Racial policy of Nazi Germany
The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, which claimed scientific legitimacy. This was combined with a eugenics programme that aimed for racial hygiene by compulsory sterilization and extermination of those who they saw as Untermenschen, which culminated in the Holocaust. Nazi policies labeled centuries-long residents in German territory who were not ethnic Germans such as Jews, along with the vast majority of Slavs, most non-Europeans as inferior non-Aryan subhumans in a racial hierarchy that placed the Herrenvolk of the Volksgemeinschaft at the top; the Aryan Master Race conceived by the Nazis graded humans on a scale of pure Aryans to non-Aryans. At the top of the scale of pure Aryans were Germans and other Germanic peoples, including the Dutch and the English. Latins were tolerated; the feeling that Germans were the Aryan Herrenvolk was spread among the German public through Nazi propaganda and among Nazi officials throughout the ranks, in particular when Reichskommissariat Ukraine Erich Koch said: We are a master race, which must remember that the lowliest German worker is racially and biologically a thousand times more valuable than the population here.
The Nazis considered the Slavs as Non-Aryan Untermenschen who were to be enslaved and exterminated by Germans. Slavic nations such as the Ukrainians, Slovaks and Croats who collaborated with Nazi Germany were still being perceived as not racially "pure" enough to reach the status of Germanic peoples, yet they were considered ethnically better than the rest of the Slavs due to pseudoscientific theories about these nations having a considerable admixture of Germanic blood. In countries where these people lived, there were according to Nazis small groups of non-Slavic German descendants; these people underwent a "racial selection" process to determine whether or not they were "racially valuable", if the individual passed they would be re-Germanised and forcefully taken from their families in order to be raised as Germans. This secret plan Generalplan Ost aimed at expulsion and extermination of most Slavic people. Nazi policy towards them changed during World War II as a pragmatic means to resolve military manpower shortages: they were allowed, with certain restrictions, to serve in the Waffen-SS, in spite of being considered subhumans.
Nazi propaganda portrayed people in Eastern Europe with an Asiatic appearance to be the result of intermingling between the native Slavic populations and Asiatic or Mongolian races as sub-humans dominated by the Jews with the help of Bolshevism. At the bottom of the racial scale of non-Aryans were Jews, ethnic Poles, ethnic Serbs and other Slavic people and black people; the Nazis sought to rid the German state of Jews and Romani by means of deportation, while blacks were to be segregated and eliminated through compulsory sterilization. Volkisch theorists believed that Germany's Teutonic ancestors had spread out from Germany throughout Europe. Of the Germanic tribes that spread through Europe, the theorists identified that the Burgundians and Western Goths joined with the Gauls to make France. Nazi racial beliefs of the superiority of an Aryan master race arose from earlier proponents of a supremacist conception of race such as the French novelist and diplomat Arthur de Gobineau, who published a four-volume work titled An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races.
Gobineau proposed that the Aryan race was superior, urged the preservation of its cultural and racial purity. Gobineau came to use and reserve the term Aryan only for the "German race" and described the Aryans as'la race germanique'. By doing so he presented a racist theory in which Aryans–that is Germans–were all, positive. Houston Stewart Chamberlain's work The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, one of the first to combine Social Darwinism with antisemitism, describes history as a struggle for survival between the Germanic peoples and the Jews, whom he characterized as an inferior and dangerous group; the two-volume book Foundations of Human Hereditary Teaching and Racial Hygiene by Eugen Fischer, Erwin Baur, Fritz Lenz, used pseudoscientific studies to conclude that the Germans were superior to the Jews intellectually and physically, recommended eugenics as a solution. Madison Grant's work The Passing of the Great Race advocated Nordicism and proposed using a eugenic program to preserve the Nordic race.
