Amália Rebordão Rodrigues GCSE, GCIH, better known as Amália Rodrigues or popularly as Amália, was a Portuguese fadista and actress. Known as the'Rainha do Fado', Rodrigues was instrumental in popularising fado worldwide and travelled internationally throughout her career, she became one of the most important figures during the genre's revival in the twentieth century and was a leading female fadista during her 50-year recording and stage career. Rodrigues remains an iconic figure and inspiration to other fado and popular music artists such as Madredeus, Dulce Pontes and Cristina Branco; as of 1999, she had sold over 30 million records worldwide. Amália remains the best-selling Portuguese artist in history. Official documents give her date of birth as 23 July, although Amália herself maintained that her birthday was 1 July 1920, she was born in the Pena parish of Portugal. Her maternal family had roots in Souto da Casa, a parish in Fundão, Central Portugal, where Rodrigues's grandfather worked as a blacksmith.
In the Parish Church of Fundão is the baptism certificate of Rodrigues, a document published in the Journal of Fundão after the singer's death, following an investigation by or Salvado J. Travassos who discovered her birth certificate. According to the testimony of José Filipe Duarte Gonçalves, her only sister, was born in Lisbon. Rodrigues grew up in poverty, her childhood was destitute and she grew up doing odd jobs like selling fruit in Lisbon's quays. Rodrigues started singing as an amateur around 1935, her first professional engagement in a fado venue took place in 1939, she became a regular guest star in stage revues. Around that time she met Frederico Valério, a classically trained composer who recognised Amália's potential and composed numerous melodies designed for her voice. Valério ventured beyond the fado musical traditions by adding orchestral accompaniments; some of those works are fado classics today, such as'Fado do Ciúme','Ai Mouraria','Que Deus Me Perdoe', and'Não Sei Porque Te Foste Embora.'
By the early 40's, Amália had become a famous singer in Portugal. Rodrigues began acting with a debut film in 1946 titled'Capas Negras' followed by her best known movie,'Fado', she gained popularity beyond Portugal, in countries like Spain, Brazil where she spent some time and Paris where she resided. In 1950, while performing at the Marshall Plan international benefit shows, she introduced the song'April in Portugal' to international audiences, under its original title "Coimbra". In the early 1950s, the patronage of Portuguese poet David Mourão-Ferreira marked the beginning of a new phase in her career: Rodrigues sang with many of the country's poets, some wrote lyrics for her, her relationship with poetry contributed to changes in traditional fado and elevated this traditionally working-class Lisbon music genre, to new dimensions whereby leading poets started collaborating with and writing for her. Amalia Rodrigues travelled abroad for the first time in 1943, to perform at a gala party held by the Portuguese ambassador in Madrid, Pedro Teotónio Pereira.
She was accompanied by musicians Armandinho and Santos Moreira. After Spain she performed in Brasil with her first recordings, Mexico and many other countries, becoming an international star artist by 1954, she was the first Portuguese artist to appear to American television audiences on ABC in 1953. She performed in Hollywood, singing at the Mocambo in 1954. In 1954, Rodrigues' international career was boosted by her featuring in Henri Verneuil's film The Lovers of Lisbon, where she had a supporting role. By the late 1950s the US, France had become her major international markets. In France she as popular as in Portugal, she performed at the prestigious parisian Olympia hall; this led to the release of the album Portugal's Great Amália Rodrigues Live at the Olympia Theatre in Paris, in 1957, on Monitor Records. Over the years, she performed nearly all over the world – going as far as the Soviet Union and Israel. In France during the 50-60's she performed on television and became a well-known artist.
Famous Charles Aznavour wrote a fado in French for her'Aie Mourir Pour Toi' and she created French versions of her own songs. She performed at Olympia for 10 seasons between 1956 and 1992, she said she would sing only once in a while, but after a year's absence, she was no longer able to resist the appeal of the music. She returned in 1962 concentrating on recording and performing live, by at a slower pace, her comeback album, 1962's Amália Rodrigues, was her first collaboration with French composer Alain Oulman, to become her main songwriter and musical producer over decades. Oulman wrote melodies for her. Oulman, created an album known as'Busto', with a different kind of fado, with more extensions and which added traditional opera aspects: the legatos, the extension of the voice. In that record she sang her own poems and poems written by great Portuguese poets, like Pedro Homem de Mello, David Mourão-Ferreira and others, she created longlife successes, which became classics and immortal songs in Portugal, like'Povo Que Lavas no Rio','Maria Lisboa' and'Abandono'.
