House of Bourbon-Parma
The House of Bourbon-Parma is a cadet branch of the Spanish royal family, whose members once ruled as King of Etruria and as Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Lucca. The House descended from the French Capetian dynasty in male line, its name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the other from the title of Duke of Parma. The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons as the founder was the great-grandson of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma; the Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parma. In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus Duke of Piacenza, so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza; the Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, at which point the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, whose mother Elisabeth was a member of the Farnese family.
He ruled until 1735 during the War of the Polish Succession, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies. The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbons in the person of Philip of Spain, Charles's younger brother; as duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma. In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, duke Ferdinand formally agreed to cede the duchy to Napoleon; the territories were integrated into the Cisalpine Republic until 1802, the Italian Republic, from 1802 until 1805, the Kingdom of Italy, from 1805 until 1808, until in 1808 the French Empire annexed them and formed out of them the Département of Taro. In 1814, the duchies were restored under Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, to rule them for her lifetime; the duchy was renamed the duchy of Parma and Guastalla. After Marie Louise's death in 1847, the duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, ruling the tiny duchy of Lucca.
As part of the return the Duchy of Guastalla was transferred to the Duchy of Modena. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the Sardinian victory in their war against Austria; the duchies of Parma and Guastalla and the duchy of Lucca joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860. The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of duke of Parma to this day. Carlos-Hugo held the title from 1977 to his death, his son now claims the title. During the French ownership of the Duchy of Parma, the title of Duke of Parma was used as an honorary form and style. From 1808, the title was used by Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, he kept the style of Duc de Parme until 1814. Only in 1847 was the actual title restored to the Bourbons, after a period of being held by Marie Louise of Austria, a Habsburg and the second wife of Napoleon I.
Carlos, Duke of Parma, born on 27 January 1970Annemarie, Duchess of Parma, born on 18 December 1977 Hugo of Bourbon-Parma and Klynstra, born on 20 January 1997 Princess Luisa of Bourbon-Parma, born on 9 May 2012 Princess Cecilia of Bourbon-Parma, born on 17 October 2013 Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma, born on 24 April 2016 Princess Margarita of Bourbon-Parma, born on 13 October 1972Tjalling ten Cate, born on 23 December 1975 Julia ten Cate, born on 3 September 2008 Paola ten Cate, born on 25 February 2011 Prince Jaime, Count of Bardi, born on 13 October 1972Viktória, Countess of Bardi, born on 25 May 1982 Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma, born on 21 February 2014 Princess Gloria of Bourbon-Parma, born on 9 May 2016 Princess Carolina, Marchioness of Sala, born on 23 June 1974Albert Brenninkmeijer, born on 16 May 1974 Alaïa-Maria Brenninkmeijer, born on 20 May 2014 Xavier Brenninkmeijer, born on 16 December 2015 Since 1964, the House of Bourbon-Parma has reigned agnatically in Luxembourg when upon the abdication of his mother Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, ascended to the throne.
Jean was the son of Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma, a younger son of Robert I of Parma, Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. Charlotte's descendants have since reigned as the continued dynasty of Nassau. In October 2000 Jean abdicated the Luxembourgian throne in favour of his eldest son, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Sources: Descendants of Louis XIV of France which includes them List of Dukes of Parma Pretenders to the throne of Parma Official website of the House of Bourbon-Parma Website of the Royal and Ducal House of Bourbon-Parma Newspaper clippings about House of Bourbon-Parma in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The Palazzo Barberini is a 17th-century palace in Rome, facing the Piazza Barberini in Rione Trevi. Today it houses the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, the main national collection of older paintings in Rome; the sloping site had been occupied by a garden-vineyard of the Sforza family, in which a palazzetto had been built in 1549. The sloping site passed from one cardinal to another during the sixteenth century, with no project getting off the ground; when Cardinal Alessandro Sforza met financial hardships, the still semi-urban site was purchased in 1625 by Maffeo Barberini, of the Barberini family, who became Pope Urban VIII. Three great architects worked to create the Palazzo, each contributing his own style and character to the building. Carlo Maderno at work extending the nave of St Peter's, was commissioned to enclose the Villa Sforza within a vast Renaissance block along the lines of Palazzo Farnese. Maderno began in 1627, assisted by his nephew Francesco Borromini; when Maderno died in 1629, Borromini was passed over and the commission was awarded to Bernini, a young prodigy better known as a sculptor.
