Mission Revival architecture
The Mission Revival Style was an architectural movement that began in the late 19th century for a colonial style's revivalism and reinterpretation, which drew inspiration from the late 18th and early 19th century Spanish missions in California. The Mission Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1890 and 1915, in numerous residential and institutional structures – schools and railroad depots – which used this recognizable architectural style. All of the 21 Franciscan Alta California missions, including their chapels and support structures, shared certain design characteristics; these commonalities arose because the Franciscan missionaries all came from the same places of previous service in Spain and colonial Mexico City in New Spain. The New Spain religious buildings the founding Franciscan saw and emulated were of the Spanish Colonial style, which in turn was derived from Renaissance and Baroque examples in Spain; the limited availability and variety of building materials besides adobe near mission sites or imported to Alta California limited design options.
The missionaries and their indigenous Californian workforce had minimal construction skills and experience. OriginalsThe missions' style of necessity and security evolved around an enclosed courtyard, using massive adobe walls with broad unadorned plaster surfaces, limited fenestration and door piercing, low-pitched roofs with projecting wide eaves and non-flammable clay roof tiles, thick arches springing from piers. Exterior walls were coated with white plaster, which with wide side eaves shielded the adobe brick walls from rain. Other features included long exterior arcades, an enfilade of interior rooms and halls, semi-independent bell-gables, at more prosperous missions curved'Baroque' gables on the principal facade with towers. RevivalThese architectural elements were replicated, in varying degrees and proportions, in the new Mission Revival structures. Simultaneous with the original style's revival was an awareness in California of the actual missions fading into ruins and their restoration campaigns, nostalgia in the changing state for a'simpler time' as the novel Ramona popularized at the time.
Contemporary construction materials and practices, earthquake codes, building uses render the structural and religious architectural components aesthetic decoration, while the service elements such as tile roofing, solar shielding of walls and interiors, outdoor shade arcades and courtyards are still functional. The Mission Revival style of architecture, subsequent Spanish Colonial Revival style, have historical, narrative—nostalgic, cultural—environmental associations, climate appropriateness that have made for a predominant historical regional vernacular architecture style in the Southwestern United States in California; the Mission Inn in Southern California is one of the largest extant Mission Revival Style buildings in the United States. Located in Riverside, it has been restored, with tours of the style's expression. Other structures designed in the Mission Revival Style include:The Hotel Castañeda, a Harvey House in Las Vegas, New Mexico, opened January 1, 1899; the first Mission Revival style building in New Mexico, architects Frederick Roehrig and A. Reinsch.
Arrowhead Springs Resort & Hotel, in San Bernardino Mountains, Southern California. Brophy College Preparatory in Phoenix, Arizona Ponce De Leon Hotel in St. Petersburg, completed in 1922 Caliente Railroad Depot, in Caliente, completed in 1923 The Mary Louis Academy Chapel in Jamaica Estates, New York, completed in 1937 California Baptist University, in Riverside, original school buildings built for Neighbors of Woodcraft, completed in 1921 Elizabeth Bard Memorial Hospital, in Downtown Ventura, completed in 1902. Four Roses Distillery, in Lawrenceburg, Kentucky. Built in 1910. Francis Lederer estate and residence, in West Hills, Los Angeles, completed 1936 HanaHaus Iao Theater, in Wailuku, Maui—Hawaii, built in 1928. Kelso Depot, in Mojave Desert—Mojave National Preserve, completed in 1923 for Union Pacific Railroad. Lederer Stables—Canoga Mission Gallery, in West Hills, Los Angeles, completed in 1936 Los Angeles Herald-Examiner Building. Union Station, in San Diego, completed in 1915. Valdosta State University's Main Campus in Valdosta, Georgia Villa Rockledge, in Laguna Beach, completed in 1935 Louis P. and Clara K.
