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Mariano Rumor

Mariano Rumor was an Italian politician and statesman. A member of the Christian Democracy, he served as Prime Minister of Italy from 1968 to 1970 and again from 1973 to 1974; as Prime Minister, he led five different governments, supported by various coalitions. He served as Minister of Agriculture from 1959 to 1963, Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1974 to 1976 and Minister of the Interior in two brief periods, in 1963 and from 1972 to 1973. Rumor was Secretary of the Christian Democracy from 1964 to 1969. Mariano Rumor was born in Vicenza, Veneto on 16 June 1915, he attended the classical lyceum Antonio Pigafetta in Vicenza he earned a degree from the University of Padua in Literature in 1939. Rumor was a teacher at an Italian lyceum until his mobilization as a lieutenant in the Italian Army during the Second World War. Subsequent to the Armistice of Cassibile in 1943 between Italy and the Allied powers, Rumor joined the Italian resistance movement. After the end of the war he joined the Christian Democrats, of whom he became one of the main leaders in Veneto close to Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi.

In the 1946 election, Rumor was elected member of the Constituent Assembly, which issued the Italian Constitution in 1948. He became a member of the new-born Chamber of Deputies in 1948; the 1948 election was influenced by the Cold War confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States, are now best known for the covert political warfare waged by the US State Department and Central Intelligence Agency on behalf of the DC. The elections were won with a comfortable margin by De Gasperi's Christian Democracy that defeated the left-wing coalition of the Popular Democratic Front, that comprised the Italian Communist Party and the Italian Socialist Party; as a deputy he became close to Giuseppe Dossetti, becoming a member of his Christian leftist wing. In 1950, Guido Gonella succeeded Paolo Emilio Taviani as National Secretary of the DC. In this context, Rumor was nominated for the first time as National Deputy Secretary, together with Dossetti; the withdrawal from politics of Giuseppe Dossetti, left his faction without a charismatic leader.

Rumor himself presented the manifesto of Democratic Initiative, published on a magazine with the same name. In this text, alongside the declaration of support for De Gasperi and the Atlantic Pact, Dossetti's principles of a Christian reformist party were reaffirmed, with the aim of moving the country towards a "democratic evolution". Rumor played a leading role in the faction; this position, led him to hold the first government posts, becoming Undersecretary for Agriculture in De Gasperi's seventh government, a position he maintained in De Gasperi VIII Cabinet and, after De Gasperi's retirement in 1954, in the short-lived government led by Giuseppe Pella. In the brief first Fanfani government, from January to February 1954, Rumor was appointed to Secretary of the Council of Ministers. In 1954, after the National Congress of Naples, which saw the affirmation of Democratic Initiative and the subsequent election of Fanfani as party's Secretary, Rumor was elected again deputy secretary, he held this office for the next five years.

In fact, many members of the faction, started criticizing the political line of Fanfani's secretariat, who cautiously began to open to the prospect of a collaboration with Italian Socialist Party. Prominent members of the faction, including Rumor himself, put the Secretary in minority during the National Congress of March 1959. In this way, Democratic Initiative split up between the followers of Fanfani and the dissident group, now renamed by all Dorotei, from the place where they had gathered before the congress, the convent of the sisters of Santa Dorotea in Rome; the new faction was built around Antonio Segni, Mariano Rumor and Aldo Moro, elected new Secretary. In the same year, as one the faction's leaders, Rumor was appointment Minister of Agriculture, in the second Segni's government, a position he would keep in the governments of Fernando Tambroni, Fanfani. In this role, Rumor contributed to the definition of one of the first plans for the development and innovation of the national agricultural sector, the so-called "Green Plan".

