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Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark)

Maria Feodorovna, known before her marriage as Princess Dagmar of Denmark, was a Danish princess and Empress of Russia as spouse of Emperor Alexander III. She was the second daughter and fourth child of King Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel, her eldest son became Emperor Nicholas II of Russia. She lived for ten years after he and his family were killed. Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar was born at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen, her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a member of a impoverished princely cadet line. Her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, she was baptised as a Lutheran and named after her kinswoman Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel, Queen Dowager of Denmark as well as the medieval Danish queen, Dagmar of Bohemia. Her godmother was Queen Caroline Amalie of Denmark. Growing up, she was known by the name Dagmar. Most of her life, she was known as Maria Feodorovna, the name which she took when she converted to Orthodoxy before her 1866 marriage to the future Emperor Alexander III.

She was known within her family as "Minnie". In 1852 Dagmar's father became heir-presumptive to the throne of Denmark due to the succession rights of his wife Louise as niece of King Christian VIII. In 1853, he was given the title Prince of Denmark and he and his family were given an official summer residence, Bernstorff Palace. Dagmar's father became King of Denmark in 1863 upon the death of King Frederick VII. Due to the brilliant marital alliances of his children, he became known as the "Father-in-law of Europe." Dagmar's eldest brother would succeed his father as King Frederick VIII of Denmark. Her elder, favourite, Alexandra married Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales in March 1863. Alexandra, along with being queen consort of King Edward VII, was mother of George V of the United Kingdom, which helps to explain the striking resemblance between their sons Nicholas II and George V. Within months of Alexandra's marriage, Dagmar's second older brother, was elected as King George I of the Hellenes.

Her younger sister was Duchess of Cumberland. She had another younger brother, Valdemar. During her upbringing, together with her sister Alexandra, was given swimming lessons by the Swedish pioneer of swimming for women, Nancy Edberg; the rise of Slavophile ideology in the Russian Empire led Alexander II of Russia to search for a bride for the heir apparent, Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich, in countries other than the German states that had traditionally provided consorts for the tsars. In 1864, Nicholas, or "Nixa" as he was known in his family, went to Denmark where he was betrothed to Dagmar. On 22 April 1865 he died from meningitis, his last wish was that Dagmar would marry his younger brother, the future Alexander III. Dagmar was distraught after her young fiancé's death, she was so heartbroken when she returned to her homeland that her relatives were worried about her health. She had become attached to Russia and thought of the huge, remote country, to have been her home; the disaster had brought her close to "Nixa's" parents, she received a letter from Alexander II in which the Emperor attempted to console her.

He told Dagmar in affectionate terms that he hoped she would still consider herself a member of their family. In June 1866, while on a visit to Copenhagen, the Tsarevich Alexander asked Dagmar for her hand, they had been in her room looking over photographs together. Dagmar left Copenhagen on 1 September 1866. Hans Christian Andersen, invited to tell stories to Dagmar and her siblings when they were children, was among the crowd which flocked to the quay in order to see her off; the writer remarked in his diary, "Yesterday, at the quay, while passing me by, she stopped and took me by the hand. My eyes were full of tears. What a poor child! Oh Lord, be kind and merciful to her! They say that there is a brilliant court in Saint Petersburg and the tsar's family is nice. Dagmar was warmly welcomed in Kronstadt by Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich of Russia and escorted to St. Petersburg, where she was greeted by her future mother-in-law and sister-in-law on 24 September. On the 29th, she made her formal entry in to the Russian capital dressed in a Russian national costume in blue and gold and traveled with the Empress to the Winter Palace where she was introduced to the Russian public on a balcony.

Catherine Radziwill described the occasion: ”rarely has a foreign princess been greeted with such enthusiasm… from the moment she set foot on Russian soil, succeeded in winning to herself all hearts. Her smile, the delightful way she had of bowing to the crowds…, laid the foundation of …popularity” She converted to Orthodoxy and became Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna of Russia; the lavish wedding took place on 9 November 1866 in the Imperial Chapel of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. Financial constraints had prevented her parents from attending the wedding, in their stead, they sent her brother, Crown Prince Frederick, her brother-in-law, the Prince of Wales, had travelled to Saint Petersburg for the ceremony. Afte

2009 ACC Trophy Challenge

The 2009 ACC Trophy Challenge was a cricket tournament in Chiang Mai, taking place between 12 and 21 January 2009. It gave Associate and Affiliate members of the Asian Cricket Council experience of international one-day cricket and formed part of the regional qualifications for the ICC World Cricket League; the top 2 teams were promoted to the ACC Trophy Elite Division. Bhutan qualified for the WCL82010 After the 2006 ACC Trophy a decision was made to split the tournament into two divisions; the placement of teams in these divisions was determined by the final rankings in the previous tournament. The top ten teams went into the 2008 ACC Trophy Elite with the remaining teams taking part in the 2009 ACC Trophy Challenge, they were joined by China who had not taken part in the tournament. Qualified through participation in 2006 ACC Trophy: Newcomers to the ACC Trophy: China Green denotes teams going into the semifinals. Yellow denotes teams that play in the fifth place playoff and remain in the ACC Trophy Challenge Division.

