Little, Brown and Company
Little and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors. Early lists featured Little Women by Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinson's poetry, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations; as of 2016, Brown & Company is a division of the Hachette Book Group. Little and Company had its roots in the book selling trade, it was founded in 1837 in Boston by James Brown. They formed the partnership "for the purpose of Publishing and Selling Books." It can trace its roots before that to 1784 to a bookshop owned by Ebenezer Batelle on Marlborough Street. They published works of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington and they were specialized in legal publishing and importing titles. For many years, it was the most extensive law publisher in the United States, the largest importer of standard English law and miscellaneous works, introducing American buyers to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the dictionaries of William Smith, many other standard works.
In the early years Little and Brown published the Works of Daniel Webster, George Bancroft's History of the United States, William H. Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, Jones Very's first book of poetry, Letters of John Adams and works by James Russell Lowell and Francis Parkman. Little and Company was the American publisher for Edward Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; the firm was the original publisher of United States Statutes at Large beginning in 1845, under authority granted by a joint resolution of Congress. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office, responsible for producing the set since that time. 1 U. S. C. § 113 still recognizes their edition of the laws and treaties of the United States are competent evidence of the several public and private Acts of Congress and international agreements other than treaties of the United States. In 1853, Brown began publishing the works of British poets from Chaucer to Wordsworth.
Ninety-six volumes were published in the series in five years. In 1859, John Bartlett became a partner in the firm, he held the rights to his Familiar Quotations, Little, Brown published the 15th edition of the work in 1980, 125 years after its first publication. John Murray Brown, James Brown's son, took over when Augustus Flagg retired in 1884. In the 1890s, Brown expanded into general publishing, including fiction. In 1896, it published Quo Vadis. In 1898, Brown purchased a list of titles from the Roberts Brothers firm. 19th century employees included Charles Carroll Soule. John Murray Brown died in 1908 and James W. McIntyre became managing partner; when McIntyre died in 1913, Brown incorporated. In 1925, Brown entered into an agreement to publish all Atlantic Monthly books; this arrangement lasted until 1985. During this time the joint Atlantic Monthly Press/Little Brown imprint published All Quiet on the Western Front, Herge's The Adventures of Tintin, James Truslow Adams's The Adams Family, Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall's Mutiny on the Bounty and its sequels, James Hilton's Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Walter D. Edmonds's Drums Along the Mohawk, William Least Heat-Moon's Blue Highways, Tracy Kidder's The Soul of a New Machine, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.
Salinger terminated his contract with the publishing house sometime in the 1970s, though his novel was still published by Little, Brown. Other prominent figures published by Little, Brown in the 20th and early 21st centuries have included Nagaru Tanigawa, Donald Barthelme, Louisa M. Alcott, Catherine Drinker Bowen, Bernie Brillstein, Thornton Burgess, Hortense Calisher, Bruce Catton, A. J. Cronin, Peter De Vries, J. Frank Dobie, C. S. Forester, John Fowles, Malcolm Gladwell, Pete Hamill, Cynthia Harrod-Eagles, Lillian Hellman, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Henry Kissinger, Elizabeth Kostova, Norman Mailer, William Manchester, Nelson Mandela, John P. Marquand and Johnson, Stephenie Meyer, Rick Moody, Ogden Nash, Edwin O'Connor, Erich Maria Remarque, Alice Sebold, David Sedaris, George Stephanopoulos, Gwyn Thomas, Gore Vidal, David Foster Wallace, Evelyn Waugh, P. G. Wodehouse, James Patterson and Herman Wouk. Little, Brown published the photography of Ansel Adams; the imprint was purchased by Time Inc. in 1968, was made part of the Time Warner Book Group when Time merged with Warner Communications to form Time Warner in 1989.
