WB films and Kings Row, as well as an original series titled Cheyenne with Clint Walker. The first one-hour television western, Cheyenne became a big hit for the network and the studio with the added advantage of featuring promotions for upcoming Warner Bros. cinema releases in the show's last ten minutes. One such segment for Rebel Without a Cause featured Gig Young notably talking about road safety with James Dean.
With only Cheyenne being a success, WB ended the ten-minute promotions of new films and replaced Warner Bros. Presents with an anthology series titled Conflict, it was felt. Conflict showed the pilots for 77 Sunset Strip; the success of Cheyenne led WBTV to produce many series for ABC such as Westerns, crime dramas, other shows such as The Gallant Men and The Roaring Twenties using stock footage from WB war films and gangster films respectively. The company produced Jack Webb's Red Nightmare for the U. S. Department of Defense, shown on American television on Jack Webb's General Electric True. All shows were made in the manner of WB's B pictures in the 1940s. During the 1960 Writers Guild of America strike, WB reused many plots from its films and other television shows under the nom de plume of "W. Hermanos"; this was another example of imitating Warner Bros' B Pictures who would remake an "A" film and switch the setting. Two of the most popular stars, James Garner and Clint Walker, quit over their conditions.
Garner never returned to the Warner's fold during this period. Successful Warner's television stars found themselves in leading roles of many of the studio's films with no increase in salary. Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. was the lead of 77 Sunset Strip, in a recurring role on Maverick, headlined several films until exhaustion forced the studio to give him a rest. Many other actors under contract to Warner's at the time, who despite their work conditions, did see their stars rise over time, albeit for most only included Jack Kelly, Will Hutchins, Peter Brown, Ty Hardin, Wayde Preston, John Russell, Donald May, Rex Reason, Richard Long, Van Williams, Roger Smith, Mike Road, Anthony Eisley, Robert Conrad, Robert McQueeney, Dorothy Provine, Diane McBain, Connie Stevens, who had recorded songs, "Kookie, Kookie" with Edd Byrnes in 1959. Burns and Troy Donahue would become teen heartthrobs. Another contract player, Englishman Roger Moore, was growing displeased with Warner as his contract was expiring and would relocate to Europe from Hollywood, becoming an international star on TV, in films.
Warners contracted established stars such as Ray Danton, Peter Breck, Jeanne Cooper and Grant Williams. These stars appeared as guest stars, sometimes reprising their series role in another TV series; the stars appeared in WB cinema releases with no additional salary, with some such as Zimbalist, Walker and Danton playing the lead roles. Some stars such as Connie Stevens, Edd Byrnes, Robert Conrad and Roger Smith made albums for Warner Bros. Records. One particular recording, a novelty tune titled Kookie, Kookie became a big hit for Edd Byrnes and Connie Stevens; the following year, Connie Stevens had her own hit, with Sixteen Reasons. It was during this period, that shows Westerns like Cheyenne and Maverick. Depending on the particular show, William Lava or David Buttolph would compose the music, with lyrics by Stan Jones or Paul Francis Webster, among others. For the crime shows, it was up to the songwriting team of Jerry Livingston and Mack David, who scored the themes for the sitcom Room for One More, The Bugs Bunny Show.
In 1960, WBTV turned its attentions to the younger viewer, for one program, anyway, as they brought Bugs Bunny and the other WB cartoon characters to prime time, with The Bugs Bunny Show, which featured cartoons released after July 31, 1948, combined with newly animated introductory material. That year saw the debut of The Roaring Twenties (which was thought to be a more benign alternative to Desilu's The Untouchables. Whether or
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Bay Ridge, Brooklyn
Bay Ridge is a predominantly middle-class residential neighborhood in the southwest corner of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is bounded by Sunset Park on the north, Dyker Heights on the east, the Narrows and the Belt Parkway on the west, Fort Hamilton Army Base and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge on the south; the section of Bay Ridge south of 86th Street is sometimes considered part of a sub-neighborhood called Fort Hamilton. Bay Ridge is part of Brooklyn Community District 10 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11209 and 11220, it is patrolled by the 68th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 43rd District; the first Dutch settlers began farming here in the 17th century. Well into the 19th century, what is now considered Bay Ridge consisted of two sister villages: Yellow Hook to the north, named for the color of the soil, Fort Hamilton to the south, named for the military installation at its center; the latter began to develop in the 1830s as a resort destination.
The former began to develop after 1850, when a group of artists moved to the area and founded a colony called Ovington Village. In the 1850s, the village changed the community’s name to avoid association with yellow fever. "Bay Ridge" was suggested by local horticulturist James Weir after the area’s most prominent geographic features: the high ridge that offered views of New York Bay. The natural beauty attracted the wealthy, who built country homes along Shore Road, overlooking the water. Suburban development in Bay Ridge continued through the 1890s. By World War II all of these large houses had been replaced with apartment buildings. Development accelerated once planning began for the Fourth Avenue subway, was well underway by the time the section of the subway in Bay Ridge opened in 1916. At the time, Bay Ridge extended northward to. Industrial developments were constructed along the waterfront north of present-day 65th Street, such as Bush Terminal, those were considered to be within Bay Ridge.