Borromini stayed on regardless and the two architects worked together, albeit on this project and at the Palazzo Spada. Works were completed by Bernini in 1633. After the Wars of Castro and the death of Urban VIII, the palace was confiscated by Pamphili Pope Innocent X and was only returned to the Barberini in 1653; the palazzo is disposed around a forecourt centered on Bernini's grand two-storey hall backed by an oval salone, with an extended wing dominating the piazza, which lies on a lower level. At the rear, a long wing protected the garden from the piazza below, above which it rose from a rusticated basement, battered like a military bastion; the main block presents three tiers of great arch-headed windows, like glazed arcades, a formula, more Venetian than Roman. On the uppermost floor, Borromini's windows are set in a false perspective that suggests extra depth, a feature, copied into the 20th century. Flanking the hall, two sets of stairs lead to the piano nobile, a large squared staircase by Bernini to the left and a smaller oval staircase by Borromini to the right.
As well as Borromini's false-perspective windows reveals, other influential aspects of Palazzo Barberini that were repeated throughout Europe include the unit of a central two-storey hall backed by an oval salone and the symmetrical wings that extended forward from the main block to create a cour d'honneur. The garden is known for its concealment from an outsider's view, it houses a monument to Bertel Thorwaldsen, who had a studio in the nearby Teatro delle Quattro Fontane in 1822-1834. The salon ceiling is graced by Pietro da Cortona's masterpiece, the Baroque fresco of the Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power; this vast panegyric allegory became influential in guiding decoration for palatial and church ceilings. In the palace is a masterpiece by Andrea Sacchi, a contemporary critic of the Cortona style, Divine Wisdom; the rooms of the piano nobile have frescoed ceilings by other seventeenth-century artists like Giuseppe Passeri and Andrea Camassei, plus, in the museum collection, precious detached frescoes by Polidoro da Caravaggio and his lover Maturino da Firenze.
Today, Palazzo Barberini houses the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, one of the most important painting collections in Italy. It includes Raphael's portrait La fornarina, Caravaggio's Judith Beheading Holofernes and a Hans Holbein portrait of Henry VIII; the palace houses the Italian Institute of Numismatics. The European Convention on Human Rights, which created the European Court of Human Rights, was signed here on 4 November 1950, a milestone in the protection of human rights. Hidden in the cellars of the rear part of the building, a Mithraeum was found during the construction work of Villa Savorgnan di Brazzà in 1936, dating from the second century AD. Blunt, Anthony, "The Palazzo Barberini", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 21. Palazzo Barberini: official site Rome Art-Lover: Palazzo Barberini Palazzo Barberini and Veneto Rome guide Italian army ends museum stand-off, BBC News, Friday, 13 October 2006 Google Maps; the complex constituting the Palazzo Barberini is in the center, set back from the road on all sides, askew.
On the lower side of the image are the start of the Quirinal Palace gardens. Below, in the first corner on the right, is the San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Diagonally opposite and above is the triangular Piazza Barberini with the Triton Fountain; the National Gallery of Ancient Art at Barberini Palace
Infante Francisco de Paula, Duke of Cádiz
Infante Francisco de Paula of Spain was an Infante of Spain and the youngest son of Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma. He was a brother of Ferdinand VII, as well as the uncle and father-in-law of Isabella II, his education at the Spanish court was derailed by the Napoleonic intervention in Spain. The departure of the fourteen-year-old Infante to exile in May 1808 provoked a popular uprising, violently suppressed by French troops. For the next ten years, Infante Francisco de Paula lived in exile with his parents, first in Marseille and in Rome. Infante Francisco de Paula returned to Spain in 1818, being called by his eldest brother, King Ferdinand VII, who showered him with honors and privileges. Interested in artistic pursuits, Francisco was painter. In 1819, he married his niece, Princess Luisa Carlotta of Naples and Sicily, the eldest daughter of his older sister Maria Isabella; the couple had eleven children and were active in political affairs. Luisa Carlotta was instrumental in securing the succession for Ferdinand VII's daughter, Queen Isabella II.
During the regency of Isabella II, Francisco was excluded from the government by his sister-in-law, Queen Maria Christina. Siding with the liberals, Francisco de Paula and his wife became active in the opposition and were forced to move to France in 1838, they returned to Spain under the government of Maria Christina's successor as regent, General Espartero. As they conspired against Espartero, they were sent back into exile; the proclamation of Queen Isabella II's majority allowed them to return. The Infante and his wife centered their hopes on marrying their eldest son, Infante Francisco de Asis, to Queen Isabella II. Luisa Carlotta died in 1844, under pressure from French diplomacy, Queen Isabella II married Francisco de Asis in October 1846; as father-in-law to his niece the Queen, Infante Francisco de Paula occupied a prominent position at court during Isabella II's reign. However, as he tried to intervene in politics, he was exiled once again in 1849. In 1852, with the Queen's approval, he contracted a morganatic marriage.