All editing staff moved from Boston to Time Warner Book Group offices in New York City by 2001. In 1996, Brown's legal and medical publishing division was purchased by Wolters Kluwer. In 2001, Michael Pietsch became Publisher of Brown. Little, Brown expanded into the UK in 1992 when TWBG bought MacDonald & Co from Maxwell Communications, taking on its Abacus and Orbit lists, authors including Iain Banks. Feminist publisher Virago Press followed in 1996. In 1996, Wolters Kluwer acquired Little, Brown's professional division and incorporated it into its Aspen and Lippincott-Raven imprints. In 2006, the Time Warner Book Group was sold to French publisher Hachette Livre. Following this, the Little, Brown imprint is used by Hachette Livre's U. S. publishing company, Hachette Book Group USA. In 2011, Brown launched an imprint devoted to suspense publishing: Mulholland Books. In 2018, Brown launched an imprint devoted to health, lifestyle and science: Little, Brown Spark; the company received the Publisher of the Year Award three times.
On April 1, 2013, Reagan Arthur became publisher of Brown. Badminton Library Books in the United States List
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon
Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon was the second wife of King Louis XIV of France. She was known during her first marriage as Madame Scarron, subsequently as Madame de Maintenon, her marriage to the king was never announced or admitted, as it was morganatic, thus she was never considered Queen Consort of France. So, she was influential at court, was one of the king's closest advisers, she founded the Maison royale de Saint-Louis, a school for girls from poorer noble families, in 1684. Françoise d'Aubigné was born on 27 November 1635. A plaque suggests her birthplace was at the Hotel du Chaumont in western France; some sources indicate she may have been born in or just outside the prison at Niort because her father, the Huguenot Constant d'Aubigné, was incarcerated there for conspiring against Cardinal Richelieu. Her mother, Jeanne de Cardilhac, was the daughter of Constant's jailer, her grandfather was Agrippa d'Aubigné, a well-known Protestant General, a former intimate servant of Henry IV, an epic poet.
Jeanne had her child baptised in her own Catholic religion. Suzanne would go to serve Anne of Austria and Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV. In 1639, Françoise's father was released from prison and went with his family to the island of Martinique in the West Indies. Jeanne was a strict mother, allowed her children few liberties, gave them a Protestant education, despite their Catholic baptism. Constant returned to France. Jeanne was forever trying to be "mother and father" to her children, she made it back to France, to join her husband in 1647. Within months of her return to France Jeanne's husband died and Françoise returned to the care of her beloved aunt, Madame de Villette, her father's sister; the Villettes' house, became a happy memory for Françoise, in the care of her aunt and uncle before leaving for Martinique. The de Villettes were wealthy and took good care of the child, but they were ardent Protestants and they continued to school Françoise in their beliefs; when this became known to her godmother's family, an order was issued that Françoise had to be educated in a convent.
Françoise disliked convent life, but she grew to love one of the nuns there, Sister Céleste, who persuaded Françoise to take her First Communion. "I loved her more than I could say. I wanted to sacrifice myself for her service."Madame de Neuillant, the mother of Françoise's godmother Suzanne, brought her to Paris and introduced her to sophisticated women and men, who became vital links that she would use in the future. In her excursion with Madame de Neuillant, Françoise met Paul Scarron, 25 years her senior, began to correspond with him. Scarron was an accomplished poet and novelist, who counted Marie de Hautefort, a favourite of King Louis XIII, among his patrons, he offered her marriage. Although Scarron suffered from chronic and crippling pain from polio, she accepted his proposal and became Madame Scarron in 1652; the match permitted her to gain access to the highest levels of Paris society, something that would have otherwise been impossible for a girl from an impoverished background. For nine years, she was a fixture in his social circle.
