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Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east. They lie south-southeast of Japan, west-southwest of Hawaii, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines, demarcating the Philippine Sea's eastern limit, they are found in the northern part of the western Oceanic sub-region of Micronesia, are politically divided into two jurisdictions of the United States: the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and, at the southern end of the chain, the territory of Guam. The islands were named after the influential Spanish queen Mariana of Austria following their colonization in the 17th century. Spanish navigators, beginning with Magellan in the early 16th century, were the first Europeans to arrive; the Marianas were the first islands Magellan encountered after traversing the Pacific from the southern tip of South America, the fruits found there helped save the survivors from scurvy, which had killed dozens of crewmembers.

The indigenous inhabitants are the Chamorro people. Archaeologists in 2013 reported findings which indicated that the people who first settled the Marianas arrived there after making what may have been at the time the longest uninterrupted ocean voyage in human history, they further reported findings which suggested that Tinian is to have been the first island in Oceania to have been settled by humans. The Mariana Islands are the southern part of a submerged mountain range that extends 1,565 miles from Guam to near Japan. Geographically, the Marianas are the northernmost islands of a larger island group called Micronesia, situated between 13° and 21°N latitude and 144° and 146°E longitude; the Mariana Islands have a total land area of 1,005 km2. They are composed of two administrative units: Guam, a US territory the Northern Mariana Islands, which make up a Commonwealth of the United States; the island chain geographically consists of two subgroups, a northern group of ten volcanic main islands, all are uninhabited.

In the northern volcanic group a maximum elevation of about 2,700 feet is reached. Coral reefs fringe the coasts of the southern isles; the lowest point on the Earth's crust, the Mariana Trench, is near the islands and is named after them. The islands are part of a geologic structure known as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc system, range in age from 5 million years old in the north to 30 million years old in the south; the island chain arose as a result of the western edge of the Pacific Plate moving westward and plunging downward below the Mariana plate, a region, the most volcanically active convergent plate boundary on Earth. This subduction region, just east of the island chain, forms the noted Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the Earth's oceans and lowest part of the surface of the Earth's crust. In this region, according to geologic theory, water trapped in the extensive faulting of the Pacific Plate as serpentinite, is heated by the higher temperatures of depth during its subduction, the pressure from the expanding steam results in the hydrothermal activity in the area and the volcanic activity which formed the Mariana Islands.

All the islands, except Farallon de Medinilla and Uracas or Farallon de Pajaros, are more or less densely wooded, the vegetation is dense, much resembling that of the Carolines and of the Philippines, from where species of plants have been introduced. Owing to the moistness of the soil cryptogams are numerous, as are most kinds of grasses. On most of the islands there is a plentiful supply of water; the fauna of the Marianas, though inferior in number and variety, is similar in character to that of the Carolines and certain species are indigenous to both island groups. The climate though damp is healthy, while the heat, being tempered by the trade winds, is milder than that of the Philippines; the majority of islands in the Marianas still retain their indigenous names end in the letters -an. The islands are part of a geologic structure known as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc system and range in age from 5 million years old in the north to 30 million years old in the south; the islands are formed as the dense and old western edge of the Pacific plate plunges downward to form the floor of the Mariana Trench and carries trapped water under the Mariana plate as it does so.

This water is super-heated as the plate is carried farther downward and results in the volcanic activity which has formed the arc of Mariana Islands above this subduction region. Archeological studies of human activity on the islands has revealed potteries with red-slipped, circle- and punctate-stamped designs found in the Mariana Islands dating between 1500 and 1400 BC; these artifacts show similar aesthetics to pottery found in Northern and Central Philippines, the Nagsabaran pottery, which flourished during the period between 2000 and 1300 BC. The first Europeans to see the island group were a Spanish expedition, who on March 6, 1521, observed a string of islands and sailed between two of them during a Spanish expedition of world circumnavigat

Sir John Lowther, 1st Baronet, of Lowther

Sir John Lowther, 1st Baronet was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons for Westmorland in 1628 and in 1660. He took no great part in the English Civil Wars. Lowther was the eldest son of Sir John Lowther of Lowther Hall and his wife Eleanor Fleming, daughter of Wiliam Fleming of Rydal, he attended the Inner Temple in 1621 and was called to the bar in 1630. In 1628, Lowther was elected Member of Parliament for Westmorland, together with his father and sat until 1629 when King Charles decided to rule without parliament for eleven years. In 1636, he became recorder of Kendal, he was created a baronet in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia in around 1638. He stood for election to both Parliaments of 1640, but was defeated on each occasion by Sir Philip Musgrave. Lowther was a commissioner of array for Cumberland and Westmorland in 1642, he was commissioned a colonel by the Royalists during the Civil War and was Governor of Brougham Castle until 1644. However, he claimed not to have borne arms against the Parliamentarians, took the Covenant when their forces approached.

