The Austrian Empire was an empire in Central Europe created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804. It was an empire and one of Europes great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire and it was the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the dissolution in 1806. The Ausgleich of 1867 elevated Hungarys status and it became a separate entity from the Empire entirely, joining with it in the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt, on 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, taking this significant change into consideration, the German Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors.
In 1804 the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who was ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, to safeguard his dynastys imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Hungarys affairs remained administered by its own institutions as they had been beforehand, thus under the new arrangements no Imperial institutions were involved in its internal government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805, on 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by general Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The French victory resulted in the capture of 20,000 Austrian soldiers, Napoleons army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, the prince-elector Duke of Bavaria proclaimed himself King, finally, on 12 December, the Margrave of Baden was given the title of Grand Duke. In addition, each of these new countries signed a treaty with France, the Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleons German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies—the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. On 12 July 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was established, comprising 16 sovereigns and this confederation, under French influence, put an end to the Holy Roman Empire. On 6 August 1806, even Francis recognized the new state of things and proclaimed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, as he did not want Napoleon to succeed him
Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It is located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres south, Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin and Germanic cultures. In 2009, it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the 19th century, it was the most important port of one of the Great Powers of Europe, as a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century it emerged as an important hub for literature, Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, and Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War.
Today, the city is in one of the richest regions of Italy, Roman authors transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names of the city include, Trieste, Trst, Triest, Trieszt, Trst, Serbian, Трст/Trst, Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia. The city lies on the Gulf of Trieste, built mostly on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Triestes urban territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down abruptly from the Karst Plateau towards the sea. The karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres above sea level and it lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed of different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea. The average temperatures are 5.4 °C in January and 23.3 °C in July, the climatic setting of the city is humid subtropical climate. On average, humidity levels are low, while only two months receive slightly less than 60 mm of precipitation.
Trieste along with the Istrian peninsula has evenly distributed rainfall above 1,000 mm in total, snow occurs on average 0 –2 days per year. Temperatures are very mild - lows below zero are somewhat rare, winter maxima are lower than in typical Mediterranean zone with quite high minima. Summer is very warm with maxima about 28 °C and lows above 20 °C, the absolute maximum of the last fifty years is 37.2 °C in 2003, whereas the absolute minimum is −14.6 °C in 1956. Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site, originally an Illyrian settlement, the Veneti entered the region in the 10th-9th c. BC and seem to have given the town its name, still later, the town was captured by the Carni, a tribe of the Eastern Alps, before becoming part of the Roman republic in 177 BC during the Istrian War
Lusatia is a region in Central Europe. The region is the home of the group of Lusatian Sorbs. Historically, Lusatia belonged to different countries. Being part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown for three hundred years, alongside them it passed to the Habsburg Monarchy and from it to the Electorate of Saxony, the greater part passed to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815 and the whole region merged into Germany in 1871. In the Polish part today Polish is spoken, and in the German part German, Upper-, the biggest Lusatian town is Cottbus. The name derives from the Sorbian word łužicy meaning swamps or water-hole, Lusatia is the Latinised form which spread in the English and Romance languages area. Lusatia comprises two both scenically and historically different parts, a hilly southern section and a lower region. Neighbouring regions were Silesia in the east, Bohemia in the south, the Margraviate of Meissen and the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg in the west as well as the Margraviate of Brandenburg in the north.
Upper Lusatia is today part of the German state of Saxony, except for a part east of the Neisse River around Lubań. Among those villages are Niedercunnersdorf, Wehrsdorf, Sohland an der Spree with Taubenheim, most of the area belonging to the German state of Brandenburg today is called Lower Lusatia and is characterised by forests and meadows. In the course of much of the 19th and the entire 20th century, it was shaped by the lignite industry, important towns include Cottbus, Eisenhüttenstadt, Lübben, Lübbenau, Finsterwalde, and Żary, which is now considered the capital of Polish Lusatia. Between Upper and Lower Lusatia is a called the Grenzwall, literally meaning border dyke. In the Middle Ages this area had forests, so it represented a major obstacle to civilian. Some of the villages were damaged or destroyed by the open-pit lignite mining industry during the DDR era. The Lusatian Lake District will become Europes largest artificial lake district, some of the biggest lakes are Lake Senftenberg and Bluno Southern Lake.