On the death of Scarron in 1660, the queen dowager, Anne of Austria, continued his pension to his widow increasing it to 2,000 livres a year, thus enabling her to remain in literary society. After Anne's death in 1666, Louis XIV suspended the pension. Once again in straitened circumstances, having spent several years living off the charity of her friends, Mme Scarron prepared to leave Paris for Lisbon as a lady-in-waiting to the new Queen of Portugal, Marie-Françoise de Nemours. Before setting off, she met Madame de Montespan, secretly the king's lover. Madame de Montespan took such a fancy to Mme Scarron that she had the king reinstate her pension, which enabled Françoise to stay in Paris. In 1669, when Madame de Montespan's first child by Louis XIV was born, she placed the baby with Madame Scarron in a house on Rue de Vaugirard, provided her with a large income and staff of servants. Françoise took care to keep the house well guarded and discreet doing the domestic duties herself, her care for the infant Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine first brought her to the attention of Louis XIV, though he was put off by her strict religious practice.
When Louis Auguste and his siblings were legitimized on 20 December 1673, she became the royal governess at Saint-Germain. As governess, she was one of few people permitted to speak with the king as an equal, without holding back. Madame de Sévigné observed. Due to her hard work, the King rewarded her with 200,000 livres, she purchased the property at Maintenon in 1674. Saint-Simon was told by his father-in-law that the King had disliked Madame Scarron, but, as he tired of Madame de Montespan's bad temper, began to find her rival sympathetic. In 1675, the king gave her the title of Marquise de Maintenon after the name of her estate; such favours incurred Madame de Montespan's jealousy. At court, she was now known as Madame de Maintenon. Madame de Montespan and Françoise sparred over the children and their care."Madame de Maintenon knows how to love. There would be great pleasure i
The placenta is a temporary organ that connects the developing fetus via the umbilical cord to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. Placentas are a defining characteristic of placental mammals, but are found in marsupials and some non-mammals with varying levels of development; the placenta functions as a fetomaternal organ with two components: the fetal placenta, which develops from the same blastocyst that forms the fetus, the maternal placenta, which develops from the maternal uterine tissue. It metabolizes a number of substances and can release metabolic products into maternal or fetal circulations; the placenta is expelled from the body upon birth of the fetus. The word placenta comes from the Latin word for a type of cake, from Greek πλακόεντα/πλακοῦντα plakóenta/plakoúnta, accusative of πλακόεις/πλακούς plakóeis/plakoús, "flat, slab-like", in reference to its round, flat appearance in humans; the classical plural is placentae, but the form placentas is common in modern English and has the wider currency at present.
Placental mammals, such as humans, have a chorioallantoic placenta that forms from the chorion and allantois. In humans, the placenta averages 22 cm in length and 2–2.5 cm in thickness, with the center being the thickest, the edges being the thinnest. It weighs 500 grams, it has crimson color. It connects to the fetus by an umbilical cord of 55–60 cm in length, which contains two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein; the umbilical cord inserts into the chorionic plate. Vessels branch out over the surface of the placenta and further divide to form a network covered by a thin layer of cells; this results in the formation of villous tree structures. On the maternal side, these villous tree structures are grouped into lobules called cotyledons. In humans, the placenta has a disc shape, but size varies vastly between different mammalian species; the placenta takes a form in which it comprises several distinct parts connected by blood vessels. The parts, called lobes, may number two, four, or more.
Such placentas are described as bilobed/bilobular/bipartite, trilobed/trilobular/tripartite, so on. If there is a discernible main lobe and auxiliary lobe, the latter is called a succenturiate placenta. Sometimes the blood vessels connecting the lobes get in the way of fetal presentation during labor, called vasa previa. About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 70% of these genes are expressed in the normal mature placenta; some 350 of these genes are more expressed in the placenta and fewer than 100 genes are placenta specific. The corresponding specific proteins are expressed in trophoblasts and have functions related to female pregnancy. Examples of proteins with elevated expression in placenta compared to other organs and tissues are PEG10 and the cancer testis antigen PAGE4 expressed in cytotrophoblasts, CSH1and KISS1 expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts, PAPPA2 and PRG2 expressed in extravillous trophoblasts; the placenta begins to develop upon implantation of the blastocyst into the maternal endometrium.