He died twelve years later. Born on 10 March 1794 at the Royal Palace of Aranjuez, Infante Francisco de Paula was the fourteenth child of King Carlos IV of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma, a granddaughter of King Louis XV of France, he received the names Francisco de Paula Antonio Maria. His parents had married twenty-nine years earlier and Francisco de Paula was the couple's last child; as the youngest in a large family, he was his mother's favorite. His father, King Carlos IV, had a passion for hunting and collecting clocks, but little interest in political affairs, he took a passive role in the direction of his own kingdom, leaving the government to his wife and to his prime minister, Manuel Godoy. Queen Maria Luisa dominated the king. Lacking the political acumen necessary to hold power on her own, Maria Luisa deposited her trust and the rule of government on Godoy, whom she raised to prominence. Court rumors attributed the paternity of Francisco de Paula and his sister Maria Isabel, not to the king, but to Godoy.
However, recent biographers and historians have found these claims to be both unlikely. As a child, Francisco de Paula had brown eyes and a tender expression. In the spring 1800, at the age of six, he was painted with his family by Francisco Goya in the portrait Charles IV of Spain and His Family. Francisco de Paula's education was different from the one provided to his two eldest brothers Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias and Infante Don Carlos; the plan of studies assigned to him was inspired by the pedagogical theories of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. Trying to implement this system of education throughout Spain, Godoy convinced the royal couple to apply it to their youngest son. Although his parents intended Francisco de Paula to pursue a career in the Spanish Navy, the Infante's education was abruptly interrupted by the Napoleonic intervention in Spain. With the pretext of solving the differences between Charles IV and his eldest son, Ferdinand VII, who took over the government after the Mutiny of Aranjuez, Napoleon invited father and son to a meeting in Bayonne, pressing them both to renounce the Spanish crown and give it to him.
After achieving his objective, Napoleon gave Spain to his brother Joseph Bonaparte and ordered the remaining members of the Spanish royal family out of the country. While his parents and eldest brothers were at the conference in Bayonne with Napoleon, Francisco de Paula fourteen years old, was left behind at the Royal Palace of Madrid with his sister, the deposed Queen of Etruria, her children. On 2 May 1808, at the departure of the Infante, the last remaining male member of royal family on Spanish soil, a crowd gathered in front of the Royal Palace in an attempt to prevent his removal; the appearance of Francisco de Paula and overcome by emotion, touched the crowd. Poorly armed, the population confronted the French troops; the spontaneous popular uprising against the French invaders spread throughout Madrid, but the French General Murat brutally crushed the rebellion. For the next six years all the members of the Spanish royal family lived in exile. Ferdinand VII, his brother Infante Don Carlos and their uncle, old Infante Don Antonio, were confined under close surveillance at the Château de Valençay.
Francisco de Paula, still a teenager, was the only child allowed to accompany his parents in exile in France. King Carlos IV, the Queen and Infante Francisco de Paula, always followed by Godoy, were installed at the Château de Compiègne to the north-east of Paris. Looking for a warmer climate, they moved to Marseille in October 1808, they spent the next four years there, under in
Pope Clement XIV
Pope Clement XIV, born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 May 1769 to his death in 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals. To date, he is the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Clement" upon his election, he is best known for his suppression of the Society of Jesus. Ganganelli was born in Santarcangelo di Romagna in 1705 as the second child of Lorenzo Ganganelli and Angela Serafina Maria Mazza, he received the sacrament of baptism on 2 November 1705. He studied at Verucchio but received his education from the Society of Jesus at Rimini from 1717, he studied with the Piarists of Urbino. Ganganelli entered the Order of Friars Minor Conventual on 15 May 1723 in Forlì and he changed his name to "Lorenzo Francesco", he did his novitiate in Urbino. He was professed as a full member of that order on 18 May 1724, he was sent to the convents of Pesaro and Recanati from 1724 to 1728 where he did his theological studies.
He continued his studies in Rome under Antonio Lucci and obtained his doctorate in theology in 1731. He was ordained around this time after he received his doctorate and he taught philosophy and theology for a decade in Ascoli and Milan, he returned to Rome as the regent of the college that he studied in and was elected as the Definitor General of the order in 1741. In the general chapters of his order in 1753 and 1756, he declined the generalship of his order and some rumored it was due to his desire of a higher office. Ganganelli became a friend of Pope Benedict XIV, who in 1758 appointed him to investigate the issue of the traditional blood libel regarding the Jews, which Ganganelli found to be untrue. Pope Clement XIII elevated Ganganelli to the cardinalate on 24 September 1759 and appointed him as the Cardinal-Priest of San Lorenzo in Panisperna, his elevation came at the insistence of Lorenzo Ricci, the Superior-General of the Society of Jesus. Ganganelli opted to become the Cardinal-Priest of Ss.