The Romanians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language, descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well. Romanians are an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central Eastern Europe in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars and the Romanian Academy as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Vlachs in Serbia, in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, part of today's territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, when Trajan's army defeated the army of Dacia's ruler Decebalus. The Roman administration withdrew two centuries under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. Two theories account for the origin of the Romanian people. One, known as the Daco-Roman continuity theory, posits that they are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous peoples living in the Roman Province of Dacia, while the other posits that the Romanians are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous populations of the former Roman provinces of Illyria, Moesia and Macedon, the ancestors of Romanians migrated from these Roman provinces south of the Danube into the area which they inhabit today. According to the first theory, the Romanians are descended from indigenous populations that inhabited what is now Romania and its immediate environs: Thracians and Roman legionnaires and colonists. In the course of the two wars with the Roman legions, between AD 101–102 and AD 105–106 the emperor Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians and the greatest part of Dacia became a Roman province.
The colonisation with Roman or Romanized elements, the use of the Latin language and the assimilation of Roman civilisation as well as the intense development of urban centres led to the Romanization of part of the autochthonous population in Dacia. This process was concluded by the 10th century when the assimilation of the Slavs by the Daco-Romanians was completed. According to the south-of-the-Danube origin theory, the Romanians' ancestors, a combination of Romans and Romanized peoples of Illyria and Thrace, moved northward across the Danube river into modern-day Romania. Small population groups speaking several versions of Romanian still exist south of the Danube in Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, but it is not known whether they themselves migrated from more northern parts of the Balkans, including Dacia; the south-of-the Danube theory favours northern Albania and/or Moesia as the more specific places of Romanian ethnogenesis. Small genetic differences were found among Southeastern European populations and those of the Dniester–Carpathian region.
Despite this low level of differentiation between them, tree reconstruction and principal component analyses allowed a distinction between Balkan–Carpathian and Balkan Mediterranean population groups. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships. According to the report, the results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other. During the Middle Ages Romanians were known as Vlachs, a blanket term of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and Celtic neighbours. Besides the separation of some groups during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia, some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.
Because of the migrations that followed – such as those of Slavs, Bulgars and Tatars – the Romanians were organised in agricultural communes, developing large centralised states only in the 14th century, when the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight the Ottoman Empire. During the late Middle Ages, prominent medieval Romanian monarchs such as Bogdan of Moldavia, Stephen the Great, Mircea the Elder, Michael the Brave, or Vlad the Impaler took part in the history of Central Europe by waging tumultuous wars and leading noteworthy crusades against the continuously expanding Ottoman Empire, at ti
Târgu Jiu is the capital of Gorj County in the Oltenia region of Romania. It is situated on the banks of the river Jiu. Eight localities are administered by the city: Bârsești, Drăgoieni, Polata, Preajba Mare, Romanești, Slobozia and Ursați; the city takes its name from the river Jiu. In antiquity, there was a Dacian village in around the location of today's city surrounded by forests. After the Roman conquests of Oltenia, military units were stationed around the roads that connected different important routes at the time. During the digging of the Târgu Jiu - Rovinari railroad, coins and Roman bricks were found in the south-eastern part of the city; this and ancient testimonies support the idea that Târgu Jiu was a commercial town while under the Roman Empire's rule. A important route that connects the Danube to Transylvania runs through the city, so historians believe that part of the Roman army under Trajan's leadership stayed and passed in the actual location of the city. After the 271 withdrawal of the Roman army, the city remained in the Latin influence zone because of Constantine The Great's involvement in Oltenia which he sought to bring under imperial rule.
The importance of keeping this zone under Rome's control was underlined by Constantine's decision to build a second bridge over the Danube between today's Corabia and the Bulgarian city of Gigen. It was over one of the longest of all time; this territory was under Litovoi's rule, a Vlach voivode in the 13th century, whose territory comprised northern Oltenia. He is mentioned for the first time in a diploma issued by king Béla IV of Hungary on 2 July 1247. In 1277, Litovoi was at war with the Hungarians over lands King Ladislaus IV of Hungary claimed for the crown, but for which Litovoi refused to pay tribute. Litovoi was killed in battle; the first written account of the city appears in a document dating from 23 November 1406 in an order signed by Mircea cel Batran. Since 1497, the city has been the seat of Gorj County. Constantin Brâncuși, who had lived here as a boy, was commissioned to contribute to a memorial monument to the fighters of World War I, called Calea Eroilor, "Heroes' Street", finished in 1938.