Red denotes teams that play in the seventh place playoff and remain in the ACC Trophy Challenge Division. Winners of the semifinals were promoted to the ACC Trophy Elite Division and qualified for the final. 2009 ACC Trophy Challenge – Official Site

Eric T. Olson (philosopher)

Eric T. Olson is an American philosopher who specializes in metaphysics and philosophy of mind. Olson is best known for his research in the field of personal identity, for advocating animalism, the theory that human beings are animals. Olson received a BA from a PhD from Syracuse University. Olson is a professor of philosophy at the University of Sheffield, a position he has held since 2003, held a lectureship at Cambridge University; the Human Animal: Personal Identity Without Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. What Are We? A Study in Personal Ontology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. "Is Psychology Relevant to Personal Identity?" Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72: 173–86, 1994 "Human People or Human Animals?" Philosophical Studies 80: 159–81, 1995 "Why I Have no Hands." Theoria 61: 182–197, 1995 "Composition and Coincidence." Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.77: 374–403, 1996 "Dion's Foot." Journal of Philosophy 94: 260–65, 1997 "Was I Ever a Fetus?" Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57: 95–110, 1997.

"Relativism and Persistence." Philosophical Studies 88: 141–62, 1997 "The Ontological Basis of Strong Artificial Life." Artificial Life 3: 29–39, 1997 "Human Atoms." Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 76: 396–406, 1998 "Reply to Lynne Rudder Baker." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59: 161–66, 1999 "There is no Problem of the Self." Journal of Consciousness Studies 5: 645–57, 1998, in S. Gallagher and J. Shearer, eds. Models of the Self, Imprint Academic 1999. "A Compound of Two Substances." In K. Corcoran, ed. Soul and Survival Cornell University Press, 2001: 73–88 "Material Coincidence and the Indiscernibility Problem." Philosophical Quarterly 51: 337–55, 2001 "Personal Identity and the Radiation Argument." Analysis 61: 38–43, 2001 "What does Functionalism Tell Us about Personal Identity?" Noûs 36: 682–98, 2002 "Thinking Animals and the Reference of'I.'" Philosophical Topics 30: 189–208, 2002 "An Argument for Animalism." In R. Martin and J. Barresi, eds. Personal Identity. Blackwell 2003: 318–34.

"Personal Identity." In S. Stich & T. Warfield, eds; the Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Mind. Blackwell 2003: 352–68. "Lowe's Defence of Constitutionalism." Philosophical Quarterly 53: 92–95, 2003 "Was Jekyll Hyde?" Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66: 328–348, 2003 "Warum Wir Tiere Sind." In K. Petrus, ed. On Human Persons. Ontos Verlag, 2003: 11–22 "Animalism and the Corpse Problem." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82: 265–74, 2004 "Imperfect Identity." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 104: 81–98, 2006 "There a Bodily Criterion of Personal Identity?" In F. MacBride, ed. Identity and Modality. Oxford University Press, 2006 "Temporal Parts and Timeless Parthood." Noûs 40: 738–752, 2006 "The Paradox of Increase." The Monist 89: 390–417, 2006 "What Are We?" Journal of Consciousness Studies 14: 37–55, 2007, in A. Laitinen and H. Ikäheimo, eds. Dimensions of Personhood "Was I Ever a Fetus?" In R. Nichols et al. eds. Philosophy Through Science Fiction, Routledge 2008. "The Rate of Time's Passage."

Analysis 69: 3–9, 2009 "The Passage of Time." In R. LePoidevin et al. eds. The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics 2009: 440–48

Hueil mab Caw

In Welsh tradition, Hueil mab Caw was a Pictish warrior and traditional rival of King Arthur's. He was one of the numerous sons of Caw of Prydyn, brother to Saint Gildas; the Latin Life of Gildas by Caradoc of Llancarfan describes Hueil as an "active warrior and most distinguished soldier", who led a number of violent and sweeping raids from Scotland down into Arthur's territory. As a result, Arthur marched on Hueil and pursued him as far as the Isle of Mann, where he killed the young plunderer. Giraldus Cambrensis alludes to this tradition, claiming that Gildas destroyed "a number of outstanding books" praising Arthur after hearing on the death of his brother. A variation of Hueil's death, chronicled by Elis Gruffudd, is as follows: The feud between Hueil and Arthur is further alluded to in the early Arthurian tale Culhwch and Olwen in which Hueil alongside his many brothers is a knight of Arthur's court and is described as having "never submitted to a lord's hand." The text refers to an incident in which Hueil stabbed his nephew, Gwydre ap Llwydeu, the source of the enmity between them.

