Taking Lives (film)
Taking Lives is a 2004 American psychological thriller film directed by D. J. Caruso and starring Angelina Jolie and Ethan Hawke, with supporting roles by Kiefer Sutherland, Olivier Martinez, Tchéky Karyo, Jean-Hugues Anglade, Gena Rowlands. Loosely adapted from the novel of the same name by Michael Pye, the film centers on an enigmatic serial killer who takes on the identities of his victims; the film was shot on-location in Quebec. The original music score was composed by Philip Glass and the main title's theme was composed by Walter Werzowa of the electronica group Edelweiss; the film was released in the United States on March 2004 by Warner Bros.. Pictures, where it received mixed-to-negative reviews. In the early 1980s, teenagers Martin Asher and Matt Soulsby meet on a bus to Quebec. Uncertain of their ultimate destination, the two talk about their plans for the future; when their bus breaks down, the two acquire a car from a nearby garage. While Martin is driving, a tire blows. Matt struggles to change the tire and Martin comments on how he and Matt are both about the same height, kicks Matt into the path of an oncoming truck, killing both him and the driver.
Taking Matt's guitar and clothes, he walks away singing in a voice similar to Matt's. Twenty years a successful FBI profiler, Illeana Scott, is summoned to help out the authorities in Montreal in apprehending a serial killer who assumes the identities of his victims, enabling him to travel undetected across North America. Martin's mother Rebecca claims to have seen her son alive and well on a ferry to Quebec City, leading to the body believed to have belonged to him being exhumed for forensic examination, he becomes the primary suspect. Illeana, who has difficulty adjusting to her new surroundings and is distrusted by her local colleagues, interviews art dealer James Costa, an eyewitness who saw Asher kill his last victim. Costa makes a drawing of the killer and the authorities manage to track down the man's apartment, only to find a decaying corpse chained up in the ceiling. Illeana goes to Rebecca's house to question her about her son, while snooping around discovers a hidden passageway behind a cabinet that leads to a secret room used to house young Martin, an unwanted and unstable younger child whom Rebecca neglected and saw as inferior to her elder son, whom Martin killed out of jealousy.
Illeana is attacked by a hidden assailant. Illeana determines that Asher is targeting people whose lives hold something his current one lacks, that his latest target is Costa after his apartment is broken into and ransacked. Costa is subsequently used in a sting operation to lure and apprehend Asher, but the operation fails and Costa angrily refuses to be used as bait. During a show at his gallery, Costa is attacked by an assailant, whom Illeana tries to apprehend, but loses in the crowds after a foot chase outside. For his protection, the police decide to move Costa out of town, but the next morning Costa is confronted by the same assailant, who attacks him and demands to have "what he wants." Costa's police escort is killed when he tries to intervene, the assailant takes Costa hostage with a gun and drives away. Illeana gives chase, causes the car to crash and explode just as Costa manages to escape; as Illeana is preparing to return home, Costa visits her in her hotel room. The two, having grown close over the course of the investigation, make passionate love on a chest of drawers and the bed, surrounded by gruesome crime scene photos.
The next morning, Illeana awakes to find herself covered in Costa's blood. At first, she fears he is dead, but he awakes, they discover he had popped the stitches in his arm that he received after the auto accident; as Costa's stitches are repaired in the hospital, Scott is called down to the morgue as Rebecca has come to identify the charred body of the assailant. She's unable to confirm the body as Martin, Illeana realizes that Asher must still be alive. Shocked, Rebecca leaves the morgue, goes to the elevator, as Illeana chases after her. Before she can reach her, the elevator door closes, Costa confronts her, revealing himself as the real Martin Asher. Costa kills his mother, Illeana sees him covered in blood just as the elevator door between them closes; the police try to capture Asher. Scott frantically washes herself, in a state of manic disgust. An investigation shows that the man killed in the car accident, was Christopher Hart, a drug dealer and art thief to whom Asher owed $80,000, whom Asher murdered.