The Upper Lusatian Heath and Pond Landscape is the region richest in ponds in Germany, as Lusatia is not, and never has been, a single administrative unit and Lower Lusatia have different, but in some aspects similar, histories. The city of Cottbus is the largest in the region, and though it is recognized as the capital of Lower Lusatia. Historically, the centres of Lower Lusatia were at Luckau and Lübben
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
From 1804 to 1918 it was a crownland of the Austrian Empire. After the reforms of 1867, it became an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous unit under the Austrian crown, the country was carved from the entire south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many titles of the princes of Hungary was ruler of Galicia and Lodomeria. The name Galicia is the Latinized form of Halych, a principality of the medieval Ruthenia, Lodomeria, is a Latinized form of Volodymyr-Volynsky that was founded in the 10th century by the Vladimir the Great and until the partitions of Poland was known simply as Volodymyr. King of Galicia and Lodomeria was a title that King of Hungary adopted during his conquest of the region back in the 12th century. This historical region in Eastern Europe is divided today between Poland and Ukraine, the nucleus of historic Galicia consists of the modern Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions of western Ukraine. In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland.
As such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. However, after the Third Partition of Poland, a portion of the ethnically Polish lands to the west was added to the province. During the first decades of Austrian rule, Galicia was firmly governed from Vienna, the aristocracy was guaranteed its rights, but these rights were considerably circumscribed. The former serfs were no longer mere chattel, but became subjects of law and were granted personal freedoms. Their labour obligations were defined and limited, and they could bypass the lords, at the same time, the Austrian Empire extracted from Galicia considerable wealth and conscripted large numbers of the peasant population into its armed services. The 1820s and 1830s were a period of bureaucratic rule overseen from Vienna, most administrative positions were filled by German-speakers, including German-speaking Czechs, although some of their children were already becoming Polonized.
After the failure of the November insurrection in Russian Poland in 1830–31, in which a few thousand Galician volunteers participated, the insurrection occurred in the western, Polish-populated part of Galicia. In the same period, a sense of national awakening began to develop among the Ruthenians in the part of Galicia. In 1837, the so-called Ruthenian Triad led by Markiian Shashkevych, published The Nymph of the Dniester, alarmed by such democratism, the Austrian authorities and the Greek Catholic Metropolitan banned the book. In 1848, revolutionary actions broke out in Vienna and other parts of the Austrian Empire, in Lemberg, a Polish National Council, and later, a Ukrainian, or Ruthenian Supreme Council were formed. Even before Vienna had acted, the remnants of serfdom were abolished by the Governor, Franz Stadion, Lemberg was bombarded by imperial troops and the revolution put down completely
Duchy of Bukovina
The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918. Another German name for the region, das Buchenland, is used in poetry. In Romanian, in literary or poetic contexts, the name Țara Fagilor is sometimes used, in English, an alternative form is The Bukovina, increasingly an archaism, however, is found in older literature. After the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Bukovina lands since the 14th century had been part of the Principality of Moldavia, in the 16th century, Moldavia came under Ottoman influence, but still retaining its autonomy. During the early 18th century, Moldavia became the target of the Russian Empires southwards expansion, in 1769, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74, Moldavia was occupied by Russian troops. Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the Habsburg Monarchy had aimed at a connection from the Principality of Transylvania to the newly acquired Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.
On 2 July 1776, at Palamutka and Ottomans signed a convention, Austria giving back 59 of the previously occupied villages. For opposing and protesting the annexation of the part of Moldavia by the Habsburg Empire. So far, the Moldavian nobility had traditionally formed the class in that territory. In the mid 19th century the town of Sadhora became the centre of the Hasidic Sadigura dynasty, the immigration process promoted the further economic development of the multi-ethnic country, though it remained a remote eastern outpost of the Danube Monarchy. In 1804, the became part of the newly established Austrian Empire. After the political turmoil of the 1848 revolutions, the estates urged the Vienna government to elevate the Bukovina to a separate Austrian Kronland. With effect of 4 March 1849, the former Kreis was declared the Herzogtum Bukowina and it was governed by a k. k. Statthalter appointed by the emperor, with his residence at Czernowitz from 1850. In 1860 the Bukovina was again amalgamated with Galicia, but reinstated as a province once again according to the 1861 February Patent issued by Emperor Franz Joseph I.