The Welsh Triads refer to Hueil as one of the three "battle-diademed" warriors alongside Cai and Drustan, but inferior to Bedwyr. Hueil is further mentioned in the late twelfth century Englynion y Clyweit, a collection of proverbial englyns attributed to various historical and mythological heroes; the text describes him as "the son of Caw, whose saying was just" and claims that he once sang the proverb "Often will a curse fall from the bosom."

Cartan's equivalence method

In mathematics, Cartan's equivalence method is a technique in differential geometry for determining whether two geometrical structures are the same up to a diffeomorphism. For example, if M and N are two Riemannian manifolds with metrics g and h when is there a diffeomorphism ϕ: M → N such that ϕ ∗ h = g? Although the answer to this particular question was known in dimension 2 to Gauss and in higher dimensions to Christoffel and Riemann as well, Élie Cartan and his intellectual heirs developed a technique for answering similar questions for radically different geometric structures. Cartan applied his equivalence method to many such structures, including projective structures, CR structures, complex structures, as well as ostensibly non-geometrical structures such as the equivalence of Lagrangians and ordinary differential equations; the equivalence method is an algorithmic procedure for determining when two geometric structures are identical. For Cartan, the primary geometrical information was expressed in a coframe or collection of coframes on a differentiable manifold.

See method of moving frames. Suppose that M and N are a pair of manifolds each carrying a G-structure for a structure group G; this amounts to giving a special class of coframes on M and N. Cartan's method addresses the question of whether there exists a local diffeomorphism φ:M→N under which the G-structure on N pulls back to the given G-structure on M. An equivalence problem has been "solved" if one can give a complete set of structural invariants for the G-structure: meaning that such a diffeomorphism exists if and only if all of the structural invariants agree in a suitably defined sense. Explicitly, local systems of one-forms θi and γi are given on M and N which span the respective cotangent bundles; the question is whether there is a local diffeomorphism φ:M→N such that the pullback of the coframe on N satisfies ϕ ∗ γ i = g j i θ j, ∈ G where the coefficient g is a function on M taking values in the Lie group G. For example, if M and N are Riemannian manifolds G=O is the orthogonal group and θi and γi are orthonormal coframes of M and N respectively.

The question of whether two Riemannian manifolds are isometric is a question of whether there exists a diffeomorphism φ satisfying. The first step in the Cartan method is to express the pullback relation in as invariant a way as possible through the use of a "prolongation"; the most economical way to do this is to use a G-subbundle PM of the principal bundle of linear coframes LM, although this approach can lead to unnecessary complications when performing actual calculations. In particular on this article uses a different approach, but for the purposes of an overview, it is convenient to stick with the principal bundle viewpoint. The second step is to use the diffeomorphism invariance of the exterior derivative to try to isolate any other higher-order invariants of the G-structure. One obtains a connection in the principal bundle PM, with some torsion; the components of the connection and of the torsion are regarded as invariants of the problem. The third step is that if the remaining torsion coefficients are not constant in the fibres of the principal bundle PM, it is possible, to normalize them by setting them equal to a convenient constant value and solving these normalization equations, thereby reducing the effective dimension of the Lie group G.

If this occurs, one goes back to step one, now having a Lie group of one lower dimension to work with. The main purpose of the first three steps was to reduce the structure group itself as much as possible. Suppose that the equivalence problem has been through the loop enough times that no further reduction is possible. At this point, there are various possible directions. For most equivalence problems, there are only four cases: complete reduction, involution and degeneracy. Complete reduction. Here the structure group has been reduced to the trivial group; the problem can now be handled by methods such as the Frobenius theorem. In other words, the algorithm has terminated. On the other hand, it is possible that the torsion coefficients are constant on the fibres of PM. Equivalently, they no longer depend on the Lie group G because there is nothing left to normalize, although there may still be some torsion; the three remaining cases assume this. Involution; the equivalence problem is said to be involutive.