After reading the book, Hitler called it "my Bible". Racist author and Nordic supremacist Hans F. K. Günther who influenced Nazi ideology, wrote in his "Race Lore of German People" about the danger of "Slavic blood of Eastern race" mixing with the German and combined virulent nationalism with anti-semitism. Günther became an epitome of corrupt and politicized pseudo-science in post-war Germany Among the topics of his research
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
A dentist known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services; the dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, in some states, dental therapists. In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers, they have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers. Guild barbers were trained to do complex surgeries; the second group, the lay barbers, were qualified to perform regular hygienic services such as shaving and tooth extraction as well as basic surgery. However, in 1400 France made decrees prohibiting lay barbers from practicing all types of surgery. In Germany as well as France from 1530 to 1575 publications devoted to dentistry were being published.
Ambrose Pare known as the Father of Surgery, published his own work about the proper maintenance and treatment of teeth. Ambrose Pare was a French barber surgeon, he is credited with having raised the status of barber surgeons. Pierre Fauchard of France is referred to as the "father of modern dentistry" for being the first to publish a scientific textbook on the techniques and practices of dentistry. Over time, trained dentists immigrated from Europe to the Americas to practice dentistry, by 1760, America had its own native born practicing dentists. Newspapers were used at the time to promote dental services. In America from 1768–1770 the first application of dentistry to verify forensic cases was being pioneered. With the rise of dentists there was the rise of new methods to improve the quality of dentistry; these new methods included the spinning wheel to rotate a drill and chairs made for dental patients. In the 1840s the world's first dental school and national dental organization were established.
Along with the first dental school came the establishment of the Doctor of Dental Surgery degree referred to as a DDS degree. In response to the rise in new dentists as well as dentistry techniques, the first dental practice act was established to regulate dentistry. In the United States, the First Dental Practice Act required dentists to pass each specific states medical board exam in order to practice dentistry in that particular state. However, because the dental act was enforced, some dentists did not obey the act. From 1846–1855 new dental techniques were being invented such as the use of ester anesthesia for surgery, the cohesive gold foil method which enabled gold to be applied to a cavity; the American Dental Association was established in 1859 after a meeting with 26 dentists. Around 1867, the first university associated dental school was established, Harvard Dental School. Lucy Hobbs Taylor was the first woman to earn a dental degree. In the 1880s, tube toothpaste was created which replaced the original forms of powder or liquid toothpaste.
New dental boards, such as the National Association of Dental Examiners, were created to establish standards and uniformity among dentists. In 1887 the first dental laboratory was established. In 1895 the dental X-ray was discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen. In the 20th century new dental techniques and technology were invented such as: the porcelain crowns, Novocain 1905, precision cast fillings, nylon toothbrushes, water fluoridation, fluoride toothpaste, air driven dental tools, electric toothbrushes, home tooth bleaching kits were invented. Inventions such as the air driven dental tools ushered in a new high-speed dentistry. By nature of their general training, a licensed dentist can carry out most dental treatments such as restorative, prosthodontic, endodontic therapy, periodontal therapy, oral surgery, as well as performing examinations, taking radiographs and diagnosis. Additionally, dentists can further engage in oral surgery procedures such as dental implant placement. Dentists can prescribe medications such as antibiotics, pain killers, local anesthetics, sedatives/hypnotics and any other medications that serve in the treatment of the various conditions that arise in the head and neck.
All DDS and DMD degree holders are qualified to perform a number of more complex procedures such as gingival grafts, bone grafting, sinus lifts, implants, as well as a range of more invasive oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, though many choose to pursue residencies or other post-doctoral education to augment their abilities. A few select procedures, such as the administration of General anesthesia require postdoctoral training in the US. While many oral diseases are unique and self-limiting, poor conditions in the oral cavity can lead to poor general health and vice versa. Conditions in the oral cavity may be indicative of other systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, AIDS, various blood diseases, including malignancies and lymphoma. Several studies have suggested that dental students are at high risk of burnout. During burnout, dentists alienate from work and perform less efficiently. A systemic study iden
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, with a population of about 220,000. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, at the foot of the Schlossberg; the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain. A famous old German university town, archiepiscopal seat, Freiburg was incorporated in the early twelfth century and developed into a major commercial and ecclesiastical center of the upper Rhine region; the city is known for its medieval minster and Renaissance university, as well as for its high standard of living and advanced environmental practices. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region and serves as the primary tourist entry point to the scenic beauty of the Black Forest. According to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany, held the all-time German temperature record of 40.2 °C from 2003 to 2015. Freiburg was founded by Duke Berthold III of Zähringen in 1120 as a free market town.