XII Apostoli in 1762. In 1768 he was named the "ponens" of the cause of beatification of Juan de Palafox y Mendoza; the papal conclave in 1769 was completely dominated by the problem of the Society of Jesus. During the previous pontificate, the Jesuits had been expelled from Portugal and from all the courts of the House of Bourbon, which included France, Spain and Parma. In January, 1769, these powers made a formal demand for the dissolution of the Society. Clement XIII had planned a consistory to discuss the matter, but died on February 2, the night before it was to be held. Now the general suppression of the order was urged by the faction called the "court cardinals", who were opposed by the diminished pro-Jesuit faction, the Zelanti, who were opposed to the encroaching secularism of the Enlightenment. Much of the early activity was pro forma as the members waited for the arrival of those cardinals who had indicated that they would attend; the conclave had been sitting since 15 February 1769 influenced by the political maneuvers of the ambassadors of Catholic sovereigns who were opposed to the Jesuits.
Some of the pressure was subtle. On March 15, Emperor Joseph II visited Rome to join his brother Leopold, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who had arrived on March 6; the next day, after touring St. Peter's Basilica, they took advantage of the conclave doors being opened to admit Cardinal Girolamo Spinola to enter as well, they were shown, upon the Emperor's request, the ballots, the chalice into which they would be placed, where they would be burned. That evening Gaetano Duca Cesarini hosted a party, it was the middle of Passion Week. King Louis XV of France's minister, the duc de Choiseul, had former experience of Rome as the French ambassador and was Europe's most skilled diplomat. "When one has a favour to ask of a Pope", he wrote, "and one is determined to obtain it, one must ask for two". Choiseul's suggestion was advanced to the other ambassadors and it was that they should press, in addition to the Jesuit issue, territorial claims upon the Patrimony of Peter, including the return of Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin to France, the duchies of Benevento and Pontecorvo to Spain, an extension of territory adjoining the Papal States to Naples, an immediate and final settlement of the vexed question of Parma and Piacenza that had occasioned a diplomatic rift between Austria and Pope Clement XIII.
By May 18, the court coalition appeared to be unravelling as the respective representatives began to negotiate separately with different cardinals. The French ambassador had earlier suggested that any acceptable candidate be required to put in writing that he would abolish the Jesuits; the idea was dismissed as a violation of canon law. Spain still insisted that a firm commitment should be given, though not in writing. However, such concessions could be nullified by the pope upon election. On 19 May 1769, Cardinal Ganganelli was elected as a compromise candidate due to support of the Bourbon courts, which had expected that he would suppress the Society of Jesus. Ganganelli, educated by Jesuits, gave no commitment, but indicated that he thought the dissolution was possible, he took the pontifical name of "Clement XIV". Ganganelli first received episcopal consecration in the Vatican on 28 May 1769 by Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante and was crowned as pope on 4 June 1769 by the cardinal protodeacon Alessandro Albani.
Clement XIV's policies were calculated from the outset to smooth the breaches with the Catholic Crowns that had developed during the previous pontificate. The d
The Papal States the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche and Romagna, portions of Emilia; these holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peter and the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily.
In 1929 the head of the Italian government, at the time the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties. This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory; the Papal States were known as the Papal State. The territories were referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States. To some extent the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed. For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was persecuted and unrecognized, unable to hold or transfer property. Early congregations met in rooms set aside for that purpose in the homes of well-to-do individuals, a number of early churches, known as titular churches and located on the outskirts of Ancient Rome, were held as property by individuals, rather than by the Church itself.
Nonetheless, the properties held nominally or by individual members of the Roman churches would be considered as a common patrimony handed over successively to the legitimate "heir" of that property its senior deacons, who were, in turn, assistants to the local bishop. This common patrimony attached to the churches at Rome, thus under its ruling bishop, became quite considerable, including as it did not only houses etc. in Rome or nearby but landed estates, such as latifundias, whole or in part, across Italy and beyond. This system began to change during the reign of the emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, restoring to it any properties, confiscated; the Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, most a gift from Constantine himself. Other donations followed in mainland Italy but in the provinces of the Roman Empire, but the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity. When in the 5th century the Italian peninsula passed under the control of Odoacer and the Ostrogoths, the Church organization in Italy, with the pope at its head, submitted of necessity to their sovereign authority while asserting its spiritual primacy over the whole Church.