In 1963 election, the DC suffered a sharp decline of consensus. Rumor was appointed Minister of the Interior in the short-lived government chaired by Giovanni Leone, before being elected as the new Secretary of the DC, he served as secretary until 1969, leading the party in a complex phase of government collaboration with the socialists. In the five years leading the DC, Rumor tried to reassure the moderate electorate, in an attempt to recover the consensus lost in the previous elections, he embodied the typical characteristics of the Dorotheans: caution, the propensity for mediation rather than for decision, attention to practical, concrete questions, rather than to major strategies, the representation of the interests of the provincial middle class, the privileged link with the public administration, with the Catholic world, with direct farmers. In the general elections of 1968, the DC managed to increase its votes, albeit gaining 39% of votes; this result was experienced as a success by the


FundaGeek was a crowd funding resource designed for funding project involving technology, scientific research and community support. Funding is provided through backers who make pledges in return for rewards provided by the project owners. Fundageek does not regard crowd funding as an investment or a debt instrument, pledges do not involve any form of equity interest; the April 2012 JOBS Act opens up the prospects for "equity crowdfunding" however the SEC has not yet defined the required rules for participation. The industry expects this to happen in 2013; as of the end of 2013 the web site is closed and underlying technology and domain is for sale. An archived copy from August 25, 2013 is available at the Internet Archive. FundaGeek was soft-launched in November 2011 by co-founders Cary Daniel Gutierrez. Harwin is a graduate of CSUN with BS in Accounting/Law and co-founder of the software development company Catalyst Development Corporation. Gutierrez graduated from UCLA with BS in Computer Science.

Prior to his CEO appointment at Fundageek, Gutierrez was CEO of AMULET Development Corp. and served for 18 years as an instructor for the Business and Management department of UCLA Extension. He is author of three computer industry books and served as technical editor for Data Based Advisor Magazine. Only some FundaGeek projects used the "all or nothing" funding model adopted by many other crowdfunding sites; such a model only applied to commercial, for-profit Fundageek projects, which must have reached their goal amount by the end of the campaign period in order to get any funding. Funding for scientific research and community support projects received whatever funding the project has attracted by the end of the campaign period. There was no charge to submit a project for consideration on FundaGeek. Upon the successful funding of a project at the end of the campaign period, FundaGeek initiated a process whereby PayPal processed all pledge transactions. At this time, the project owner received the project funding in the PayPal verified account associated with the FundaGeek account, less PayPal's processing fee and FundaGeek's fee of either 5% of the total funds raised for Standard Marketing Resources, or 9% for Premium Marketing Resources.

Giles, Jim. "Finding philanthropy: Like it? Pay for it". Nature. Retrieved 20 April 2012. Burke, Adrienne. "Science Startups and Basic Researchers Turn to Crowds for Funding". Forbes. Retrieved 20 April 2012. McIlwain, Sarah. "'Geeks' find alternative ways for funding". The Miami Student. Retrieved 20 April 2012. Official website

Liza Frulla

Liza Frulla known as Liza Frulla-Hébert, is a former Canadian politician. She was a Liberal Member of the National Assembly of Quebec from 1989 to 1998, a Liberal Member of Parliament from 2002 to 2006, a member of the Cabinet of Prime Minister Paul Martin. All four of Frulla's grandparents were born in Italy and like many Italian Quebeckers, her family was federalist and Quebec Liberal oriented. In college she says she was not politically involved as she voted "yes" in the 1980 referendum, believing it was only fair to give René Lévesque's government a mandate to negotiate, but when the results were "no", she reverted to federalism, she later worked as a marketer for Labatt Breweries when she met with government officials and joined the Quebec Liberals under Robert Bourassa. From 1974 to 1976, Frulla worked for the public affairs service of the organizing committee for the 1976 Montreal Olympics, she subsequently became the first woman reporter accredited to cover professional sport in the electronic media.

From 1989 to 1998, she represented the riding of Marguerite-Bourgeoys in the National Assembly of Quebec. She was Minister of Minister of Cultural Affairs, she was vice-chair of the "No" committee in the 1995 Quebec referendum. However, on November 1, 2007, while appearing on the RDI program Le Club des Ex, she admitted to having voted for the "Yes" side in the 1980 referendum. In 1998, she left the National Assembly to host her own show, Liza, on public broadcaster Radio-Canada until 2002, she was elected to Parliament in a 2002 by-election in the now-defunct riding of Verdun—Saint-Henri—Saint-Paul—Pointe-Saint-Charles. After that riding was merged with portions of neighbouring ridings to form Jeanne-Le Ber, she was re-elected by a razor-thin margin over Thierry St-Cyr in 2004. Frulla has the prenominal "the Honourable" and the postnominal "PC" for life by virtue of being made a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada on December 12, 2003, she was the Minister of Canadian Heritage and Minister responsible for the Status of Women in the cabinet of Prime Minister Paul Martin and served as Minister of Social Development.