The reinstated crown land received its own Landtag diet including a Landesausschuss executive authority, in 1867, with the re-organisation of the Austrian Empire as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it became part of the Cisleithanian territories. Nine delegates represented the Bukovina in the Austrian House of Deputies, the main military force in the region during peace time was the 22nd Infantry Regiment at Czernowitz, at that time the only k. k. Landwehr regiment with a Romanian majority, as soon as hostilities began, new units were formed from the locally-recruited population
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea, in the region of Dalmatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport, in 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. After repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, the names Dubrovnik and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries. The name Dubrovnik of the Adriatic city is first recorded in the Charter of Ban Kulin. It is mostly explained as a Slavic name of the type, referring to an oak grove or oak forest. The historical name Ragusa is recorded in the Greek form Ῥαούσιν in the 10th century and it was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Lavusa, Raugia, Rachusa. Various attempts have been made to etymologize the name, a connection to the name of Sicilian Ragusa has been proposed. The classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine Porphyrogenituss De Administrando Imperio, the name is explained as a corruption of Lausa, the name of the rocky island on which the city was built.
Excavations in 2007 revealed a Byzantine basilica from the 8th century, the size of the old basilica clearly indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time. There is evidence for the presence of a settlement in the pre-Christian era, after the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire. Dubrovnik in those medieval centuries had a Roman population, after the Crusades, Dubrovnik came under the sovereignty of Venice, which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. After a fire destroyed almost the whole city in the night of August 16,1296, by the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Dubrovnik achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary. Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a state, although it was a vassal from 1382 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire. The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, for centuries, Dubrovnik was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, which was the Ottoman Empires chief rival for control of the Adriatic.
Ancona and Dubrovnik developed a trade route to the Venetian, starting in Dubrovnik it went on to Ancona, through Florence. The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, statutes which, among other things, codified Roman practice, the Statutes included prescriptions for town planning and the regulation of quarantine. An almshouse was opened in 1347, and the first quarantine hospital was established in 1377, slave trading was abolished in 1418, and an orphanage opened in 1432. A20 km water supply system, instead of a cistern, was constructed in 1438 by the Neapolitan architect and he completed the aqueduct with two public fountains
The Hofburg is the former imperial palace in the centre of Vienna, Austria. It was the principal winter residence, as Schönbrunn Palace was the summer residence. Since 1279 the Hofburg area has been the seat of government. The Hofburg has been expanded over the centuries to various residences, the imperial chapel, the imperial library, the treasury, the Burgtheater, the Spanish Riding School. The palace faces the Heldenplatz ordered under the reign of Emperor Francis Joseph I, as part of what was planned to become the Kaiserforum, the name translates as Royal Castle, which denotes its origins when it was initially constructed during the Medieval Age. Initially constructed as the seat of the Dukes of Austria in the 13th century, from 1438 to 1583 and from 1612 to 1806, it was the seat of the Habsburg kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, thereafter the seat of the Emperor of Austria until 1918. It has continued its role as the seat of the head of state and is used by the Austrian Federal President.
It is the permanent conference seat of the Organization for Security, presently the Burghauptmannschaft is under the jurisdiction of the Federal Ministry of Economy. In September 1958 parts of the Hofburg were opened to the public as a convention centre, in the first ten years the Burghauptmannschaft operated the convention centre, since 1969 a private company has been managing the international congress and events center. Every year the centre hosts about 300 to 350 events with around 300,000 to 320,000 guests. Among the events are conventions and meetings as well as banquets, trade fairs, the oldest sections originate from the 13th century and were primarily constructed by the last of the Babenbergers or by Ottakar II of Bohemia. Previously the castle of the Austrian rulers had been located on the square called Am Hof, the castle had a square-shaped outline with four turrets, surrounded by a moat and a drawbridge that led to the inside. These oldest sections of the castle form the Swiss Court.
There situated are a chapel, from the 15th century, and the treasury, which holds, among other objects, the imperial insignia of the Holy Roman Empire. The Court Music Chapel is located in the Court Chapel and this is where the Vienna Boys Choir traditionally sing for Sunday mass. The appearance of the Swiss Court was given during the reign of Emperor Ferdinand I during the Renaissance, the entry Swiss Gate displays the many titles of Emperor Ferdinand I and the insignia of the Order of the Golden Fleece painted on the ceiling. An adjoining section of the Swiss Wing houses the Radetzky Apartments, next to the Knights Hall is the Guard Room, where the duty officer of the Household Guards kept watch over the emperor. The lower section of this wing once accommodated the imperial kitchen, although not physically connected to the rest of the complex, the imperial mews of the Hofburg were originally built as a residence for the crown prince Maximilian II
Margraviate of Moravia
The Margraviate of Moravia or March of Moravia was a marcher state existing from 1182 to 1918 and one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet and it was variously a de facto independent state, and subject to the Duchy, the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic, the Margraviate lay east of Bohemia proper, with an area about half that region’s size. In the north, the Sudeten Mountains, which extend to the Moravian Gate, formed the border with the Polish Duchy of Silesia, in the east and southeast, the western Carpathian Mountains separated it from present-day Slovakia. In the south, the winding Thaya River marked the border with the Duchy of Austria, usually considered a Czech people that speak Moravian dialects, made up the main part of the population. According to a 1910 Cisleithanian census,27. 6% identified themselves as German Moravians and these ethnic Germans would be expelled after the Second World War.