His large sculptures are now the main tourist attractions in Târgu Jiu: The Table of Silence, Stool Alley, The Gate of the Kiss, The Endless Column. The latter is shown in the middle section of the city's coat of arms. In the 1950s the Communist mayor planned to demolish Brâncuși's "bourgeois" art; the plan was not carried out. Starting in the 1960s, coal surface mining contributed to a rapid population growth. Other local industries include wood, machine building, textiles and construction materials. In 1992, a university was named after Brâncuși; the Coat of Arms of Târgu Jiu consists of a Shield with seven towers. In the centre of the Shield lies the representation of Constantin Brâncuși's Endless Column, a symbol of Romanian art and culture. In the right and left sides of the shield lies a golden lion holding a black sword, "guarding" the Column; the Lion is the ancient symbol of Oltenia, thought to be originating from the logo of one Rome's Legions station in this aria, the 13th Legion "Gemina".
It represents the combative spirit of the city's inhabitants. 1889: 4,076 1900: 6,634 1940: 26,634 2002: 96,641 2011: 80,548As of 2011 census, 78,553 inhabitants live within the city limits: 96,29% were Romanians, 3,41% Gypsies or Roma people and 0,20% others. The public transport system of Târgu Jiu consists of 8 bus lines, it is operated by S. C. Transloc. S. A. A ticket for one trip costs around €0.5. The main railway station is situated on Republicii Blvd, it was reconstructed within the last 25 years. The city's road network consists of five boulevards; the main street of the city is Calea Victoriei. The largest boulevard in Târgu Jiu is Blvd. Ecaterina Teodoroiu. Târgu Jiu is crossed by many important roads, such as E 79 and DN 67. Main high schools are: National College "Ecaterina Teodoroiu" National College "Tudor Vladimirescu" National College "Spiru Haret" Colegiul Comercial "Virgil Madgearu" Colegiul Tehnic "General Gheorghe Magheru" Scholar Group Energetic Nr. 1"The universities are: Constantin Brâncuși University Spiru Haret University The main football team of the city is Pandurii.
They have spent 12 season in the country's top league, Liga I. Their best result was achieved in the 2012 -- 13 season. Pandurii has qualified for European competitions on two occasions, reached the group stages of the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League; the city has one basketball team in Divizia A, Energia Târgu Jiu and one handball team in the first division, Energia Lignitul Pandurii Târgu Jiu. Noci, Italy Lauchhammer, Germany Yambol, Bulgaria Pendik, Turkey Ioan Culcer, general Adrian Ioana, mathematician Grigore Iunian, politician Mihail Lascăr, general Horațiu Mălăele, actor Vasile Martinoiu, opera singer Sergiu Nicolaescu and film director Ecaterina Teodoroiu, World War I heroine Lake Ceauru "Tîrgu Jiu". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Tango is a popular partner dance and social dance that originated in the 1880s along the River Plate, the natural border between Argentina and Uruguay. It was born in the impoverished port areas of these countries, where natives mixed with slave and European immigrant populations; the tango is the result of a combination of the German Waltz, Czech Polka, Polish Mazurka, Bohemian Schottische with the Spanish-Cuban Habanera, African Candombe, Argentinian Milonga. The tango was practiced in the brothels and bars of ports, where business owners employed bands to entertain their patrons with music; the tango spread to the rest of the world. Many variations of this dance exist around the world. On August 31, 2009, UNESCO approved a joint proposal by Argentina and Uruguay to include the tango in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Tango is a dance that has influences from Native American and European culture. Dances from the candombe ceremonies of former slave peoples helped shape the modern day tango.