Best Residence and Auto House, Clausen & Clausen, Iowa, constructed 1909–1910. Several buildings at Montclair State University in Montclair, New Jersey, the first being College Hall, constructed in 1908. Several buildings at Queens College in Queens, New York, including the main administration building, Jefferson Hall, constructed in 1
Arizona Supreme Court
The Arizona Supreme Court is the state supreme court of the U. S. state of Arizona. It consists of a chief justice, a vice chief justice, five associate justices; each justice is appointed by the governor of Arizona from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission. Justices stand for retention in an election two years after their appointment and every six years, they must retire at age 70. The Chief Justice is chosen for a five-year term by the court, is eligible for re-election, he or she supervises the administration of all the inferior courts. He or she is Chairman of the Commission on Appellate Court Appointments, which nominates candidates to fill vacancies in the appellate courts. If the Governor fails to appoint one of the nominated candidates within sixty days of their names being submitted to her or him, the Chief Justice makes the appointment; the Vice Chief Justice, who acts as Chief Justice in the latter's "absence or incapacity," is chosen by the court for a term determined by the court.
The jurisdiction of the court is prescribed by Section 5 of the Arizona Constitution. Most of the appeals heard by the court go through the Arizona Court of Appeals, except for death penalty cases, over which the Arizona Supreme Court has sole appellate jurisdiction; the court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances as outlined in the Arizona Constitution. A quorum is three. Justices are selected by a modified form of the Missouri Plan. A bipartisan commission sends a list of nominees to the governor; the governor is required by law to appoint from this list based on merit, without regard to party affiliation. Justices are retained for an initial period, after which they are subject to a retention election. If the justice wins the election, his/her term is six years. Admitted to the practice of law in Arizona and be a resident of Arizona for the 10 years before taking office; the current Arizona Supreme Court includes: The court started in 1912 with 3 justices, they were Alfred Franklin, Donald L. Cunningham, Henry D. Ross and took office on February 14, 1912.
In 1949, the Court expanded from 3 to 5 justices. In 2016, the Court expanded from 5 to 7 justices. Alfred Franklin Henry D. Ross Donald L. Cunningham Archibald G. McAlister Alfred C. Lockwood Rawghlie Clement Stanford Arthur T. LaPrade Levi Stewart Udall Rawghlie Clement Stanford Marlin T. Phelps Levi Stewart Udall Fred C. Struckmeyer Jr. Charles C. Bernstein Jesse Addison Udall Lorna E. Lockwood Ernest W. McFarland Jack D. H. Hays James Duke Cameron William A. Holohan Frank X. Gordon Jr. Stanley G. Feldman Thomas A. Zlaket Charles E. Jones Ruth V. McGregor Rebecca White Berch Scott Bales Arizona Bar Exam Courts of Arizona Arizona Supreme Court Justices Arizona Constitution, Article VI Arizona Judicial Branch Map: 33°26′51″N 112°05′33″W
John Philip Sousa
John Philip Sousa was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known for American military marches. Because of his mastery of march composition, he is known as "The March King", or the "American March King" due to his British counterpart, Kenneth J. Alford being known by the former nickname. Among his best-known marches are "The Stars and Stripes Forever", "Semper Fidelis", "The Liberty Bell", "The Thunderer" and "The Washington Post". Sousa began his career playing violin and studying music theory and composition under John Esputa and George Felix Benkert, his father enlisted him in the United States Marine Band as an apprentice in 1868. After departing the band in 1875, Sousa learned to conduct. From 1880 until his death, he focused on conducting and the writing of music, he rejoined the Marine Band and served there for 12 years as director. On leaving the Marine Band, Sousa organized his own band. Sousa aided in the development of the sousaphone, a large brass instrument similar to the helicon and tuba.
Upon the outbreak of World War I, Sousa was awarded a wartime commission of lieutenant commander to lead the Naval Reserve Band in Illinois. Following his tenure, he returned to conduct the Sousa Band until his death in 1932. John Philip Sousa was born in Washington, D. C. the third of ten children of João António de Sousa, of Portuguese and Spanish ancestry, his wife Maria Elisabeth Trinkaus, of Hessian ancestry. Sousa began his music education under the tuition of John Esputa Sr.. This was short-lived, due to the teacher's frequent bad temper, his real music education began in 1861 or 1862 as a pupil of John Esputa Jr. the son of his previous teacher, under whom Sousa studied violin, flute, several brass instruments, singing. Esputa shared his father's bad temper, the relationship between teacher and pupil was strained, but Sousa nonetheless progressed rapidly under Esputa, was found to have perfect pitch, he wrote his first composition, "An Album Leaf", during this period but Esputa dismissed it as "bread and cheese" and the composition was subsequently lost.