The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning in 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italy's political and economic structures. Just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was limited to a diagonal band running from Ravenna, where the Emperor's representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples, plus coastal enclaves. With effective Byzantine power weighted at the northeast end of this territory, the pope, as the largest landowner and most prestigious figure in Italy, began by default to take on much of the ruling authority that Byzantines were unable to project to the area around the city of Rome. While the popes remained Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, an area equivalent to modern-day Latium, became an independent state ruled by the pope.
The Church's independence, combined with popular support for the papacy in Italy, enabled various popes to defy the will of the Byzantine emperor. The pope and the exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy; as Byzantine power weakened, the papacy took an ever-larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards through diplomacy. In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on Ravenna. A climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprand's Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II; when the Exarchate of
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Pedro I of Brazil
Dom Pedro I, nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned over Portugal, where he became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, thus a member of the House of Braganza; when their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro I's father to return to Portugal in April 1821, leaving him to rule Brazil as regent, he had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese government's threat to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazilian side and declared Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.
On 12 October, he was acclaimed Brazilian emperor and by March 1824 had defeated all armies loyal to Portugal. A few months Pedro I crushed the short-lived Confederation of the Equator, a failed secession attempt by provincial rebels in Brazil's northeast. A secessionist rebellion in the southern province of Cisplatina in early 1825, the subsequent attempt by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to annex it, led the Empire into the Cisplatine War. In March 1826, Pedro I became king of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Dona Maria II; the situation worsened in 1828. During the same year in Lisbon, Maria II's throne was usurped by Prince Dom Miguel, Pedro I's younger brother; the Emperor's concurrent and scandalous sexual affair with a female courtier tarnished his reputation. Other difficulties arose in the Brazilian parliament, where a struggle over whether the government would be chosen by the monarch or by the legislature dominated political debates from 1826 to 1831.
Unable to deal with problems in both Brazil and Portugal on 7 April 1831 Pedro I abdicated in favor of his son Dom Pedro II, sailed for Europe. Pedro I invaded Portugal at the head of an army in July 1832. Faced at first with what seemed a national civil war, he soon became involved in a wider conflict that enveloped the Iberian Peninsula in a struggle between proponents of liberalism and those seeking a return to absolutism. Pedro I died of tuberculosis on 24 September 1834, just a few months after he and the liberals had emerged victorious, he was hailed by both contemporaries and posterity as a key figure who helped spread the liberal ideals that allowed Brazil and Portugal to move from Absolutist regimes to representative forms of government. Pedro was born at 08:00 on 12 October 1798 in the Queluz Royal Palace near Portugal, he was named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his full name was Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim.
He was referred to using the honorific "Dom" from birth. Through his father, Prince Dom João, Pedro was a member of the House of Braganza and a grandson of King Dom Pedro III and Queen Dona Maria I of Portugal, who were uncle and niece as well as husband and wife, his mother, Doña Carlota Joaquina, was the daughter of King Don Carlos IV of Spain. Pedro's parents had an unhappy marriage. Carlota Joaquina was an ambitious woman, who always sought to advance Spain's interests to the detriment of Portugal's. Reputedly unfaithful to her husband, she went as far as to plot his overthrow in league with dissatisfied Portuguese nobles; as the second eldest son, Pedro became his father's heir apparent and Prince of Beira upon the death of his elder brother Francisco António in 1801. Prince Dom João had been acting as regent on behalf of his mother, Queen Maria I, after she was declared incurably insane in 1792. By 1802, Pedro's parents were estranged. Pedro and his siblings resided in the Queluz Palace with their grandmother Maria I, far from their parents, whom they saw only during state occasions at Queluz.
In late November 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family escaped from Portugal as an invading French army sent by Napoleon approached Lisbon. Pedro and his family arrived in Rio de Janeiro, capital of Brazil Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, in March 1808. During the voyage, Pedro read Virgil's Aeneid and conversed with the ship's crew, picking up navigational skills. In Brazil, after a brief stay in the City Palace, Pedro settled with his younger brother Miguel and their father in the Palace of São Cristóvão. Although never on intimate terms with his father, Pedro loved him and resented the constant humiliation his father suffered at the hands of Carlota Joaquina due to her extramarital affairs; as an adult, Pedro would call his mother, for whom he held only feelings of contempt, a "bitch". The early experiences of betrayal and neglect had a great impact on the formation of Pedro's character. A modicum of stability during his childhood was provided by his aia, Maria Genoveva do Rêgo e Matos, whom he loved as a mother, by his aio friar António de Arrábida, who became his mentor.
Both attempted to furnish him with a suitable education. His instruction encompassed a broad array of subjects that included mathematics, political economy, logic and geography, he learned to speak and write not only in Por