The dance originated in lower-class districts of Buenos Montevideo. The music derived from the fusion of various forms of music from Europe; the words "tango" and "tambo" around the River Plate basin were used to refer to musical gatherings of slaves, with written records of colonial authorities attempting to ban such gatherings as early as 1789. It was just one of the many dances, but it soon became popular throughout society, as theatres and street barrel organs spread it from the suburbs to the working-class slums, which were packed with hundreds of thousands of European immigrants. Many Buenos Aires city neighbourhoods have their particular tango history like for example La Boca, San Telmo or Boedo. At Boedo Avenue Cátulo Castillo, Homero Manzi and other singers and composers used to meet at the Japanese Cafe with the Boedo Group. In the early years of the 20th century and orchestras from Buenos Aires travelled to Europe, the first European tango craze took place in Paris, soon followed by London and other capitals.
Towards the end of 1913, it hit New York City in the U. S. and Finland. In the U. S. around 1911, the word "tango" was applied to dances in a 24 or 44 rhythm such as the one-step. The term was fashionable and did not indicate that tango steps would be used in the dance, although they might be. Tango music was sometimes played but at a rather fast tempo. Instructors of the period would sometimes refer to this as a "North American tango", versus the so-called "Argentine Tango"; the Tango was controversial because of its perceived sexual overtones and, by the end of 1913, the dance teachers who had introduced the dance to Paris were banished from the city. By 1914, more authentic tango stylings were soon developed, along with some variations like Albert Newman's "Minuet" tango. In Argentina, the onset in 1929 of the Great Depression, restrictions introduced after the overthrow of the Hipólito Yrigoyen government in 1930, caused tango to decline, its fortunes were reversed as tango became fashionable and a matter of national pride under the government of Juan Perón.
Taquito Militar, by Mariano Mores played a monumental part in the rise of the tango and a major effect on Argentinian culture as a whole. This song was premiered in 1952 during a governmental speech of President Juan D. Perón, which generated a strong political and cultural controversy between different views of the concepts of "cultured" music and "popular" music, as well as the links between both "cultures". Tango declined again in the 1950s, as a result of economic depression and the banning of public gatherings by the military dictatorships. That, boosted the popularity of rock and roll because, unlike tango, it did not require such gatherings. In 2009, the tango was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. There are two predominant theories regarding the origin of the word "tango." The African culture is credited by some scholars as the creator of this word. It is theorized that the word evolved from the Yoruba word, "shangó," which refers to the Nigerian God of Thunder; this theory suggests that the word “shangó” was morphed through the dilution of the Nigerian language once it reached South America via slave trade.
This theory is paralleled by another theory which believes that “tango” is derived from the Spanish word for drum, “tambor." This word was mispronounced by Buenos Aires’ impoverished and uneducated inhabitants to become "tambo," ultimately resulting in the common "tango." It is theorized that the word "'tango" is derived from the Portuguese word "tanger," which means "to play a musical instrument." Another Portuguese word, "tangomão," is a possible predecessor of the word "tango." The word is the combination of the verb "tanger" with the noun "mão", resulted in the verb "to play a musical instrument with one's hands.2" The tango consists of a variety of styles that developed in different regions and eras of Argentina as well as in other locations around the world. The dance developed in response to many cultural elements, such as the crowding of the venue and the fashions in clothing; the styles are danced in either open embrace, where lead and follow have space between their bodies, or close embrace, where the lead and follow connect either chest-to-chest or in the upper thigh, hip area.
Different styles of tango are: Tango vals Tango argentino Tango canyengue Tango Oriental Uruguayan tango Tango liso Tango salon Tango orillero Tango camacupense Tango milonguero Tango nuevo Contact tango Tango Valparaísino (from Valparaíso
Ralph Benatzky, born in Moravské Budějovice as Rudolf Josef František Benatzki, was an Austrian composer of Czech origin. He composed operas and operettas, such as Casanova, Die drei Musketiere, Im weißen Rössl and Meine Schwester und ich, he died in Switzerland. Laridon Cherchez la femme Der lachende Dreibund Anno 14 Prinzchens Frühlingserwachen Liebe im Schnee Die tanzende Maske Die Verliebten Apachen Ein Märchen aus Florenz Casanova, with music by Johann Strauss II Die drei Musketiere Im weißen Rößl Meine Schwester und ich Zur goldenen Liebe Zirkus Aimée Büxl Bezauberndes Fräulein Reichste Mann der Welt Der König mit dem Regenschirm Axel an der Himmelstür Majetät – Privat Herzen im Schnee Der Silberhof The Last Company The Immortal Vagabond Poor as a Church Mouse To New Shores Such Great Foolishness Love Premiere Back Then White Horse Inn My Sister and I The White Horse Inn The Charming Young Lady My Sister and I Benatzky is mistakenly referred to as Jewish due to an error published in a book of Jewish musicians during World War II.