Other ethnic minority groups included Poles and Slovaks, King Otto I of Germany officially granted it to Duke Boleslaus I in turn for his support against the Hungarian forces in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld. As heir apparent, the future King Ottokar II of Bohemia was appointed Moravian margave by his father Wenceslaus I in 1247, along with Bohemia, Moravia was ruled by the House of Luxembourg from the extinction of the Přemyslid dynasty until 1437. Jobst, nephew of Emperor Charles IV inherited the Margraviate in 1375, shaken by the Hussite Wars, the Moravian nobles remained loyal supporters of the Luxembourg emperor Sigismund. The rivalry with King Vladislaus II was settled in the 1479 Peace of Olomouc, whereby Matthias renounced the royal title but retained the rule over the Moravian lands. With the other lands of the Bohemian Crown, the Margraviate was incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy upon the death of King Louis II in the 1526 Battle of Mohács, Moravia was ruled as a crown land within the Austrian Empire from 1804 and within Cisleithanian Austria from 1867.
During the foundation of Czechoslovakia after World War I, the Margraviate was transformed into “Moravia Land” and this autonomy was eliminated in 1949 by the communist government and has not been re-established since. The Margrave held ultimate authority in Moravia, throughout the history of the Margraviate and this meant that as its Margraves became more foreign, so too did governance of the Margraviate. Moravia possessed a legislature, known as the Moravian Diet, the assembly has its origins in 1288, with the Colloquium generale, or curia generalis. This was a meeting of the nobility, the Bishop of Olomouc, abbots. These meetings gradually evolved into the diet, the power of this diet waxed and waned throughout history. By the end of the Margraviate, the diet was almost powerless, the diet consisted of three estates of the realm, the estate of upper nobility, the estate of the lower nobility, and the estate of prelates and burghers. With the February Patent of 1861, the diet was reformed into a more egalitarian body and it still retained the same structure, but the members changed
Kotor is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a part of the Gulf of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the center of Kotor Municipality. The old Mediterranean port of Kotor is surrounded by fortifications built during the Venetian period and it is located on the Bay of Kotor, one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea. Some have called it the southern-most fjord in Europe, but it is a ria, together with the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen and Lovćen, Kotor and its surrounding area form an impressive and picturesque Mediterranean landscape. In recent years, Kotor has seen an increase in tourists. Visitors are attracted both by the beauty of the Gulf of Kotor and by the old town of Kotor. Kotor is part of the World Heritage Site dubbed the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor and it is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor. Kotor has a subtropical climate. Kotor, first mentioned in 168 BC, was settled during Ancient Roman times, Kotor has been fortified since the early Middle Ages, when Emperor Justinian built a fortress above Acruvium in 535, after expelling the Ostrogoths.
This town was named as Kotor in 9th century and it is possible that the vase derives from the notion of vassal and possessive adjective cataro. One can not exclude the possibility that the Vasekatro was a refuge and/or settlement of Katars because they have the root of vase Latin term for the noun vase. When, according to Mihajlo Solinjanin, arrived in Risan, announced their intention to raise the fortress in which to be sure. When they learned citizens of the settlement Ascrivium, urged that the planned cost of investing in the construction of a current city, and that combined live as true friends and citizens. These are not accepted by Ascrivians, or later, under the influence of its bishops are agreed to throw the draw, and Draw outbursts in favor of Kotors Bosnians. The city was plundered by the Saracens in 840, Kotor was one of the more influential Dalmatian city-states of romanized Illyrians throughout the Middle Ages, and until the 11th century the Dalmatian language was spoken in Kotor.
The city was part of Byzantine Dalmatia in that period, in 1002, the city suffered damage under the occupation of the First Bulgarian Empire, and in the following year it was ceded to Serbia by the Bulgarian Tsar Samuil. It was already an episcopal see, and, in the 13th century, during the Nemanjić dynasty-era, the city was autonomous