The police chase Asher, but he escapes in a train station and boards a train headed east of Montreal, meanwhile setting up his next victim, a sports talent scout. He calls Illeana on the phone and taunts her before hanging up and disappearing into the crowd of other passengers. Illeana admits to having consensual sex with Asher, is fired from the FBI. Seven months Illeana is living in a desolate farmhouse by herself in Carlisle and looking pregnant with Asher's twin boys. One day as she sits alone in her home, she discovers, she frantically tries to escape, but Asher overpowers her and reveals he has found all the guns she had hidden throughout the house. Asher makes her tea and tells her they could start over and live together as a family, but a disgusted Illeana tells him she does not want to. Enraged, Asher begins beating and choking her and stabs her in her belly with a pair of scissors. Illeana unharmed by the stabbing, shocks Asher by stabbing him in the heart with the same scissors; as Asher is on his knees looking at her
Battlefield Earth (film)
Battlefield Earth is a 2000 American science fiction action film based on the 1982 novel by L. Ron Hubbard, it stars John Travolta, Barry Pepper and Forest Whitaker. The film follows a rebellion against the alien Psychlos. Travolta, a Scientologist, had sought for years to make a film of the novel by Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, he was unable to obtain major studio funding due to concerns about the script and connections to Scientology. In 1998, it was picked up by independent production company Franchise Pictures, which specialized in rescuing stars' pet projects. Production began in 1999 funded by the German distribution company Intertainment AG. Franchise was sued by its investors and went bankrupt in 2004 after it emerged that it had fraudulently overstated the budget by $31 million. Battlefield Earth was a critical and commercial failure described as one of the worst films of all time. Reviewers criticized every aspect of the movie, including the acting, script, special effects, art direction.
Audiences were reported to have ridiculed early screenings and stayed away from the film after its opening weekend. It received eight Golden Raspberry Awards, which until 2012 was the most Razzie Awards given to a single film, it won Worst Picture of the Decade in 2010. It has since become a cult film in the "so bad, it's good" vein. Travolta envisioned Battlefield Earth as the first of two films adapted from the book, as it only covers the first half of the novel. However, the film's poor box office performance and the collapse of Franchise Pictures ended plans for a sequel. In the year 3000, Earth is a desolate wasteland; the Psychlos, a brutal race of giant humanoid aliens, have ruled the planet for a thousand years and use human slave labor to strip its minerals and other resources. A few primitive hunter-gatherer tribes of humans live in freedom in remote, hidden areas, but after ten centuries of Psychlo oppression they have abandoned any hope of regaining control of their planet. Jonnie Goodboy Tyler rejects this universal hopelessness and leaves his tribe in the Rocky Mountains on a journey of exploration with a nomad hunter named Carlo.
Both are captured by a Psychlo raiding party and transported to a slave camp in the ruins of Denver, the Psychlos' principal base of operations. A massive dome over the base protects the Psychlos from Earth's atmosphere, toxic to them. At the camp, they meet Terl, the Psychlo security chief, his deputy, Ker. Terl's assignment at this remote Earth outpost is due to an unexplained incident involving "the Senator's daughter", he plans to bribe his way back to the Psychlo home planet by illegally mining gold in areas of high radioactivity. Psychlos avoid such areas. Terl selects Jonnie to lead the mining operation and Jonnie acquires a comprehensive knowledge of human history, mathematics and literature in a Psychlo rapid-learning machine, he begins sharing his knowledge with his fellow captives and, to Terl, defiantly declares that one day, humans will overthrow the Psychlos and retake their planet. Jonnie unsuccessfully tries to blackmail Terl into whatever he wants, but fails, resulting in the death of his friend Samuel as a warning.
An amused Terl shows Jonnie the ruins of Denver and its public library, boasts that the Psychlos conquered all of Earth in only nine minutes in 2000. Jonnie spends time in the library and is inspired by the Declaration of Independence. Terl gives Jonnie a party of orders him to find gold. Jonnie locates a plentiful supply at the long-abandoned Fort Knox, he discovers an abandoned underground military base at Fort Hood, Texas with working Harrier jump-jets and fuel. While they are supposed to be laboring in the mines and his followers plot a revolution and use the military base's flight simulators to train themselves in aerial combat. After a week of training and planning, the rebels launch their attack. In a suicide mission, Carlo flies his Psychlo flying shuttle into the Denver dome, destroying it and suffocating the Psychlos inside. Jonnie captures a teleportation device and teleports another man, Mickey, to the Psychlo home world with a dirty bomb; when Mickey detonates the bomb, its radiation reacts catastrophically with the Psychlo atmosphere, destroying all life on the planet.