Benatzky himself was not Jewish, but he was twice married to Jewish women: Josma Selim, a singer and Melanie "Mela" Hoffmann, a dancer. Media related to Ralph Benatzky at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Achille Edmond Audran was a French composer best known for several internationally successful comic operas, including Les noces d'Olivette, La mascotte, Gillette de Narbonne, La cigale et la fourmi, Miss Helyett, La poupée. After Audran's initial success in Paris, his works became a regular feature in the West End of London, in adaptations that Audran supervised. Most of his works are now neglected, but La mascotte has been revived and has been recorded for the gramophone. Audran was born in Lyon, the son of Marius-Pierre Audran, who had a career as a tenor at the Opéra-Comique, he studied music at the École Niedermeyer under Jules Duprato, where he won the prize for composition in 1859. In 1861 his family moved to Marseille, where his father accepted the post of singing teacher becoming director of the conservatory. Audran became organist of the church of St Joseph there, for which he wrote religious music including, in 1873, a mass, performed in Paris at St Eustache, he made his first appearance as a dramatic composer at Marseilles with L'Ours et le Pacha, a musical version of one of Eugène Scribe's vaudevilles.
This was followed by La Chercheuse d'Esprit, a comic opera produced at Marseille. Audran's compositions included a funeral march on the death of Giacomo Meyerbeer, performed with some success, he produced a Mass, an oratorio, La sulamite, Adoro te, a motet and numerous minor works, but he is known entirely as a composer of light opera. While still in Marseilles, Audran wrote a half dozen operettas, the most successful of, Le grand mogol, with a libretto by Henri Chivot. Together with the playwright Alfred Duru and Chivot revised the piece for a Paris production in 1884, he moved to Paris in 1879, "where at first he occupied a humble lodging in a garret", but he was soon prosperous, with the success of Les noces d'Olivette, which had "an enormous vogue". The work speedily found its way to London, in an English translation by H. B. Farnie, ran for more than a year at the Strand Theatre; the critic of The Pall Mall Gazette, predicting "a brilliant and enduring success", wrote, "Bizet in his Carmen has scarcely been more successful in catching the atmosphere of Andalusia than has M. Audran in assigning to Les Noces d'Olivette that of Provence."After Audran moved to Paris, most of his stage works were premiered there before being presented abroad, but four of his works were premiered elsewhere: La paradis de Mahomet, Indiana and La reine des reines.
In Paris, the success of La mascotte was so great that the intendant of the Bouffes-Parisiens and Audran entered into a five-year contract under which Audran would compose for no other Paris theatre. He worked with a large number of librettists, but his most frequent collaborators were Maxime Boucheron, Chivot and Maurice Ordonneau. Of one of his collaborations, a critic wrote, "I might dispose of the new three-act comic opera brought out at the Bouffes-Parisiens by stating that its title is Pervenche, that its libretto is by MM. Chivot and Duru, its score by M. Edmond Audran, that both authors and composer have adhered so to their well-known style as to necessitate no further call on your space."Audran's music met with as much favour in England as in France, all but a few of his works were given in English adaptations in London theatres. The most successful of Audran's many comic operas were: Le grand mogol. During his last few years, Audran suffered mental and physical illness and was forced to withdraw from Parisian society.
He died in Tierceville on the north coast of France at the age of 61. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Audran was one of the best of the successors of Jacques Offenbach: He had little of Offenbach's humour, but his music is distinguished by an elegance and a refinement of manner which lift it above the level of opera bouffe to the confines of genuine opera comique, he was a fertile if not a original melodist, his orchestration is full of variety, without being obtrusive or vulgar. Many of his operas, La mascotte in particular, reveal a degree of musicianship, associated with the ephemeral productions of the lighter stage. In 1957, the critic Philip Hope-Wallace wrote, "Those who attend on seaside bandstands will know the name of Edmond Audran … for his overtures to La Mascotte, La Poupie and Miss Helyett still set the old squares' feet a-tapping. If he never quite shook out of his sleeve any little inspiration which could rival Offenbach he made a good second best talent go a long way.
He himself d