Habana del Este
Habana del Este spelled La Habana del Este, is one of the 15 municipalities or boroughs forming the city of Havana, Cuba. As its name indicates it is on the eastern side of the city, includes the overspill towns of Camilo Cienfuegos and Alamar as well as the beach towns of Boca Ciega, Tarará, Santa María del Mar and Guanabo; the chain of beaches called the Eastern Beaches extend for 15 miles along the north coast of Havana City province. The beaches are: Tarará; the Eastern Beaches are a popular tourist spot with excellent natural conditions, though tourist facilities are scarce and have yet to be expanded. Media related to Habana del Este at Wikimedia Commons Details of municipality
El Tropicana is a cabaret in Havana, Cuba. It was launched on December 30, 1939 at the Villa Mina in Marianao and next door to El Colegio de Belen where Fidel Castro went to school; the Tropicana Cabaret is located in a tropical garden six-acre estate. The Tropicana evolved out of a nightclub called Edén Concert, operated in the late 1930's by the late by Cuban impresario Victor de Correa. Two casino operators approached de Correa about opening a combination casino and cabaret on a property in Marianao rented from Guillermina Pérez Chaumont, known as Mina; the operators felt the tropical gardens of the Villa Mina would provide a natural setting for an outdoor cabaret. In December 1939, de Correa moved his company of singers and musicians into a converted mansion located on the estate. De Correa provided the food and entertainment, while Rafael Mascaro and Luis Bular operated the casino located in the chandeliered dining room of the estate's mansion. Known as El Beau Site, de Correa decided to rename it The Tropicana.
With a fanfare from the Alfredo Brito Orchestra El Tropicana opened on December 30, 1939. Martín Fox, a well-connected gambler began renting table space in the casino. By 1950 he amassed enough profits to take over the lease of what would become The Tropicana and hire Max Borges Jr. to design an expansion that would be known as Los Arcos de Cristal. At some point a shortime it came under the auspices of Santo Trafficante Jr. who put Lewis McWillie, a longtime acquaintance of Jack Ruby, as manager of the casino. The casino of the Tropicana was operated by Frank Bishop who in the U. S. was a suspected drug trafficker. His assistant in the day to day running of the casino was Pierre Canavese, a direct associate of Salvatore Lucania, alias “Lucky” Luciano. Canavese had been deported to Italy, it was suspected. Max Borges designed a building composed of five reinforced concrete arches and glass walls over an indoor stage; when the indoor cabaret opened on March 15, 1952, it had a combined total seating capacity of 1,700 for the interior and outside areas.
Its furniture designed by Ray Eames. The Arcos de Cristal won numerous international prizes when it was built and was one of six Cuban buildings included in the 1954 Museum of Modern Art exhibit entitled "Latin American Architecture since 1945." Borges won the Premio Anual, from the Colegio de Arquitectos in 1953 for his work on the Tropicana. The Arcos de Cristal may be seen in the Tropicana scene of the movie Our Man In Havana. Nowadays Tropicana has its own school where they are able to prepare talented young people eager to become professional dancers with the help of great teachers, most of them retired dancers,some of them performed in Tropicana as well when they were younger, although this school helps many to make their dreams come true it has the objective of providing Tropicana with good and prepared dancers,as when these students graduate The company can select and hire some of them. Vanity Fair, An Oral History Cabaret Tropicana, 72A Havana Arcos de Cristal Our Man in Havana, Tropicana Scene
Jorge Enrique González Pacheco
Jorge Enrique González Pacheco is a Cuban poet, film industry professional, cultural entrepreneur. He has a Bachelor's Degree in Latin American Literature from University of Havana, a Master's Degree in Hispanic Literature from Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. González Pacheco was born in Marianao, Havana, on September 9, 1969, his mother died when he was young, his relationship with his father was turbulent. González Pacheco moved to the United States in 2003, since 2006 he has been living in Seattle, he published his first poem in Alaluz, a literary magazine of the University of California, Riverside. He has published five books. In Cuba, he received the Delia Carrera Poetry Prize, a national award, in 1996. In 1990 integrated the group of young poets that participated at the revolution of Cuban literature that distanced itself from political themes and created a clearer and more universal lyric; as a freedom defender, in an interview he criticized the situation of the civil liberties on his country.