He was recommended to continue as a justice of the peace for Westmorland and was fined on favourable terms. He did not continue as a justice or in the recordership of Kendal after 1648, during the Interregnum. After the Restoration, he held several county offices in the North, appearing in the commissions of the peace for Cumberland and the North Riding of Yorkshire and receiving a deputy lieutenancy in Cumberland. From 1661 to 1662 he was Sheriff of Cumberland, he was elected MP for Westmorland again in 1660 in the Convention Parliament, he and Sir Thomas Wharton defeating Thomas Burton. Moderately active during the Parliament, his one recorded speech was to oppose Charles Howard's bill for curbing the moss troopers, preferring older methods of keeping peace on the border, he did not again stand for Parliament, but returned to his activities in the North, where he expanded his estates and prosecuted Quakers. He had a reputation for being unscrupulous in his business dealings; the writer Alice Thornton, a sister of his son-in-law Christopher Wandesford, accused him of persuading her brother to attempt to cheat her and their mother out of the legacies due to them under the will of her father, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, thereby causing a long and bitter family lawsuit.

Lowther married twice. By his first marriage to Mary Fletcher, he had ten children: John Lowther Richard Lowther, married Barbara Prickett and had issue Eleanor Lowther, married Sir Christopher Wandesford, 1st Baronet, son of Christopher Wandesford, Lord Deputy of Ireland Barbara Lowther, married John Beilby Mary Lowther, married Edward Trotter Frances Lowther, married Sir Thomas Pennyman, 2nd Baronet Christopher Lowther Hugh Lowther Anne Lowther Mary LowtherBy his second marriage to Elizabeth Hare, he had four children: Ralph Lowther, married Mary Lawson and had issue William Lowther (b. 27 April 1659, married Elizabeth Rawlinson Robert Lowther, unmarried Margaret Lowther, married Sir John Aubrey, 2nd BaronetHis eldest son John predeceased him, he was succeeded in the baronetcy by his grandson. He left an estate worth about £80,000

La Prensa Gráfica

La Prensa Gráfica known as La Prensa is a daily newspaper published in El Salvador by Grupo Dutriz. La Prensa is a mainstream metropolitan newspaper, became one of the first newspapers to print in color in Central America. Brothers Antonio Dutriz and José Dutriz formed a commencial partnership known as Dutríz Hermanos on October 14, 1903. La Prensa was founded by José and Antonio Dutriz, its first issue was printed and distributed on May 10, 1915; the first issue had four standard size pages. The newspaper expanded and bought new equipment in 1916. Antonio and José Dutriz were the first directors of the newspaper. Antonio retired in 1928 due to illness and José Dutriz remained as sole owner. José Dutriz retired in 1934 and the newspaper was directed by Manuel Andino. José Quetglas became director of the newspaper on November 5, 1939 and merged the newspapers La Prensa and El Gráfico on August 9, 1939 The combined newspaper was renamed La Prensa Gráfica. During Quetglas' term as director, the newspaper had to deal with the issue of censorship under the government of General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez.

The directors and owners of the newspaper encountered several problems under the Hernández Martínez government. José Dutriz, Jr. was incarcerated and Quetglas was being persecuted in an attempt to execute him. Quetglas went into exile and on April 2, 1944, Ramón Pleités became the acting director of the newspaper. Due to Quetglas repatriation, Pleités assumed the title of director on July 17, 1944. After the situation stabilized in El Salvador, José Dutriz Jr. became the director of the newspaper in 1951. During his term, Dutriz, Jr. introduced the use of classifieds and cartoon comics. Dutriz Jr. retired in 1986 and Rodolfo Dutriz became the new director of the newspaper. A book published in 2002, titled "José Dutriz y el diario ‘La Prensa' ” relates the history of the newspaper and its founder. Television chain Univisión and La Prensa forged an alliance in 2004 to foster the exchange of information. Under this agreement, the newspaper will have direct transmission, via satellite, of its news to the United States.

La Prensa Gráfica costs US$0.50 and is one of the two biggest newspapers in El Salvador, the other being El Diario de Hoy. The Newspaper uses the Goodnews system of publishing; the current director of the newspaper is Rodolfo Dutriz, while the director of the Grupo Dutriz is José Roberto Dutriz. El Gráfico Diario Co Latino El Diario de Hoy El Mundo El Faro Official website History of La Prensa Grafica