The outer layer of the blastocyst becomes the trophoblast, which forms the outer layer of the placenta. This outer layer is divided into two further layers: the underlying cytotrophoblast layer and the overlying syncytiotrophoblast layer; the syncytiotrophoblast is a multinucleated continuous cell layer that covers the surface of the placenta. It forms as a result of differentiation and fusion of the underlying cytotrophoblast cells, a process that continues throughout placental development; the syncytiotrophoblast, thereby contributes to the barrier function of the placenta. The placenta grows throughout pregnancy. Development of the maternal blood supply to the placenta is complete by the end of the first trimester of pregnancy week 14. In preparation for implantation of the blastocyst, the endometrium undergoes decidualization. Spiral arteries in the decidua are remodeled so that they become less convoluted and their diameter is increased; the increased diameter and straighter flow path both act to increase maternal blood flow to the placenta.
There is high pressure as the maternal blood fills intervillous space through these spiral arteries which bathe the fetal villi in blood, allowing an exchange of gases to take place. In humans and other hemochorial placentals, the maternal blood comes into direct contact with the fetal chorion, though no fluid is exchanged; as the pressure decreases between pulses, the deoxygenated blood flows back through the endometrial veins. Maternal blood flow is 600–700 ml/min at term; this begins at day 5 - day 12 Deoxygenated fetal blood passes through umbilical arteries to the placenta. At the junction of umbilical cord and placenta, the umbilical arteries branch radially to form chorionic arteries. Chorionic arteries, in turn, branch into cotyledon arteries. In the villi, these vessels branch to form an extensive arterio-capillary-venous system, bringing the fetal blood close to the maternal blood. Endothelin and prostanoids cause vasoconstriction in placental arteries, while nitric oxide causes vasodilation.
On the other hand, there is no neural vascular regulation, catecholamines have only little effect. The fetoplacental circulation is vulnerable to persistent hypoxia or intermittent hypoxia and
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Royal Affairs in Versailles
Royal Affairs in Versailles is a 1954 French historical drama directed by Sacha Guitry. Described as "a historical film showing Versailles from its beginnings to the present day", it tells some episodes through portrayal of the personalities who lived in Versailles' castle, its sister films are Napoléon. The film is notable for the presence of a great number of well-known French actors appearing in short parts. One unknown actor playing a major character is Gilbert Bokanowski portraying Louis XVI. Bokanowski was the film's production manager and was cast because of his strong resemblance to the monarch, its English translation title is. Despite French production, the film is best known by its English title Royal Affairs in Versailles. Historical human stories in connection with the Royal Palace, the Chateau of Versailles. Royal Affairs in Versailles on IMDb Royal Affairs in Versailles at the TCM Movie Database Royal Affairs in Versailles at AllMovie Royal Affairs in Versailles at Films de France
1650–1700 in Western European fashion
Fashion in the period 1660–1700 in Western European clothing is characterized by rapid change. The style of this era is known as Baroque. Following the end of the Thirty Years' War and the Restoration of England's Charles II, military influences in men's clothing were replaced by a brief period of decorative exuberance which sobered into the coat and breeches costume that would reign for the next century and a half. In the normal cycle of fashion, the broad, high-waisted silhouette of the previous period was replaced by a long, lean line with a low waist for both men and women; this period marked the rise of the periwig as an essential item of men's fashion. The wide, high-waisted look of the previous period was superseded by a long vertical line, with horizontal emphasis at the shoulder. Full, loose sleeves ended just below the elbow at mid century and became longer and tighter in keeping with the new trend; the body was corseted, with a low, broad neckline and dropped shoulder. In decades, the overskirt was drawn back and pinned up to display the petticoat, decorated.