Frei means "free", Burg, like the modern English word "borough", was used in those days for an incorporated city or town one with some degree of autonomy. The German word Burg means "a fortified town", as in Hamburg. Thus, it is that the name of this place means a "fortified town of free citizens"; this town was strategically located at a junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 1200, Freiburg's population numbered 6,000 people. At about that time, under the rule of Bertold V, the last duke of Zähringen, the city began construction of its Freiburg Münster cathedral on the site of an older parish church. Begun in the Romanesque style, it was continued and completed 1513 for the most part as a Gothic edifice. In 1218, when Bertold V died Egino V von Urach, the count of Urach assumed the title of Freiburg's count as Egino I von Freiburg; the city council wrote down its established rights in a document. At the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg.
Egino II raised taxes and sought to limit the citizens' freedom, after which the Freiburgers used catapults to destroy the count's castle atop the Schloßberg, a hill that overlooks the city center. The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of Strasbourg, Konradius von Lichtenberg, for help; the bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg. According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July 1299, it was a Pyrrhic victory, since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of 300 marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until 1368. In 1366 the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid; the citizens were fed up with their lords, in 1368 Freiburg purchased its independence from them. The city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs, who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom. Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach.
The patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city. The guilds became more powerful than the patricians by 1389; the silver mines in Mount Schauinsland provided an important source of capital for Freiburg. This silver made Freiburg one of the richest cities in Europe, in 1327 Freiburg minted its own coin, the Rappenpfennig. In 1377 the cities of Freiburg, Basel and Breisach entered into a monetary alliance known as the Genossenschaft des Rappenpfennigs; this alliance facilitated commerce among the cities and lasted until the end of the sixteenth century. There were 8,000-9,000 people living in Freiburg between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 30 churches and monasteries. At the end of the fourteenth century the veins of silver were dwindling, by 1460 only 6,000 people still lived within Freiburg's city walls. A university city, Freiburg evolved from its focus on mining to become a cultural centre for the arts and sciences, it was a commercial center. The end of the Middle Ages and the dawn of the Renaissance was a time of both advances and tragedy for Freiburg.
In 1457, Albrecht VI, Regent of Further Austria, established Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, one of Germany's oldest universities. In 1498, Emperor Maximilian I held a Reichstag in Freiburg. In 1520, the city ratified a set of legal reforms considered the most progressive of the time; the aim was to find a balance between old Roman Law. The reforms were well received the sections dealing with civil process law and the city's constitution. In 1520, Freiburg decided not to take part in the Reformation and became an important centre for Catholicism on the Upper Rhine. Erasmus moved here. In 1536, a strong and persistent belief in witchcraft led to the city's first witch-hunt; the need to find a scapegoat for calamities such as the Black Plague, which claimed 2,000 area residents in 1564, led to an escalation in witch-hunting that reached its peak in 1599. A plaque on the old city wall marks the spot; the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries were turbulent times for Freiburg. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War there were 10,000-14,000 citizens in Freiburg.