The humans face an uncertain future. The sole Psychlo survivors are Terl, imprisoned inside Fort Knox in a makeshift cell surrounded by gold bars, with Jonnie telling him that it was his fault for what happened to his home world, Ker, who joins the victorious humans in the challenging project of rebuilding their civilization. After Battlefield Earth was published in 1982, L. Ron Hubbard suggested that a film version of the book was in the works, he gave an interview in February 1983 to the Rocky Mountain News in which he told the reporter, "I've written three screenplays, some interest has been expressed in Battlefield Earth, so I suppose I'll be right back in Hollywood one of these days and on location in the Denver area for Battlefield Earth when they film it."Hubbard's comments suggest that he saw himself being directly involved in the film's production. In October 1983, the film rights were sold by the Church of Scientology's in-hou
Munich is a 2005 historical drama film produced and directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Tony Kushner and Eric Roth. It is based on the book Vengeance, an account of Operation Wrath of God, the Israeli government's secret retaliation against the Palestine Liberation Organization after the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics. Munich received five Academy Awards nominations: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Editing and Best Score; the film made $130 million worldwide but just $47 million in the United States, making it one of Spielberg's lowest-grossing films domestically. In 2017, the film was named the sixteenth "Best Film of the 21st Century So Far" by The New York Times. At the 1972 Munich Olympics, the Palestinian terrorist group Black September kills eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team. Avner Kaufman, a Mossad agent of German-Jewish descent, is chosen to lead a mission to assassinate 11 Palestinians involved in the massacre. At the direction of his handler Ephraim, to give the Israeli government plausible deniability, Avner resigns from Mossad and operates with no official ties to Israel.
His team includes four Jewish volunteers from around the world: South African driver Steve, Belgian toy-maker and explosives expert Robert, former Israeli soldier and "cleaner" Carl, Danish document forger Hans. They are given information by Louis. In Rome, the team shoots and kills Wael Zwaiter, living as a poet. In Paris, they detonate a bomb in the home of Mahmoud Hamshari. With IDF commandos, they pursue three Palestinians—Muhammad Youssef al-Najjar, Kamal Adwan, Kamal Nasser—to Beirut, penetrate the Palestinians' guarded compound and kill all three. Between hits, the assassins argue about the morality and logistics of their mission, expressing fear about their individual lack of experience, as well as ambivalence about accidentally killing innocent bystanders. Avner makes a brief visit to his wife. In Athens, when they track down Zaiad Muchasi, the team finds out that Louis arranged for them to share a safe house with their rival PLO members, the Mossad agents escape trouble by pretending to be members of foreign militant groups like ETA, IRA, ANC, the Red Army Faction.
Avner has a heartfelt conversation with PLO member Ali over their homelands and who deserves to rule over the lands. The squad moves to London to track down Ali Hassan Salameh, who orchestrated the Munich Massacre, but the assassination attempt is interrupted by several drunken Americans, it is implied that these are agents of the CIA, according to Louis and funds Salameh in exchange for his promise not to attack U. S. diplomats. Meanwhile, attempts are made on the assassins themselves. Carl is killed by an independent Dutch contract killer. In revenge, the team executes her at a houseboat in Hoorn, Netherlands. Hans is found stabbed to death on a park bench, while Robert is killed by an explosion in his workshop. Avner and Steve locate Salameh in Spain, but again their assassination attempt is thwarted, this time by Salameh's armed guards, it is implied that Louis has sold information on the team to the PLO. A disillusioned Avner flies to Israel, where he is unhappy to be hailed as a hero by two young soldiers, to his new home in Brooklyn, where he suffers post-traumatic stress and paranoia.