When Sousa was 13, his father, a trombonist in the Marine Band, enlisted him in the United States Marine Corps as an apprentice to keep him from joining a circus band. In the same year, he began studying music under George Felix Benkert. Sousa completed his apprenticeship in 1875, began performing on the violin. Sousa joined a theatrical orchestra where he learned to conduct, he returned to the U. S. Marine Band as its head in 1880 and remained as its conductor until 1892. Sousa led "The President's Own" band under five presidents from Rutherford B. Hayes to Benjamin Harrison. Sousa's band played at two Inaugural Balls, those of James A. Garfield in 1881, Benjamin Harrison in 1889; the marching brass bass, or sousaphone, a modified helicon, was created by J. W. Pepper – a Philadelphia instrument maker who created the instrument in 1893 at Sousa's request using several of his suggestions in its design, he wanted a tuba that could sound upward and over the band whether its player was seated or marching.
The sousaphone was re-created in 1898 by C. G. Conn and this was the model, he organized The Sousa Band the year. The Sousa Band toured from 1892 to 1931, performing at 15,623 concerts both in America and around the world, including at the World Exposition in Paris, France and at the Royal Albert Hall in London. In Paris, the Sousa Band marched through the streets to the Arc de Triomphe – one of only eight parades the band marched in over its forty years. Sousa served two periods of service in the United States Marine Corps, he first enlisted on June 1868 at the age of 13 as an apprentice musician. In official records, his initial rank was listed as "boy", he was promoted to musician. He left the Marine Corps in 1875 at the age of 20, his second period of Marine service was from 1880 to 1892. During this period he was the leader of the Marine Band in Washington, D. C. Sousa's salary as "leader of the band" was $83 per month which compared to a second lieutenant at $115.67 per month and a sergeant major with 20 years of service at $30 per month.
Under his leadership, the Marine Band became the premier military band in the United States. The Columbia Phonograph Company produced 60 cylinders of recordings of the Marine Band conducted by Sousa; the recordings, along with two tours in 1892, led to Sousa becoming nationally famous. During his time with the Marine Band, Sousa composed several of his famous marches including The Washington Post, The Thunderer and Semper Fidelis which remain staples of marching bands to this day. In July 1892, Sousa requested, received, a discharge from the Marine Corps to pursue a financially promising civilian career as a band leader, he conducted a farewell concert at the White House on
Carl Trumbull Hayden was an American politician and the first United States Senator to serve seven terms. Serving as Arizona's first Representative for eight terms before entering the Senate, Hayden set the record for longest-serving member of the United States Congress more than a decade before his retirement from politics; the longtime Dean of the United States Senate served as its president pro tempore and chairman of both its Rules and Administration and Appropriations committees. He was a member of the Democratic Party. Having earned a reputation as a reclamation expert early in his congressional career, Hayden backed legislation dealing with public lands, mining and other projects affecting the Western United States. In addition, he played a key role in creating the funding formula for the federal highway system. President John F. Kennedy said of Hayden, "Every Federal program which has contributed to the development of the West—irrigation, reclamation—bears his mark, the great Federal highway program which binds this country together, which permits this State to be competitive east and west and south, this in large measure is his creation."Known as the "Silent Senator", Hayden spoke on the Senate floor.