One of his well-known poems titled. González Pacheco is the founder and CEO of the Seattle Latino Film Festival, a 501 non-profit organization, he has read his poetry including Spain. Poesía Ilustrada, International Edition Group, New York, NY, USA Antología de la Décima Cósmica de La Habana, FAH, Mexico City, Mexico Notaciones del Inocente, Ediciones Qneras, Spain Tierra de Secreta Transparencia, Torremozas & Fundación Juan Ramon Jimenez, Spain Bajo la luz de mi sangre / Under the Light of my Blood, Victoria BC, Canada 2015 HIPGivers Award by Hispanics in Philanthropy in San Francisco, California 2018 Mayor's Arts Award, Washington González Pacheco, Jorge Enrique. “La mudez del alba”. Revista Alaluz. XXVII: 59. González Pacheco, Jorge Enrique. La dócil alba que en tu altura guia-L'aube docile qui depuis ton royaume guide. Paris, France: Arcoiris, Revue de Création Littéraire Bilingue. Pp. 322, 323. Puentes Izquierdo, Zoraida. Literatura Cubana contemporánea Selección de lecturas. Universidad de las Artes, Cuba: Ediciones Cúpulas.
Pp. 28, 30, 88. González Pacheco, Jorge Enrique, Poem: Pobre espacio del que huyo, Spanish Language Literary Magazine: pag 28, College of Languages and Communication, University of Arkansas - Fort Smith. USA González Pacheco, Jorge Enrique, Poetry Now, Sacramento Poetry Center, California, USA Official website González Pacheco, Jorge Enrique, Library of Congress Jorge Enrique Gonzalez Pacheco at IMDb
Guanabo is a beach town in the Ciudad de la Habana Province of Cuba. It is a ward located within the municipality of Habana del Este halfway between the centre of Havana and Santa Cruz del Norte, at the mouth of the Guanabo River, between the Atlantic Ocean coast and the Sierra del Canchón. Guanabo is a seaside touristic town, with a few low rise hotels; the town was founded in 1800. In 1827 it was the place. Media related to Guanabo at Wikimedia Commons Guanabo travel guide from Wikivoyage Town info
Carlos Juan Finlay was a Cuban epidemiologist recognized as a pioneer in the research of yellow fever, determining that it was transmitted through mosquitoes Aedes aegypti. Finlay was born Juan Carlos Finlay y de Barrés in Puerto Príncipe, Cuba to Scottish-born Dr. Edward Finlay and French-born Elisa de Barrés. At that time Cuba was part of the Kingdom of Spain, he reversed the order of his given names to "Carlos Juan" in his life. His father was a physician who had fought alongside Simón Bolívar, his family owned a coffee plantation in Alquízar, he attended school in France in 1844, but was forced to return to Cuba after two years because he contracted cholera. After recovering, he returned to Europe in 1848, but became stuck in England for another two years due to political turmoil, after arriving in France to continue his education, he contracted typhoid fever and again returned to Cuba; because the University of Havana would not recognize his European academic credits, he enrolled at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, which did not require prerequisites.
Here Finlay met John Kearsley Mitchell, a proponent of the germ theory of disease, his son Silas Weir Mitchell, who supervised his studies. He graduated from Jefferson Medical College in 1855, he returned to Havana and set up an ophthalmology practice in 1857, studied in Paris from 1860-61. In October 1865 he married a native of the Island of Trinidad, they would have three sons, Charles and Frank Finlay. Finlay's work, carried out during the 1870s came to prominence in 1900, he was the first to theorize, in 1881, that a mosquito was a carrier, now known as a disease vector, of the organism causing yellow fever: a mosquito that bites a victim of the disease could subsequently bite and thereby infect a healthy person. He presented this theory at the 1881 International Sanitary Conference. A year Finlay identified a mosquito of the genus Aedes as the organism transmitting yellow fever, his theory was followed by the recommendation to control the mosquito population as a way to control the spread of the disease.
His hypothesis and exhaustive proofs were confirmed nearly twenty years by the Walter Reed Commission of 1900. Finlay went on to become the chief health officer of Cuba from 1902 to 1909. Although Dr. Reed received much of the credit in history books for "beating" yellow fever, Reed himself credited Dr. Finlay with the discovery of the yellow fever vector, thus how it might be controlled. Dr. Reed cited Finlay's papers in his own articles and gave him credit for the discovery in his personal correspondence. In the words of General Leonard Wood, a physician and U. S. military governor of Cuba in 1900: "The confirmation of Dr. Finlay's doctrine is the greatest step forward made in medical science since Jenner's discovery of the vaccination." This discovery helped William C. Gorgas reduce the incidence and prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases in Panama during the American campaign, from 1903 on wards, to construct the Panama Canal. Prior to this, about 10 % of the workforce had died each year from yellow fever.