He is thrown out of the Israeli consulate after storming in to demand that Mossad leave his wife and child alone. Ephraim comes to ask Avner to return to Israel and Mossad. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film garnered a 78% approval rating based on 206 reviews, with an average rating of 7.44/10. The site's consensus reads, "Munich can't quite achieve its lofty goals, but this thrilling, politically even-handed look at the fallout from an intractable political conflict is still well worth watching." Roger Ebert praised the film, saying, "With this film has opened a wider dialogue, helping to make the inarguable into the debatable." He placed it at No. 3 on his top ten list of 2005. James Berardinelli wrote that "Munich is an eye-opener – a motion picture that asks difficult questions, presents well-developed characters, keeps us white-knuckled throughout." He named it the best film of the year. Entertainment Weekly film critic Owen Gleiberman mentioned Munich amongst the best movies of the decade. Differently, Rex Reed from New York Observer belongs to the group of critics who didn't like the film: "With no heart, no ideology and not much intellectual debate, Munich is a big disappointment, something of a bore."Variety reviewer Todd McCarthy called Munich a "beautifully made" film.
However, he criticized the film for failing to include "compelling" characters, for its use of laborious plotting and a "flabby script." McCarthy says that the film turns into "...a lumpy and overlong morality play on a failed thriller template." To succeed, McCarthy states that Spielberg would have needed to engage the viewer in the assassin squad leader's growing crisis of conscience and create a more "sustain intellectual interest" for the viewer. Chicago Tribune reviewer Allison Benedikt calls Munich a "competent thriller", but laments that as an "intellectual pursuit, it is little more than a pretty prism through which superficial Jewish guilt and generalized Palestinian nationalism" are made to "... look like the product of serious soul-searching." Benedikt states that Spielberg's treatment of the film's "dense and complicated" subject matter can be summed up a
Cégep du Vieux Montréal
Cégep du Vieux Montréal is a CEGEP located at 255 Ontario Street East, in Montreal, Canada. The College of General and Vocational Education is affiliated with the ACCC and CCAA. In 1967, several institutions were merged and became public, when the Quebec system of CEGEPs was created. Established in 1968, it was composed of five distinct pavilions. Since 1976, it has been regrouped into a single, 11-story building, but with three secondary pavilions; the CEGEP offers two types of programs: technical. The pre-university programs, which take two years to complete, cover the subject matter which corresponds to the additional year of high school given elsewhere in Canada in preparation for a chosen field in university, as well as an introductory specialization that happens in freshman year; the technical programs, which take three years to complete, apply to students who wish to pursue a skill or trade. Continuing education and services to business are provided. Claire Beaugrand Champagne - photographer Julie Doucet - underground cartoonist/artist Alain Kashama - CFL player Amir Khadir - MNA for Quebec Solidaire List of colleges in Quebec Higher education in Quebec Cégep du Vieux Montréal Website
Geneviève Bujold is a Canadian actress. She is best known for her portrayal of Anne Boleyn in the 1969 film Anne of the Thousand Days, for which she received a Golden Globe for Best Actress, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Subsequent film credits include The Trojan Women, Obsession, Murder by Decree, Dead Ringers, The House of Yes, Still Mine. Bujold was born in Montreal, the daughter of Laurette, a maid, Joseph Firmin Bujold, a bus driver, she is with distant Irish ancestry. Bujold received a strict convent education for twelve years, she was expelled from the convent for reading Fanny by Marcel Pagnol. She entered the Montreal Conservatory of Dramatic Art, where she was trained in the classics of French theatre. Two months before she was to graduate she made her stage debut as Rosine in Le Barbier de Séville in 1961 with Theatre de Gesu, she quit the school and was out of work, being in demand for radio, stage, TV and film. Bujold made her TV debut with Le square, a 60-minute TV film based on a play by Maguerite Duras co-starring Georges Groulx.
She was in episodes of Jeudi-théâtre and Les belles histoires des pays d'en haut and guest starred on Ti-Jean caribou. Her Canadian feature film debut was in Amanita Pestilens, she was in an international co production La fleur de l'âge, ou Les adolescentes and had a lead role in La terre à boire, the first Quebec feature to be financed. Bujold starred in La fin des étés and Geneviève, she toured Canada performing plays worked in radio and was voted actress of the year in Montreal. In 1965, she toured France with the company of the Théâtre du Rideau Vert. While in Paris, Bujold was in a play A House... and a Day when she was seen by renowned French director Alain Resnais. He selected her for a role in his film The War Is opposite Yves Montand and Ingrid Thulin, she returned home to appear in "Romeo and Jeannette" by Jean Anouilh alongside Michael Sarrazin, for a Canadian TV show Festival. For that show she did productions of The Murderer and A Doll's House, she stayed in France to make two more films: Philippe de Broca's King of Hearts, with Alan Bates, Louis Malle's The Thief of Paris, with Jean-Paul Belmondo.