Instead his influence came from committee meetings and Senate cloakroom discussions where his comments were "given a respect comparable to canon law". A colleague said of him, "No man in Senate history has wielded more influence with less oratory," while The Los Angeles Times wrote that Hayden had "assisted so many projects for so many senators that when old Carl wants something for his beloved Arizona, his fellow senators fall all over themselves giving him a hand. They'd vote landlocked Arizona a navy if he asked for it." Hayden was born to Charles Trumbull Hayden and Sallie Calvert Davis on October 2, 1877, in Hayden's Ferry, Arizona Territory. Charles Hayden was a Connecticut-born merchant and freight operator who had moved west due to a lung ailment and homesteaded a claim on the south bank of the Salt River. Charles Hayden had served as a probate judge and, following Grover Cleveland's 1884 election, had been considered for the territorial governorship. Sallie Davis was an Arkansas-born schoolteacher who served as vice president of the Arizona Territorial Suffrage Association during the 1890s.
Following the birth of their son and Sallie Hayden had three daughters: Sarah and Mary. Anna died unexpectedly at two-and-one-half years of age; the Hayden family operated a variety of business interests including a ferry service, a gristmill, a general store, agricultural interests. While he was growing up, Hayden's family took several trips, including journeys to Washington, D. C. and the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. To these, Hayden added several solo trips, including a horseback trip to the Grand Canyon and a trip to Mexico City when he was fourteen. Hayden attended Arizona Territorial Normal School. After his graduation from normal school in June 1896 he was enrolled at Stanford University where he studied economics, history and philosophy with an interest in attending law school after graduation. While at Stanford, he was sophomore class president and participated in debate, fiction writing and track. During his junior year, Hayden suffered his only election defeat when he narrowly lost the race for student body president.
He learned to "always run scared" in future elections. Hayden met Nan Downing, while at Stanford; the couple married on February 14, 1908, produced no children. One semester from graduation, in December 1899, Hayden was forced to drop out of school when his father became ill. Charles Hayden died on February 5, 1900, leaving his son with responsibility for the family and control of the family business interests. Hayden sold the mercantile business to pay off outstanding debts and rented most of the family's properties to provide an income that allowed him to move his mother and sisters to Palo Alto, where his sisters could attend college. In the fall of 1903, he enlisted in the Arizona Territorial National Guard and was elected captain within two months. Soon after his return from Stanford, Hayden became active in Democratic Party politics. In September 1900 he represented Tempe as a delegate at a county level convention and became chairman of the Maricopa County Democratic Central Committee in 1902.
Hayden was elected to a two-year term on the Tempe town council. Following passage of the National Reclamation Act of 1902 he was sent to Washington, D. C. by interests in Tempe to lobby for funding of the Salt River Project. Hayden led the Arizona Territory delegation to the 1904 Democratic National Convention in St. Louis. In 1904 he was elected Maricopa County treasurer. Hayden's two years as treasurer provided him practical experience with public finance and budgetary processes. After one term as county treasurer, he chose to pursue the more lucrative office of sheriff—the position providing a travel budget and a percentage of collected fees; the November 1906 election saw Hayden defeat his Republican and Prohibition party challengers by the largest margin of victory in any of the county races. By the time Hayden became sheriff, Maricopa County had transformed from a Wild West frontier into a quiet agricultural settlement. Based in Phoenix, which had grown to a population of 10,000 people, he performed duties such as maintaining order, collecting fees from saloons and gambling halls, transportation of prisoners to other parts of the territory, enforcing local ordinances such as a Phoenix law requiring local Indians t
Heritage Documentation Programs
Heritage Documentation Programs is a division of the U. S. National Park Service responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey, Historic American Engineering Record, Historic American Landscapes Survey; these programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, written reports, are archived in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. In 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency, it was founded as a constructive make-work program for architects and photographers left jobless by the Great Depression. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of America's architectural heritage. By creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement.
Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, many contributors to which joined the HABS program. Notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher; the Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10, 1969, by NPS and the American Society of Civil Engineers. HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts. Since the advent of HAER, the combined program is called "HABS/HAER". Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, or as part of college-credit classwork. Eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, the Historic American Landscapes Survey, to systematically document historic American landscapes. A predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940; that project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, which supervised the collection of records.
The permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since been expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph and magazine. As a branch of the United States Government, its created works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures. Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places Notes Further reading "HAER: 30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 25. 1999. JSTOR i40043493. "Documenting Complexity: The Historic American Engineering Record and America's Technological History". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology.