By the 1920s, the number of apartment buildings had increased fivefold, replacing old farms and houses. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many Norwegian and Danish sailors emigrated to Brooklyn, including Bay Ridge and neighboring Sunset Park. Construction of the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, which connects Bay Ridge to Staten Island, was completed in 1964. Though now an iconic structure, it was opposed by residents because it would require the demolition of many homes and businesses. Eight hundred buildings were destroyed, displacing 7,000 people, to make room for the bridge and its approach. Destroyed was Fort Lafayette, part of New York City's defense system along with Fort Hamilton and Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island; the Senator Street Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. The Houses at 216-264 Ovington Ave. were listed in 2007. The 2007 Brooklyn tornado hit this area 68th Street and Bay Ridge Avenue between Third and Fourth Avenues.
Eleven houses had to be vacated after they suffered significant damage, many of the trees on the two blocks toppled, landing on cars and stoops. The 4th Avenue Presbyterian Church had its large stained glass window blown out; as the tornado lifted, it peeled the roof of a nearby Nissan dealership and deforested 40% of Leif Ericson Park. The tornado has been rated an EF-2 on the Enhanced Fujita scale, with winds between 111 and 135 MPH. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Bay Ridge was 79,371, a decrease of 1,168 from the 80,539 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,571.96 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 50.5 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 66.4% White, 1.8% Black, 0.1% Native American, 13.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.9% of the population. The entirety of Community Board 10 had 142,075 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 83.1 years.
This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 20% are between the ages of 0–17, 34% between 25–44, 25% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 7% and 15% respectively. As of 2016, the median household income in Community District 10 was $68,679. In 2018, an estimated 19% of Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. One in twelve residents were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 49% in Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights lower than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights is considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city. Bay Ridge is an affluent neighborhood. With its strong family presence, it is not uncommon to see third or fourth generation families living in the region.
Until the early 1990s, Bay Ridge was a Irish, Greek, Syrian and Norwegian neighborhood. Its Nordic heritage is still apparent in the annual Norwegian Constitution Day Parade known as the Syttende Mai
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
Market Watch is a show on CNBC that aired from 10 am to 12 noon ET, hosted by Martha MacCallum and Ted David, Bob Sellers and Consuelo Mack. It was replaced by Midday Call on 4 February 2002; the show gave viewers the latest business news during the morning trading session. Regular segments included Taking Stock where viewers could phone-in and ask the guest analysts' recommendations on certain stocks. Around CNBC's global branches, there are many counterparts of Market Watch in the world. Asia Market Watch was a business news programme aired on CNBC Asia from 9 a.m. to noon, Hong Kong/Singapore/Taiwan time. The programme, presented by Amanda Drury, took its name from the previous CNBC US programme Market Watch; the programme was aired in part on CNBC Europe and in its entirety in the US on CNBC World. Although it was referred to as Asia Market Watch in programme listings and by some presenters, the programme's title sequence and graphics referred to the programme only as Market Watch since 30 October 2000.
The programme, which debuted a new logo on 30 October 2006 used the theme music adopted by Street Signs. When the programme debuted in April 2000, it was entitled Asia Market Watch and only lasted for 1 hour with the 2nd half-hour a replay of the 1st half-hour. However, in October 2000, as part of CNBC Asia's extension of live regional programming, it was renamed Market Watch and aired live for 3½ hours on Weekdays. Prior to 2 January 2001, CNBC Asia used graphics for the show different from the one used by CNBC US; the programme tracked the current trading in the Asian session, with link ups to bourses across Asia, including Tokyo and Sydney. The programme ended its run on 23 March 2007; the timeslot occupied by the show has been split between a new-look Asia Squawk Box and a new programme, CNBC's Cash Flow. Global Market Watch's Asian edition aired at 17:30 SIN time and was seen in Asia following a similar format to its European counterpart, it was hosted by Martin Soong but he was joined by Grace Phan when the show moved to 20:30 SIN time in July 2000.
AnchorsRico Hizon Rico Hizon Sushita Vadlamani Lisa Oake Amanda Drury Teymoor Nabili European Market Watch was a business news programme aired on CNBC Europe between 10 am-noon CET. The programme was based on the CNBC US morning programme Market Watch, replaced by the programme Morning Call. Just like its US counterpart, European Market Watch presented viewers with the latest market information and in-depth analysis of the stories making business. Global Market Watch's European Edition, was named Market Watch in 1998 to give a midday recap of Asian markets and preview the day in Europe, it aired at 05:00–05:30 BST and was anchored by Geoff Cutmore in London and Cecilia Zecha in Singapore with Simon Hobbs and Bernard Lo as stock watchers. In 1999, it was renamed Global Market Watch and was anchored by Simon Hobbs but CNBC Asia stock watchers continued to give an update on Asian action. Tokyo Market Watch is a business news programme aired from 2:05 to 2:23 pm JST weekdays on Nikkei CNBC. Asia Market Watch official website Tokyo Market Watch official website
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of