Spanish court fashion remained out of step with the fashions that arose in France and England, prosperous Holland retained its own modest fashions in headdress and hairstyles, as it had retained the ruff in the previous period. A daring new fashion arose for having one's portrait painted in undress, wearing a loosely fastened gown called a nightgown over a voluminous chemise, with tousled curls; the style is epitomized by the portraits of Peter Lely, which derive from the romanticized style originated by Anthony van Dyck in the 1630s. The clothing in these portraits is not representative of what was worn at court; the mantua or manteau was a new fashion. Instead of a bodice and skirt cut separately, the mantua hung from the shoulders to the floor started off as the female version of the men's Banyan, worn for'undress' wear, it developed into a draped and pleated dress and evolved into a dress worn looped and draped up over a contrasting petticoat and a stomacher. The mantua-and-stomacher resulted in a high, square neckline in contrast to the broad, off-the-shoulder neckline in fashion.
The new look was both more modest and covered-up than previous fashions and decidedly fussy, with bows, frills and other trim, but the short string of pearls and pearl earrings or eardrops worn since the 1630s remained popular. The mantua, made from a single length of fabric pleated to fit with a long train, was ideal for showing the designs of the new elaborately patterned silks that replaced the solid-colored satins popular in mid-century. In a June 1666 diary entry, Samuel Pepys describes the Maids of Honour in their riding habits of mannish coats, doublets and periwigs, "so that, only for a long petticoat dragging under their men's coats, nobody could take them for women in any point whatever". For riding side-saddle, the costume had skirt; this would be replaced by an ankle-length skirt for shooting or walking. Early in the period, hair was worn in a bun at the back of the head with a cluster of curls framing the face; the curls grew more elaborate through the 1650s longer, until curls were hanging gracefully on the shoulder.
In the 1680s hair was parted in the center with height over the temples, by the 1690s hair was unparted, with rows of curls stacked high over the forehead. This hairstyle was topped with a fontange, a frilly cap of lace wired to stand in vertical tiers with streamers to either side, named for a mistress of the French King; this was popular from the 1690s to the first few years of the 18th century. German fashion of 1650 shows a smooth, conical satin bodice with a dropped shoulder. Slashed sleeves are caught with jeweled clasps over voluminous chemise sleeves. Margareta Maria de Roodere wears a salmon-colored gown. A sheer scarf is knotted into a collar around her shoulders, her white sleeve linings are fastened back with a covered button, 1652. Mary, Princess of Orange wears a satin gown with a satin petticoat; the many tiny pleats that gather in her skirt can be seen, 1652. Maria Theresa of Spain wears the cartwheel farthingale, which, in Spain, was adapted late and retained it long after it had disappeared elsewhere.
The Infanta's hairstyle is typical of the Spanish court, 1653. Rear view of a Dutch jacket-bodice of 1655 shows the curved side-back seams; the Swedish countess Beata Elisabet von Königsmarck wears a white silk gown with a long tight bodice, flat skirt, wide double puffed sleeves, bare shoulders and a deep cleavage. The dress is decorated with a blue shawl draped around the breasts, she has pearls, her hair is braided in a knot in the back, but is worn in loose curls over her ears. Young Dutch girl wears a rose a plain pink petticoat, her hair is worn in a wound braid with small curls over her ears. 1658–60. Details of Dutch fashion of 1658 include a string of pearls tied with a black ribbon, a jack-bodice with matching skirt, pleated sleeves, dropped shoulder; the Infanta Margarita of Spain is shown, when eight years old, wearing the cartwheel farthingale, 1659. English court dress from the 1660s, decorated with applied parchment lace. From the Fashion Museum, Bath. Peter Lely portrays Two Ladies of the Lake Family wearing satin dresses over shifts or chemises with voluminous sleeves.
Their hair is worn in masses of ringlets to the shoulders on either side, both wear large pearl eardrops. Dutch lacemaker's jacket-bodice has a dropped shoulder line and full, three-quarter length sleeves c