23. 1997. JSTOR i4004348. Lindley, John; the Georgia Collection: Historic American Buildings Survey. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0613-4. Witcher, T. R.. "Fifty Years of Preservation: The Historic American Engineering Record". Civil Engineering. National Park Service−NPS: official Heritage Documentation Programs website
Winnie Ruth Judd
Winnie Ruth Judd, born Winnie Ruth McKinnell known as Marian Lane, was a medical secretary in Phoenix, accused of murdering her friends, Agnes Anne LeRoi and Hedvig Samuelson, in October 1931. The murders were discovered when Judd transported the victims' bodies, one of, dismembered, from Phoenix to Los Angeles, California by train in trunks and other luggage, causing the press to name the case the "Trunk Murders". Judd committed the murders to win over the affections of Jack Halloran, a prominent Phoenix businessman. Judd was tried for LeRoi's murder, found guilty, sentenced to death. However, the sentence was repealed after she was found mentally incompetent, she was committed to the Arizona State Asylum for the Insane. Over the next three decades, Judd escaped from the asylum six times, she was paroled in 1971 and discharged from parole in 1983. Judd's murder investigation and trial were marked by sensationalized newspaper coverage and suspicious circumstances suggesting that at least one other person might have been involved in the crimes.
Her sentence raised debate about capital punishment. Winnie Ruth McKinnell was born on January 29, 1905, to the Rev. H. J. McKinnell, a Methodist minister, his wife, Carrie, in Oxford, Indiana. At age 17, she married Dr. William C. Judd, a World War I veteran more than twenty years her senior, moved to Mexico with him, taking his last name. William was a morphine addict as a result of war injuries and had difficulty keeping a job, forcing the couple to move and live on an uncertain income; the marriage was further strained by Mrs. Judd's inability to bear children. By 1930, the couple were living separately, although they remained in constant communication. Judd, called by her middle name of "Ruth", moved to Phoenix, where she worked as governess to a wealthy family. During this time, she met John J. "Happy Jack" Halloran, a 44-year-old Phoenix businessman, active in the city's political and social circles. Although married, Halloran was a known playboy and philanderer. Judd and Halloran became friendly and had an extramarital affair.
After a few months, Judd began working as a secretary at the Grunow Medical Clinic in Phoenix. There, she met Agnes Anne LeRoi, an X-ray technician, her roommate, Hedvig Samuelson, who had moved together from Alaska after Samuelson contracted tuberculosis; the two women were friendly with Halloran. Judd became friends with LeRoi and Samuelson, moved in with them for a couple of months in 1931, but differences developed between the women and Judd soon returned to her own apartment, located a short distance away from the rented bungalow shared by LeRoi and Samuelson. At the time of the murders, Judd was 26 years old, LeRoi 32, Samuelson 24. According to police, on the night of October 16, 1931, LeRoi and Samuelson were murdered by Judd after an alleged fight among the three women over Halloran's affections; the prosecution at Judd's murder trial would suggest that quarrels over men and the relationship between LeRoi and Samuelson broke up the friendship of the three women, that jealousy was the motive for the killings.
The two victims were killed with a.25 caliber handgun in their bungalow, located at 2929 N. 2nd Street. According to prosecutors, Judd and an accomplice dismembered Samuelson's body and put the head and lower legs into a black shipping trunk, placing the upper legs in a beige valise and hatbox. LeRoi's body was stuffed intact into a second black shipping trunk. Two days after the murders, on Sunday, October 18, 1931, with her left hand bandaged from a gunshot wound, boarded the Golden State Limited passenger train from Phoenix's Union Station, along with the trunks and luggage containing the bodies. Judd traveled overnight to California. Upon her arrival at 7:45 am the next morning, the trunks came under suspicion because of the foul odor detected by station personnel, as well as fluids escaping from the trunks. Thinking at first the trunks contained contraband, the baggage agent, Arthur V. Anderson, wanted them opened and tagged them to be held, he asked Judd for the key. Burton McKinnell, Judd's brother and a junior at the University of Southern California, picked her up from the train station unaware of the murders or the bodies.
