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Mariano José de Larra

Mariano José de Larra was a Spanish romantic writer and journalist best known for his numerous essays and his infamous suicide. His works were satirical and critical of the 19th-century Spanish society, focused on both the politics and customs of his time. Larra lived long enough to prove himself a great prose-writer during the 19th century, he wrote at great speed with the constant fear of censor before his eyes, although no sign of haste is discernible in his work. His political instinct, his abundance of ideas and his forcible, mordant style would have given him one of the foremost positions in Spain. In 1901, members of the Generation of'98 including Miguel de Unamuno and Pío Baroja brought flowers to his grave in homage to his thought and influence, he was born in Madrid 24 March 1809. His father, Mariano de Larra y Langelot, served as a regimental doctor in the French Army, and, as an afrancesado, was compelled to leave the peninsula with his family in 1812. In 1817 Larra returned to Spain.

His nature was disorderly, his education was imperfect, after futile attempts to obtain a degree in medicine or law, he entered an imprudent marriage at the age of twenty, broke ties with his relatives, became a journalist. On 27 April 1831 he produced his first play, No más mostrador, based on two pieces by Scribe and Dieulafoy. On 24 September 1834 he produced Macías, a play based on his own historical novel, El doncel de don Enrique el Doliente. On 13 August 1829, Larra married Josefa Wetoret Velasco, they had a son and two younger daughters. He discovered that his third child, whom notoriously became the lover of King Amadeus, was not his-- exposing infidelity in their marriage. Larra divorced his wife shortly afterward. In 1833, Larra worked translating French theater plays for Juan Grimaldi, began writing his own; this year was crucial because he met Dolores Armijo, a married woman who had had a son. They began a relationship though they were both married; the drama and novel were interesting as experiments, but Larra was a journalist, the increased liberty of the press after the death of Ferdinand VII gave his caustic talent an ampler field.

He was famous under the pseudonyms of Juan Pérez de Munguía and Fígaro which he used in El Pobrecito Hablador and La Revista Española respectively. Madrid laughed at his grim humour, his constant disappointment in society and politics, added to the pain caused by the end of his relationship with Dolores Armijo, had an influence on his writing, which became pessimistic and took on a more sombre tinge. On 13 February 1837, Dolores Armijo, accompanied by her sister-in-law, visited Larra to let him know that there was no chance of the two resuming their relationship; the two women had left the house when the writer committed suicide by gunshot. Some of his phrases like Vuelva usted mañana or Escribir en España es llorar are still applied to chastise present-day ills; the Spanish-language clone of the Slashdot Internet forum, uses Pobrecito Hablador as the name for anonymous posters. The Premio Mariano José de Larra rewards young outstanding journalists in Spain; the National Museum of Romanticism in Madrid has items relating to Mariano José de Larra.

He is a frequent reference point among Spanish writers, including Francisco Umbral, Francisco Nieva, Antonio Buero Vallejo. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Larra, Mariano José de". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by Mariano José de Larra at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Mariano José de Larra at Internet Archive Works by Mariano José de Larra at LibriVox Mariano José de Larra in the Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Proyecto Mariano José de Larra en Internet Mariano José de Larra: text and frequency list Las obras completas de Mariano José de Larra en la Google Books: Tomo I, Tomo II, Tomo III El Doncel don Enrique el Doliente Búsqueda de textos en Internet Archive Miranda de Larra: “Larra no se mató por una mujer, sólo fue la gota que colmó el vaso”

Santa Croce degli Armeni

Santa Croce degli Armeni or Holy Cross Armenian Church is a church in Venice, on Calle dei Armeni, near St Mark's Basilica. It is the national church of the Armenian community in Venice; the first contacts between Armenian merchants and Venetians go back to the 6th century. By the 12th century, the Armenian community was established in Venice, it became one of the Republic's wealthiest foreign communities. In the middle of 13th century Venetian nobleman and doge Marco Zianni built a hospice for the Armenian merchants. An altar and chapel were erected in the territory in 1434. In 1688 merchant Guerek Mirmanian was granted permission to expand the chapel into a full-fledged church, which became an important institution for the community. Today the church is open for Mass one day a month; the priests from the San Lazzaro degli Armeni row over to Venice to celebrate mass at the church on the last Sunday of the month at 10:30 AM

Legal transplant

The term legal transplant was coined in the 1970s by the Scottish-American legal scholar W. A. J. ` Alan' Watson to indicate a system of law from one country to another. The notion of legal transplantation is diffusionism-based and according to this concept most changes in most legal systems occur as the result of borrowing; as maintained by Watson, transplantation is the most fertile source of legal development. Laws are inspired by foreign policies and experiences. Regardless of the academic discourses on whether legal transplants are sustainable as a notion in the legal theory, they are common practice; the degree to which new laws are inspired by foreign examples can vary. A frequent and justified criticism is that imported laws are not suited for a certain local context. German jurist Friedrich Carl von Savigny and his historical school of jurisprudence, inspired by the 19th-century Romanticism, have notably promoted the origins of the German people and their distinctive ethos, or Volksgeist.

Savigny’s school of legal thought expressed the need of legal change to respect the continuity of the Volksgeist offering a pre-Darwinian concept of juristic evolution. However, this concept of juristic evolution did not leave much space for notions such as legal transplants and the diffusion of law. More Pierre Legrand is one of the strongest opponents of legal transplants. Today, legal transplants are mentioned in the broader process of diffusion of law or legal acculturation. J. W. Powell is credited with coining the word “acculturation”, first using it in an 1880 report by the US Bureau of American Ethnography, he explained. In a broader context, such notion is by many contemporary scholars applied to legal thought; the diffusion of law is a process of legal change in today’s age of globalization. Studies on diffusion of law are notably a new area of research in the 21st century. Bibliography on Legal Transplants and the Diffusion of Law A. Watson, Legal Transplants and European Private Law JF Morin and R. Gold, An Integrated Model for Legal Transplantation: The Diffusion of Intellectual Property Law in Developing Countries D. Westbrook, Theorizing the Diffusion of Law in an Age of globalization P. Shah and the Challenge of Asian Legal Transplants in Europe G. Shaffer, Transnational Legal Process and State Change C.

Grozev, Auto-acculturation of Legal Transplants