On Cuba Street in downtown Old Havana, the Revolutionary Government in 1962 founded a medical history museum in honor of Carlos J. Finlay. In the municipality of Marianao, now within the city of Havana, there is a monument in the shape of a syringe, honoring Dr. Finlay and referred to as El Obelisco. Finlay was commemorated on a 1981 Cuban stamp. A statue commemorating Dr. Finlay is located on the bayfront in Panama City, near the canal he helped make possible; the UNESCO Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology is named in his honor. Finlay was a member of Havana's Royal Academy of Medical and Natural Sciences, he was fluent in French, German and English and could read Latin. His interests were widespread and he wrote articles on subjects as varied as leprosy, cholera and plant diseases, his main interest, was yellow fever, he was the author of 40 articles on this disease. His theory that an intermediary host was responsible for the spread of the disease was treated with ridicule for years. A humane man, he took on patients who could not afford medical care.
As a result of his work, Finlay was nominated seven times for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, although he was never awarded the prize. He received the National Order of the Legion of Honour of France in 1908. Finlay died from a stroke, caused by severe brain seizures, at his house in Havana on August 20, 1915. In 1928, President Gerardo Machado established the National Order of Merit Carlos J. Finlay, rewarding contributions to healthcare and medicine, it is the highest scientific decoration awarded by the Cuban Council of State. The order was discontinued between 1959 and 1981. On the wall of the Finlay Medical History Museum in Havana, the inscription states, "History Museum of the Medical Sciences' Carlos J. Finlay', created by the Revolutionary Government in eternal homage to the men who contributed to the advance of the sciences in Cuba. National Commission of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Cuba. Havana, 13 June 1962." Finlay was honoured with a Google Doodle on December 2013, on the 180th anniversary of his birth.
Carlos J. Finlay Military Hospital is named after him. Healthcare in Cuba Carlos Juan Finlay article from Encyclopedia of World Biography Carlos J. Finlay article from Encyclopaedia Britannica
Cayo Hueso, Havana
Cayo Hueso is a consejo popular in the municipality of Centro Habana, Cuba. A traditionally working-class neighborhood populated by Afro-Cubans, it is known for its many cultural landmarks such as the Callejón de Hamel, the Fragua Martiana Museum and the Parque de los Mártires Universitarios. Although Cayo Hueso today is considered part of Centro Havana it formed part of Barrio San Lázaro, an area bounded by Calle Infanta to the west, Calle Zanja to the south, Calle Belascoáin to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the north. Cayo Hueso was declared a barrio on 26 July 1912, made part of Centro Habana upon its establishment in 1963; the earliest settlement in the current area of Cayo Hueso dates back to the second half of the 16th century, following the burning of Havana by French pirate Jacques de Sores. It wasn't until 1912 that the area was recognized as the neighbourhood of Cayo Hueso, its name, which means "bone cay", derives from the fact. Among the oldest institutions in the area were the leprosy hospital, the Casa de Beneficencia orphanage, the San Dionisio mental asylum which operated between 1828 and 1860.
The asylum was located between the cemetery and the San Lázaro hospital, named after the governor of Cuba, Francisco Dionisio Vives. Modern sights include the art deco Edificio Solimar, built in 1944; the museum occupies the site of the old San Lázaro quarry, where Martí and other prisoners were imprisoned. The Convento e Iglesia del Carmen, one of the largest churches in Havana, is located in Cayo Hueso; every year, a march known as the Marcha de las Antorchas takes place in the area to celebrate Martí's birthday. The Parque de los Mártires Universitarios commemorates the fallen university students who fought against the Machado and Batista regimes. Traditionally a black worker's neighbourhood, Cayo Hueso has been subject of various renovation plans. In 1984, the Cuban government began allowing rent money to count towards the purchase of properties, which led to generalized improvements to many buildings in Cayo Hueso. In 1988, Cayo Hueso was one of the first three neighbourhoods to take part in the Talleres de Transformación Integral de los Barrios.
Between 1995 and 1999, an urban health improvement project, known as Plan Cayo Hueso, was developed. Since the 1990s many environmental initiatives have taken place in the ward. Cayo Hueso is home to various cultural sites such as the Callejón de Hamel, an alleyway decorated since 1990 by Salvador Gonzáles Escalona, in which events such as workshops and rumba performances take place regularly; the Callejón del Poeta, dedicated to obscure German poet George Wearth, is home to poetry readings. In 1997, the 14th edition of the World Festival of Youth and Students took place in Cayo Hueso. Cayo Hueso has its own comparsa, known as Los Componedores de Batea, established in 1908. Among the musicians born in Cayo Hueso are trumpeters Félix Chappottín and Mario Bauzá, singers Omara Portuondo and Sara González Gómez, percussionist Pedrito Martínez. Other musicians famously resided in the neighbourhood, such as Miguelito Valdés. In 1924, the Jóvenes del Cayo was formed, a band which would feature Valdés and other successful musicians from the area.