Judd departed with her brother. At around 4:30 pm that afternoon, Anderson called the Los Angeles Police Department to report the suspicious trunks. After picking the locks of each trunk, the police discovered the bodies. Meanwhile, Burton had dropped his sister off somewhere in Los Angeles, where she proceeded to disappear. Judd hid out for several days until she surrendered to police in a funeral home the following Friday, October 23, 1931; the murder became headline news across the country, with the press calling Judd the "Tiger Woman" and the "Blonde Butcher". The case came to be known in the media as the "Trunk Murders", Judd as the "Trunk Murderess". On the evening of Monday, October 19, 1931, Phoenix police first entered the bungalow where LeRoi and Samuelson had resided; the following day, the bungalow's landlord placed newspaper ads in The Arizona Republic and The Phoenix Evening Gazette offering tours of the three-room bungalow for ten cents per person, attracting hundreds of curiosity seekers.
During the trial, Judd's defens
Maricopa County, Arizona
Maricopa County is a county in the south-central part of the U. S. state of Arizona. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated its population was 4,307,033 as of 2017, making it the state's most populous county, the fourth-most populous in the United States, containing more than half the population of Arizona, it is more populous than 23 states. The county seat is the state capital and fifth-most populous city in the United States. Maricopa County is the central county of the Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area. Maricopa County was named after the Maricopa Indians. There are five Indian reservations located in the county; the largest are the Gila River Indian Community. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 9,224 square miles, of which 9,200 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water. Maricopa County is one of the largest counties in the United States by area, with a land area greater than that of four states. From west to east, it stretches 132 miles and 103 miles from north to south.
It is by far Arizona's most populous county, encompassing well over half of the state's residents. It is the largest county in the United States to have a capital city. La Paz County – west Yuma County – west Pima County – south Pinal County – southeast Gila County – east Yavapai County – north Sonoran Desert National Monument Tonto National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 3,072,149 people, 1,132,886 households, 763,565 families residing in the county; the population density was 334 people per square mile. There were 1,250,231 housing units at an average density of 136/sq mi; the racial makeup of the county was 77.4% White, 3.7% African American, 1.9% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 11.9% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. 29.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.1% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 1,132,886 households out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families.
24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.21. The population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 19.80% from 45 to 64, 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,358, the median income for a family was $51,827. Males had a median income of $36,858 versus $28,703 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,251. About 8.0% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 3,817,117 people, 1,411,583 households, 932,814 families residing in the county; the population density was 414.9 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,639,279 housing units at an average density of 178.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.0% white, 5.0% black or African American, 3.5% Asian, 2.1% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 12.8% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 29.6% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 1,411,583 households, 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families, 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age was 34.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,054 and the median income for a family was $65,438. Males had a median income of $45,799 versus $37,601 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,816. About 10.0% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.
According to data provided by the United States Census Bureau in October 2015 and collected from 2009-2013, 73.72% of the population aged five years and over spoke only English at home, while 20.32% spoke Spanish, 0.56% spoke Chinese, 0.47% Vietnamese, 0.41% Tagalog, 0.37% Arabic, 0.36% German, 0.30% French, 0.25% Navajo, 0.21% Korean, 0.20% Hindi, 0.15% Italian, 0.14% Persian, 0.13% Russian, 0.13% Serbocroatian, 0.12% Telugu, 0.12% Polish, 0.11% Syriac, 0.11% Japanese, 0.11% spoke Romanian, 0.10% spoke other Native North American languages at home. The governing body of Maricopa County is its Board of Supervisors; the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors consists of five members chosen by popular vote within their own districts. The Board consists of four Republicans, each representing districts in the more affluent or conservative districts of the county, one Democrat, representing the largest district; each member serves a four-year term, with no term limits. The Maricopa County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, administers the county jail, patrols the unincorporated areas of the county plus incorporated towns by contract.
Maricopa County has a long history of being a Republican Party stronghold. While the city of Phoenix leans towards the Democratic Party, along with some other small areas within the county, the rest of the