Bujold won the Prix Suzanne as the Discovery of the Year and Elle magazine called her The Girl of the Day. Despite having established herself in France, she returned to Canada. Upon her return to Canada, Bujold married film director Paul Almond in 1967, he directed her in "The Puppet Caravan" for Festival in 1967. She appeared in Michel Brault's film Between Salt and Sweet Water went to New York to play the title role in a production of Saint Joan for Hallmark Hall of Fame on American TV. Although she said she preferred film most and television least out of all the mediums, she received great acclaim for this including an Emmy nomination. In Canada she starred in Isabel and directed by Almond, it was one of the first Canadian films to be picked up for distribution by a major Hollywood studio. International recognition came in 1969, when she starred as Anne Boleyn in Charles Jarrott's film Anne of the Thousand Days, with Richard Burton. Producer Hal B. Wallis cast her after seeing her in Isabell.
For her performance, she received the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama, received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. It was released by Universal. Back in Canada, she did a second feature with her husband, The Act of the Heart, co starring Donald Sutherland, which earned her a Best Actress at the Canadian Film Awards, she starred in a short film, Marie-Christine, directed by Claude Jutra. Wallis and Universal wanted Bujold to star in Mary, Queen of Scots but she refused so they sued her for $450,000. Instead she played the role of Cassandra, a Greek prophet, in Michael Cacoyannis's film version of The Trojan Women, opposite Katharine Hepburn, Vanessa Redgrave, Irene Papas, it was shot in Spain. In Canada, she made Journey with co-starring John Vernon. Bujold won another Canadian Film Award for Best Actress, she and Almond would divorce in 1973. She starred in Claude Jutra's Kamouraska, based on a novel by Anne Hébert, for which she received her third Canadian Film Award for Best Actress.
In the US, she appeared in an adaptation of Jean Anouilh's Antigone for PBS's Great Performances in 1974. The lawsuit with Universal was settled and she agreed to sign a new three picture film starting with Earthquake, with Charlton Heston. By now her marriage ended and she was keen to leave Montreal so she relocated to Los Angeles. Bujold went to France to make Incorrigible with de Belmondo. For Hallmark Hall of Fame and the BBC she was in a production of Caesar and Cleopatra alongside Alec Guinness, she was the female lead in a pirate film for Swashbuckler with Robert Shaw. She said she did not regret making the film because "Robert Shaw is a man worth knowing."More successful was Obsession directed by Brian De Palma with Cliff Robertson. Bujold made Alex & the Gypsy with Jack Lemmon and Another Man, Another Chance, with James Caan for Claude Lelouch, she had the lead role in a medical thriller directed by Michael Crichton, with Michael Douglas, a big hit. Bujold returned to Canada to play a key role in t
Every Thing Will Be Fine
Every Thing Will Be Fine is a 2015 German drama film directed by Wim Wenders, written by Bjørn Olaf Johannessen and produced in 3D. It is Wenders’ first full-length dramatic feature in seven years; the film stars Charlotte Gainsbourg, Rachel McAdams and Marie-Josée Croze. It premiered out of competition on February 2015 at the 65th Berlin International Film Festival; the film made its North American premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 11, 2015. It was released in the United States in a limited release and through video on demand by IFC Films on December 4, 2015. Tomas Eldan is a novelist, their relationship is strained, as she wants marriage and children while he just wants to focus on his writing. Tomas is driving home on a wintery rural road when a toboggan carrying brothers Christopher and Nicholas slides into the path of his vehicle, resulting in Nicholas' death but causing no physical damage to five-year-old Christopher. Tomas breaks up with Sara a short time after the tragic accident he spirals into alcohol and drugs before ending up in hospital after a suicide attempt.