The filin movement was concentrated in Cayo Hueso in a house on the Callejón de Hamel, where trovadores Tirso and Ángel Díaz hosted events with other influential musicians such as César Portillo de la Luz and José Antonio Méndez. The popular 1960s group Los Zafiros, which continued the filin style and was directed by a former member of the Jóvenes del Cayo, Néstor Milí, was formed in Cayo Hueso. Cayo Hueso on Ecured
Campeche the Free and Sovereign State of Campeche, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Located in southeast Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Tabasco to the southwest, Yucatán to the northeast, Quintana Roo to the east, it has a coastline to the west with the Gulf of Mexico. The state capital called Campeche, was declared a World Heritage Site in 1997; the formation of the state began with the city, founded in 1540 as the Spanish began the conquest of the Yucatán Peninsula. During the colonial period, the city was a rich and important port, but declined after Mexico's independence. Campeche was part of the province of Yucatán but split off in the mid-19th century due to political friction with the city of Mérida. Much of the state's recent economic revival is due to the finding of petroleum offshore in the 1970s, which has made the coastal cities of Campeche and Ciudad del Carmen important economic centers; the state has important colonial sites.
The state's executive power rests in the governor of Campeche and the legislative power rests in the Congress of Campeche, a unicameral legislature composed of 35 deputies. The state of Campeche is located on the west side of the Yucatan Peninsula; the territory is 56,858.84 square kilometres, 2.6% of Mexico's total. It borders the states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo and Tabasco, with the country of Belize to the east, Guatemala to the south and the Gulf of Mexico to the west. Politically, it is divided into eleven municipalities: Calkiní, Campeche, Champotón, Ciudad del Carmen, Escárcega, Hecelchakán, Hopelchén, Palizada and Tenabo. Campeche is a flat area of Mexico with 523 km of shoreline on the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the surface is of sedimentary rock much of, from marine origin; the area with the highest elevations is near the borders with Quintana Roo. Notable elevations include Cerro Champerico, Cerro los Chinos, Cerro El Ramonal, Cerro El Doce, Cerro El Gavilán. However, these hills are separated by large expanses of lower flat land.
In the south of the municipality of Champotón begin a series of rolling hills known as the Sierra Alta or Puuc, which extend northeast to Bolonchen and into the state of Yucatán. These have only an average altitude of between forty and sixty metres with some reaching 100 metres. There other areas of these rolling hills, near the city of Campeche with main ones known as Maxtum, Boxol and El Morro. Another set is called the Sierra Seybaplaya in the center of the state. Rainforest areas subdivide into a number of types which include perennial tall tree rainforest, semi perennial tall tree rainforest, deciduous medium height tree rainforest, semi deciduous medium height tree rainforest, deciduous low height tree rainforest and semi perennial low height tree rainforest. Away from the coast, these rainforests are interspersed with savannah areas and along the coast are accompanied by areas with sand dunes, mangrove wetlands and estuaries. Species that can be found in the various rainforests include huapaque, pukte, dyewood and more.
It includes a number of precious tropical hardwoods such as red cedar, mahogany and guayacán. Along the coastal areas, palms dominate such as the royal palm; the main wildlife species in the state are the jaguar, puma, wild boar, hare, ring-tailed cat and spider monkey. There are many bird species including the chachalaca, quail, toucan and many more. Reptiles include rattlesnakes, coral snakes, boa constrictors, various species of sea and land turtles and crocodiles. While still rich in wildlife, much has been decimated because of agriculture and exploitation of forest resources destroying habitat as well as uncontrolled hunting. Off the coast is most of the state aquatic life including many species of fish and mollusks. Many of these are exploited commercially. Most of the state's surface freshwater is in the south and southwest, with rivers, small lakes and estuaries; these diminish in the north where rainfall filtrates into the subsoil. The rivers in the south and southwest belong to various basins, with the largest being the Grijalva-Usumacinta to which the Candelaria, Chumpán and Mamantal Rivers belong.
The Usumacinta flows in the state but it tends to change course and divides into branches. The east branch of this river is called the Palizada River, which has the largest volume although it is narrow; the San Pedro River is another branch is the Usumacinta, which passes by the community of Jonuta in Tabasco before emptying in the Gulf. The Chumpán River is an isolated river formed by the union of various streams, it runs empties in the Laguna de Terminos. The Candelaria River forms in Petén, Guatemala and runs north-south and empties into the Laguna de Pargos; the Mamantel River empties into the Laguna de Panlau. The Champotón River is in the center of empties into the Gulf; the rest of the states streams flow only in the rainy season. The Laguna de Términos lagoon is located in the southwest near the Tabasco border, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico only by the Isla del Carmen. It receives fresh water from