In 2016, she was made an Officer of the National Order of Quebec. In 2017, she was appointed as a Member of the Order of Canada. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec. Liza Frulla – Parliament of Canada biography

Act of Independence of Central America

The Act of Independence of Central America known as the Act of Independence of Guatemala, is the legal document by which the Provincial Council of the Province of Guatemala proclaimed the independence of Central America from the Spanish Empire and invited the other provinces of the Captaincy General of Guatemala to send envoys to a congress to decide the form of the region's independence. It was enacted on 15 September 1821; the events of the Peninsular War—in particular the removal of Ferdinand VII from the Spanish throne—inspired and facilitated a series of revolts in El Salvador and Nicaragua aimed at winning for Central America greater political autonomy. Though suppressed, these uprisings formed part of the general political upheaval in the Spanish world that led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812. Between 1810 and 1814 the Captaincy General of Guatemala elected seven representatives to the new Cádiz Cortes and formed locally elected provincial governing councils. However, shortly after his restoration to power in 1814, Ferdinand repudiated the 1812 constitution, dissolved the Cortes, suppressed liberalism in peninsular Spain, which provoked renewed unrest in the Spanish Americas.

The brief restoration of the constitution during the Liberal Triennium beginning in 1820 allowed the Central American provinces to reestablish their elected councils, which became focal points for constitutionalist and separatist sentiments. In 1821 the provincial council of Guatemala began to discuss a declaration of independence from Spain. In September the discussion turned toward an outright declaration of independence from Spain, a document announcing the act was drawn up and debated; the 15 September council meeting at which independence was declared was chaired by Gabino Gaínza, the text of the Act itself was written by Honduran intellectual and politician José Cecilio del Valle and signed by representatives of the various Central American provinces, including José Matías Delgado, José Lorenzo de Romaña and José Domingo Diéguez. The meeting was held at the National Palace in Guatemala City, the site of, now Centennial Park; the Province of San Salvador accepted the decision of the Guatemalan Council on 21 September, the Act was seconded by the provincial councils of Comayagua on 28 September and of Nicaragua and Costa Rica on 11 October.

However, the other provinces were reluctant to accept the primacy of Guatemala in a new Central American state, the form of the new polity that would succeed the Captaincy General was not at all clear. Article 2 of the Act of Independence provided for the formation of a congress to "decide the point of absolute general independence and fix, in case of agreement, the form of government and the fundamental law of governance" for the new state; this constituent assembly was meant to meet the following March. Instead, on 29 October 1821 the president of the provisional governing council of newly independent Mexico, Agustín de Iturbide, sent a letter to Gabino Gaínza and the council of delegates representing the provinces of Chiapas, El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica with a proposal that Central America join the Mexican Empire under the terms of the Three Guarantees of the Treaty of Córdoba; the various provincial and municipal governments of Guatemala were consulted and votes taken, with the five provinces excepting El Salvador voting in favor and with El Salvador opposing.

On 5 January 1822, Gaínza sent a letter to Iturbide accepting Central America's annexation, all the territories of Central America were incorporated into the Mexican Empire. They would remain united with Mexico for less than two years before seceding to form the Federal Republic of Central America as the Mexican Empire fell; the Act consists of an introduction, eighteen articles, a collection of thirteen signatures. The introduction asserts that, after consultation with the municipal councils of other cities in the Captaincy General, the provincial council of Guatemala has agreed that there is a general public desire for independence from Spain. In response to this desire, the council has gathered together in the halls of the National Palace together with other public figures to weigh the matter. Hearing the calls for independence from the streets outside the Palace, the council and the individuals gathered have determined the following articles: The general will of the people of Guatemala is for independence from the Spanish government and the formation of a congress, hereby proclaimed to the same Guatemalan people.