Heinz Harro Max Wilhelm Georg Schulze-Boysen was a German soldier who would become a leading figure in the Red Orchestra group in the German resistance to Nazism during World War II. He was arrested and executed in 1942. Schulze-Boysen was born in Kiel as the son of decorated naval officer Erich Edgar Schulze, his mother was Marie Luise. On his father's side, he counted Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz among his kin, he had a sister and brother, Hartmut. He spent his youth in Duisburg. In 1923, when he was 14, he found himself in the middle of the occupation of the Ruhr by French and Belgian troops. Schulze-Boysen's participation in the struggle against the occupiers brought about his swift arrest by the French. In 1928, he joined the Jungdeutscher Orden, a youth organization in the Weimar Republic and the Studentenverbindung Albingia, he studied law in Freiburg, Berlin, without finishing. In 1930, he supported an intellectual-nationalistic group called the Volksnationale Reichsvereinigung, had contacts with the French magazine Plans in 1931, which sought the establishment of a Europe-wide collective economic system.
The same year, he published the left-liberal Der Gegner modelled on Plans. Although he was leaning towards the political left, he maintained his contacts with nationalistic circles. In 1932, he organized the Treffen der revolutionären Jugend Europas, with over a hundred participants, he advocated the abolition of the capitalist system, the liquidation of the Diktat of Versailles. In April 1933, the offices of Der Gegner were destroyed by Brown Shirts, Schulze-Boysen was roughed up, had swastikas scratched in his skin, was held in confinement for several days, he was released. In May 1933 he began pilot training at Warnemünde and from 1934 he was working in the communications department of the Reich Air Transport Ministry in Berlin. Beginning in 1935, he gathered around himself a circle of left-leaning anti-fascists, among them artists and Communists; the circle published anti-fascist writings. In 1935 he offered his services as a spy, his offer was accepted and he was given the codename "Corporal" and the NKVD file 34122.
On 16 July 1936 he married Libertas Haas-Heye in Liebenberg with Hermann Göring giving away the bride. At one time a press officer for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, his wife joined the resistance group. In 1936, Schulze-Boysen made contact with Arvid Harnack and his circle, with the Communists Hilde and Hans Coppi. From these meetings arose what the Gestapo called the Red Orchestra group. In 1940-1941, the group was in wireless contact with Soviet agents, was thereby trying to thwart the forthcoming German aggression upon the Soviet Union. In July 1942, the Decryption Department of the Oberkommando des Heeres managed to decode the group's radio messages, the Gestapo pounced. On 31 August and Libertas Schulze-Boysen were arrested, they were sentenced to death on 19 December and executed by hanging three days at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. Their bodies were released to Hermann Stieve, an anatomist at what is now Humboldt University, to be dissected for research, their final resting place is not known. In the Berlin borough of Lichtenberg in 1972, a street is named after the Schulze-Boysens.
There are stolpersteine for them in the Dellviertel quarter of Duisburg, at Karl-Lehr-Straße 9. In the picture at right appear the following lines: "Wenn wir auch sterben sollen, So wissen wir: Die Saat Geht auf. Wenn Köpfe rollen, dann Zwingt doch der Geist den Staat.""Glaubt mit mir an die gerechte Zeit, die alles reifen lässt!""Even if we should die, We know this: The seed Bears fruit. If heads roll The spirit forces the state.""Believe with me in the just time that lets everything ripen." Harro Schulze-Boysen: Gegner von heute – Kampfgenossen von morgen.. Auflage ISBN 3-923532-24-5 Elsa Boysen: Harro Schulze-Boysen – Das Bild eines Freiheitskämpfers. Fölbach Verlag, Koblenz 1992, ISBN 3-923532-17-2 Shareen Blair Brysac: Mildred Harnack und die „Rote Kapelle“. Die Geschichte einer ungewöhnlichen Frau und einer Widerstandsbewegung. Scherz-Verlag, Bern 2003, ISBN 3-502-18090-3 Hans Coppi: Harro Schulze-Boysen – Wege in den Widerstand, Fölbach Verlag, Koblenz 1995, 2. Auflage, ISBN 3-923532-28-8 Hans Coppi: Harro Schulze-Boysen und Alexandre Marc.