This is a rank condition on the connection obtained in the first three steps of the procedure. The Cartan test generalizes the Frobenius theorem on the solubility of first-order linear systems of partial differential equations. If the coframes on M and N agree and satisfy the Cartan test the two G-structures are equivalent. (Actually, to the best of the author's knowledge, the coframes must be real analytic i


Kàrlovo is a important town in central Bulgaria located in a fertile valley along the river Stryama at the southern foot of the Balkan Mountains. It is administratively part of Plovdiv Province and has a population of about 30,340, the mayor being Dr. Emil Kabaivanov. Karlovo is famous for the worldwide-known rose oil, grown there and used in producing perfume. In addition to this, Karlovo is the birthplace of Vasil Levski, the most distinguished Bulgarian to start preparing the national liberation from the Ottoman rule in the late 19th century. There is a museum and large monument dedicated to him. Karlovo is a popular location for tourism in the region. During the 2000s, Bulgarian archaeologists made discoveries in Central Bulgaria which were summarized as'The Valley of the Thracian Kings'. On 19 August 2005, some archaeologists announced they had found the first Thracian capital, situated near Karlovo in Bulgaria. A lot of polished ceramic artifacts were discovered revealing the fortune of the town.

The Bulgarian Ministry of Culture declared its support to the excavations. Karlovo is a successor of the medieval fortress of Kopsis, a feudal possession of Smilets of Bulgaria in the 13th-14th century and the capital of his brother despotēs Voysil's short-lived realm; the modern town originated in 1483 at the place of the village of Sushitsa, but grew in importance in the 19th century as a centre of Bulgarian culture and revolutionary activity. In 1876 Lady Strangford arrived from Britain with relief for the people of Bulgaria following the massacres that followed the April Uprising, she built a hospital at Batak and other hospitals were built at Radilovo, Perushtitsa and here at Karlovo. From 1953 until 1962, the town was called Levskigrad. Karlovo lies at 386 metres above sea level, it is located in the Valley of Roses, known for the big-scale production of roses. Stara Planina mountain lies above the town; the highest peak of this mountain range — Botev, 2376m — is close to Karlovo. The town is located 140 kilometres east from the Bulgarian capital — Sofia, 60 km north from Plovdiv, the second biggest Bulgarian city and the capital of the Plovdiv Province.

The climate of the region is temperate continental, with mild and warm summers, refreshed by the wind coming down the Balkan Mountain, snowy winters. The average January temperature is 0.1 °C. The average July temperature is 22.9 °C. Average total annual rainfall is 694 mm, being highest in the summer 221 mm, lowest in the winter 169 mm. Karlovo is located on the main road E 78, one of the two roads which connect the capital Sofia to the southern part of the Black Sea; the town is an important point on the railway between Sofia and the commercially important Black Sea port of Burgas. There are frequent trains to the second biggest railway station in the country — Plovdiv; the total road length on the territory of Karlovo municipality is 301.4 km. Karlovo is only 50 km away from the most important road in Bulgaria - Trakiya motorway, the main road between Sofia and Istanbul; the international road to Bucharest is just 50 km away. Karlovo is the seat of Karlovo municipality; the population of the Karlovo municipality is 73,000 people.

It includes the following 27 towns and villages: Evlogi Georgiev, merchant and entrepreneur Ivan Bogorov, encyclopedist Vasil Levski and national hero of Bulgaria Hristo Prodanov, first Bulgarian to climb Mount Everest without oxygen mask. Nelly Petkova and folklore singer The Day of the Rose in the first days of June Anniversary of Vasil Levski's death Suchurum Waterfall; the 15-metre-high Suchurum waterfall is known as the Karlovo waterfall. It is located right below the Karlovo water-power station, on the left tributary of Stryama River - Stara Reka, taking its sources from the two tributaries – the Malkata Reka springing South of the peaks of Ambaritsa and Malak Kupen and Golyamata River – springing South below the peak of Zhultets. With its number of rapids, small pools and chutes above Karlovo, Stara Reka descends from 15 metres in a waterfall.'Central Balkan' National Park. The'Central Balkan' National Park is situated in the heart of Bulgaria, in the central and highest parts of the Balkan Mountain.

The highest peak in the Park is Botev peak. The lowest point is situated on altitude of 500 metres; the park occupies a total area of 72 021 ha and includes parts of the territories of 5 administrative areas – Lovech, Stara Zagora and Sofia. The Park includes 9 natural reserves –'Boatin','Tsarichina','Kozya Stena','Steneto','Severen Dzhendem','Peeshti Skali','Sokolna','Dzhendema' and'Stara Reka'; the reserves occupy an area of 20,019.6 ha. Eight of them and'Central Balkan' Park are included in the UN list of national parks and other protected territories. Boatin, Tsarichina and Steneto are a part of the network of biosphere reserves. In 2003 the'Central Balkan' National Park became a member of PAN Parks, an international appraisal of its well preserved and managed wild nature. In 2004 a holder of the PAN Parks certificate is the park region.'Vasil Levski' National Museum. The'Vasil Levski' Nation