Messages will be dispatched to the provinces so that they may elect deputies or representatives to come to the capital, where they will constitute a congress that will determine the form of the new state's independent government and the fundamental law by which it will be governed. To facilitate the appointment of deputies to the congress, they are to be chosen by the same electoral bodies that appointed deputies to the Spanish Cortes. Deputies to the Congress are to be allocated in proportion to the provinces' populations, with one deputy for every fifteen thousand citizens, including as citizens those residents of African origin; the provincial electoral bodies are to determine the proper number of deputies for their provinces on the basis of the latest census. The deputies thus elected should gather in Guatemala City to form a congress on 1 March 1822; until the meeting of the congress, the existing authorities should continue to enforce the laws under the Spanish Constitution of 1812. Until the meeting of the congress, the Lord Political Chief Gabino Gaínza will continue to lead the po

Jack Renshaw

John Brophy "Jack" Renshaw AC was an Australian politician. He was Labor Premier of New South Wales from 30 April 1964 to 13 May 1965, he was the first New South Wales Premier born in the 20th century. Jack Renshaw was born on 8 August 1909 near Wellington in central New South Wales, his parents were Ann Renshaw. When he was six his parents took up a selection near the town of Binnaway. Five years his father died in a farm accident, leaving his widow to raise eight children. Following Ann Renshaw's remarriage the family prospered and came to own a fuel depot and station agency and butchery in the town. Renshaw was educated at Binnaway Central School, Patrician Brothers at Orange, Holy Cross College at Ryde in north-western Sydney. After leaving school at the age of 14 he helped to run the family dairy property at Hampden Park, helped operate a milk run out of Binnaway. Renshaw joined the Binnaway branch of the Australian Labor Party in 1930, soon held office in the branch, he served on the state and federal electorate councils in the area, including as President of the Gwydir Electorate Council from 1939 to 1949.

He was active in local government, serving as an councillor in the Coonabarabran Shire Council from 1937 to 1944. From 1939 to 1941 he was Shire President, becoming the youngest shire president in Australia at the time, he resigned as Shire President in May 1941 following his election to state Parliament. During the late 1930s he held a position on the Northern Executive of the Wheat Growers' Union. In 1939 he was rejected due to a defect in his eyesight. Renshaw was encouraged to run for state parliament in the local seat of Castlereagh by William Scully, the federal member for Gwydir, after Renshaw had worked as campaign director for him, he was supported by the Premier, William McKell, who realised that Renshaw's strong local identity and links to the farming community would help him in an election. Renshaw stood in the 1941 election, winning the seat from the Country Party member, Alfred Yeo, who had held Castlereagh for the previous nine years. From 1945 to 1950 Renshaw was a member of the central executive of the NSW ALP. Renshaw was appointed Secretary for Lands in 1950 under Premier James McGirr.

Relying upon his strong knowledge of agricultural and rural issues, he aggressively prosecuted the case for Labor's policy of compulsory resumption of large properties so that they could be subdivided. At the time it was believed the land was being under-utilised by land speculators and large agricultural companies and that closer settlement would promote the development of rural districts and solve post-war food shortages; the policy was opposed by the wealthier graziers, represented in part by the Country Party and the United Farmers' Association. Impressed by his handling of the closer settlement debate, the new Premier Joe Cahill promoted Renshaw to Secretary for Public Works in 1952, he became Minister for Local Government in 1953 transferring from Public Works to Minister for Highways in 1956. Renshaw went on to serve as Deputy Premier from 1959 to 1964, Treasurer from 1959 to 1965, he served as Minister for Lands from 1960 to 1961, Minister for Agriculture from 1961 to 1962 and Minister for Industrial Development and Decentralisation from 1962 to 1965.