Die Gruppe Ordre Nouveau und der Gegner-Kreis. Oder: Der Versuch, die deutsch-französischen Beziehungen auf neue Grundlagen zu stellen. In: Ferdinand Kinsky / Franz Knipping: Le fédéralisme personnaliste aux sources de l'Europe de demain. Der personalistische Föderalismus und die Zukunft Europas. Schriftenreihe des Europäischen Zentrums für Föderalismus-Forschung Tübingen, Band 7. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft: Baden-Baden 1996 S. 153–167 Hans Coppi, Geertje Andresen: Dieser Tod paßt zu mir. Harro Schulze-Boysen - Grenzgänger im Widerstand. Briefe 1915-1942, Aufbau Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-7466-8093-X Alexander Bahar: Sozialrevolutionärer Nationalismus zwischen Konservativer Revolution und Sozialismus – Harro Schulze-Boysen und der GEGNER-Kreis. Fölbach Verlag, Koblenz 1992, ISBN 978-3-923532-18-6 Hastings, Max; the Secret War: Spies and Guerrillas 1939 -1945. London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-750374-2. Silke Kettelhake: Erzähl allen, allen von mir! Droemer Knaur
Pomerania is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. The name derives from the Slavic po more, meaning "by the sea" or "on the sea". Pomerania stretches from the Recknitz and Trebel rivers in the west to the Vistula river in the east; the largest Pomeranian islands are Usedom/Uznam and Wolin. The largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes and towns; the region was affected by post–World War I and II border and population shifts, with most of its pre-war inhabitants leaving or being expelled after 1945. Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz and Trebel in the west and Vistula in the east, it reached as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north. Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the Central European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, a belt of terminal moraines formed during the Pleistocene.
Within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District. The soil is rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy; the western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas and islands enclosing numerous bays and lagoons. The eastern coastline is smooth. Łebsko and several other lakes were bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel Peninsula and the Vistula peninsula jutting out into the Baltic; the Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions: Hither Pomerania in northeastern Germany, stretching from the Recknitz river to the Oder–Neisse line. This region is part of the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; the southernmost part of historical Vorpommern is now in Brandenburg, while its historical eastern parts are now in Poland. Vorpommern comprises the historical regions inhabited by Slavic tribes Rugians and Volinians, otherwise the Principality of Rügen and the County of Gützkow.
The West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line to the Wieprza river, encompassing most of historical Pomerania in the narrow sense. The Pomeranian Voivodeship, with similar borders to Pomerelia, stretching from the Wieprza river to the Vistula delta in the vicinity of Gdańsk; the northern half of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, comprising most of Chełmno Land. The bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Farther Pomerania in turn comprises several other historical subregions, most notably the Principality of Cammin, the County of Naugard, the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land. Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995; the Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, Scania in Sweden. "Pomerania" and its cognates in other languages are derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", more, meaning "sea", thus "Pomerania" means "seacoast" or "land by the sea", referring to its proximity to the Baltic Sea.
Pomerania was first mentioned in an imperial document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum. Pomerania is mentioned in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen and Gallus Anonymous; the term "West Pomerania" is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania or to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The term "East Pomerania" may carry different meanings, referring either to Farther Pomerania, or to Pomerelia or the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Settlement in the area called Pomerania for the last 1,000 years started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, some 13,000 years ago. Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, Baltic peoples, Germanic peoples and Veneti during the Iron Age and, in the Dark Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings. Starting in the 10th century, early Polish dukes on several occasions subdued parts of the region from the southeast, while the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark augmented their territory from the west and north. In the 12th century, narrow Pomerania became Christian under saint Otto of Bamberg.
Since the Griffin Duchy of Pomerania stayed with the Holy Roman Empire and the Principality of Rugia with Denmark, while Pomerelia, under the ruling of Samborides, was a part of Poland. Pomerania, during its alliance in the Holy Roman Empire, shared borders with Slavic state Oldenburg, as well as Poland and Brandenburg; the Teutonic Knights succeeded in integrating Pomerelia into their monastic state in the early 14th century. Meanwhile, the Ostsiedlung started to turn Slavic narrow Pomerania into an German-settled area. In 1325 the line of the pri