He tries to get together with Sara again but it doesn't work. He turns his focus back to his writing, gaining success while still troubled by the effect of the tragedy on his life, he maintains fleeting contact with Kate, mother of Nicholas and Christopher, who struggles with her own guilt and loss. Tomas marries Ann, an employee of his publishing house, adopting her daughter Mina. Eleven years after the accident, a winner of the Giller Prize for his latest novel, Tomas receives a letter from now 16-year-old Christopher. Christopher is a self-proclaimed "problem child", whose school psychologist has suggested reaching out to Tomas, their contacts are troubling, but end with Tomas and Christopher helping each other get a calmer handle on their lives. Producer Gian-Piero Ringel, through his company Neue Road Movies, produced the film to which HanWay Films has worldwide distribution rights. Belgian Benoît Debie was the director of photography, it was released by Mongrel Media in Canada. One week before the film’s premiere at the Berlin Film Festival, French composer Alexandre Desplat recorded the score with the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra in Sweden.
On May 7, 2013, James Franco joined the cast of the film as lead actor, playing Tomas Eldan, a writer who accidentally causes the death of a child. The day before shooting began, it was announced that the cast would include Charlotte Gainsbourg and Marie-Josée Croze. Director Wim Wenders began shooting the film in Montreal, Quebec on August 13, 2013. After a break, shooting resumed in Winter 2014; the film had its world premiere at the Berlin International Film Festival on February 10, 2015. The film was released in Germany on April 2, 2015 and in France on April 22, 2015; the film had its North American premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival, on September 11, 2015. Prior to the premiere, IFC Films acquired U. S. distribution rights to the film. The film was released in a limited release and through video on demand on December 4, 2015; every Thing Will Be Fine was not well received by critics. It holds a 17% Rotten rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 18 reviews, with an average rating of 4.3/10.
Metacritic computed a rating of 34 out of 100, based on five critics’ reviews, meaning "generally unfavorable reviews". Every Thing Will Be Fine on IMDb Every Thing Will Be Fine at the TCM Movie Database
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by molding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. Less and less usefully, the term may be used broadly for all the visual arts, as opposed to literature and music. Materials for use in the plastic arts, in the narrower definition, include those that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, glass, or metal; the term "plastic" has been used to mean certain synthetic organic resins since they were invented, but the term "plastic arts" long preceded them. The term should not be confused, with Piet Mondrian's concept of "Neoplasticism"; the oldest known plastic art date to. In contrast to the limiting of'plastic arts' to sculpture and architecture by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling in 1807, the German critic August Wilhelm Schlegel applied the concept not only to visual arts, but poetry. Classical poetry lines he saw utilizing plastic isolation, rhyme falling under the Romantic.. In Schlegel's Viennese lectures, published in 1827 as On the Theory and History of the Plastic Arts, he contrasted the plasticism of Classical Art with picturesque Romanticism.
He "operated with the antinomy of terms plastic/pictorial, mechanically/ organically, finite/ infinite, closed/accomplished. Schlegel stated that the spirit of the entire antique culture and poetry was plastic and that the spirit of modern culture, was picturesque"; these distinctions were carried over into Russian Romanticism aesthetics, "Venevitinov objected to the indiscriminate use of the term'pictures'. In his use of August Schlegel's term'plastic' he argues for a return to the simple, enclosed, limited, finite and plastic world of the ancients. There seem to have been two interpretations of the plastic - picturesque contrast in Romantic Idealist philosophy; as Venevitinov uses the contrast, as August Schlegel intended it to be used when he defined it in Lecture I of Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und Literatur, it denoted the difference between the corporeal mind of the man of antiquity and the'picturesque' mind of modern man. Ancient art appeals directly to the modern art gives rise to mental pictures or images.
The former is therefore real and corporeal, the latter ideal." Art materials Handicraft Media Plastic in art Plastic number Recording medium Visual arts Barnes, A. C; the Art in Painting, 3rd ed. 1937, Brace & World, Inc. NY. OCLC 1572753 Bukumirovic, D.. Maga Magazinovic. Biblioteka Fatalne srpkinje knj. br. 4. Beograd: Narodna knj. Fazenda, M. J.. Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas: the plastic arts and literature in the dance of Paula Massano. N.p. Gerón, C.. Enciclopedia de las artes plásticas dominicanas: 1844-2000. 4th ed. Dominican Republic s.n. Schlegel, August Wilhelm. Vorlesungen uber dramatische Kunst und Literatur, Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1966, p.21f