When Heffron retired in April 1964, Renshaw became Premier. This tenure proved to be no more than a stopgap for a party seen as tired and unfocused after being in office since 1941. Of the 16 members in Renshaw's cabinet, six were aged 65 years or more, most had been in cabinet during Labor's entire quarter-century run in government. Renshaw waited as long as he could before calling an election for 1 May 1965; the Liberal leader, Bob Askin used the slogan "Twenty-four years of Labor misrule." Renshaw found it difficult to connect with urban voters, his problems in adjusting to the new pressures of television only exacerbated his electoral failings. By contrast, Askin showed substantial skill with the TV medium. At the election, Labor suffered a nine-seat swing against it; the Coalition garnered the support of two conservative independents, allowing Askin to become Premier. For the first time in 24 years, the ALP was out of office in New South Wales. With his federal party colleagues having been in opposition since 1949, Renshaw is to date the last Labor Premier who did not encounter a Labor Prime Minister during his time in office.

Renshaw suffered a second and still more severe electoral defeat at the hands of Askin in 1968. He resigned soon after this election, was succeeded by former Deputy Premier Pat Hills. Renshaw remained an important figure both in the state parliament and in Labor's ruling circles. After that he was the state's Agent-General in London, holding that office till 1983. On 12 November 1942 Renshaw married Hilda May Wall, at Elizabeth Bay. Wall died in April 1964, just weeks, his second wife, whom he married on 11 April 1966 at Holy Cross Catholic Church, was Marjorie Mackay née Nolan. He died at the age of 77 in 1987 in the northern Sydney suburb of Northbridge. In the Australia Day Honours of 1979, he was named a Companion of the Order of Australia. John Renshaw Drive, a section of road in the Hunter Region, adjoining the Pacific Highway is named in Renshaw's honour. Jack Renshaw Bridge across the Castlereagh River at

Lord William Bentinck (1828 Yarmouth ship)

Lord William Bentink was launched in 1828 at Yarmouth. She made one voyage transporting convicts to Tasmania, three carrying settlers to New Zealand for the New Zealand Company, she was wrecked between 1858 and 1859. In 1828 two ships named. Lord William Bentinck launched at Yarmouth had R. Miller, F. Preston, owner, her first voyage was from Yarmouth to London. In 1830 her master was R. Holman, changing to Allison, her owner was Fltecher & Co, her trade was London — Straits. She made one voyage to Tasmania in 1832 carrying convicts. Captain William Doutty arrived at Hobart Town on 28 August, she had embarked 186 male convicts. She made three voyages to New Zealand; the first was to Wellington under Captain James Crow, arriving on 24 May 1841. Lord William Bentinck brought settlers to Australia in 1844. In 1845 Lord William Bentinck's master was Sainthill, her owner was still J. Fletcher, her trade was London — Jamaica, changing to London — Madeira. However, on 28 February 1846 she left Madras with 221 coolies for Trinidad.

In 1850 Lloyd's Register named her master as J. Allan, her owner as J. Fletcher, she had damages repaired that year, her trade was London — New Zealand. Her second voyage to New Zealand was to Auckland under Captain Allen, she arrived on 26 August 1850. On this voyage, in addition to civilian passengers, she she brought 48 sappers and miners and four gunners of the Royal Artillery, her third voyage to New Zealand was again to this time under Captain Edward Canney. She reached Auckland on 12 December 1851. From Auckland she sailed to New Plymouth, arriving there on 6 January 1852, she sailed to Australia and back to London. While sailing to Hobart via Manila in 1853 she encountered a storm that carried away her fore-yard, her top-sail was blown out of the bolt-ropes. After repairs she sailed to London. Lord William Bentinck was last listed in Lloyd's Register in 1855 with J. Allan and Essery, owner, her homeport now was Swansea, her trade London — Valparaiso. One source reports that she foundered on a voyage from London to Valparaiso and gives a year of 1859.

Citations References Bateson, Charles. The Convict Ships. Brown, Son & Ferguson. OCLC 3778075. Brett, Henry The Amelia Thompson, White Wings Vol II. Founding Of The Provinces And Old-Time Shipping. Passenger Ships From 1840 To 1885.. Hackman, Rowan Ships of the East India Company.. ISBN 0905617967