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Marie Claire

Marie Claire is an international monthly magazine first published in France in 1937, followed by the UK in 1941. Since various editions are published in many countries and languages; the feature editions focuses on women around several global issues. Marie Claire magazine covers health and fashion topics. Marie Claire was founded by Marcelle Auclair, its first issue appeared in 1937, it was distributed each Wednesday until 1941 when it handed out its shares to open in London, going international for the first time. In 1976, Prouvost retired and his daughter Évelyne took over the magazine and added L'Oréal Group to the company. Marie Claire publishes editions in more than 35 countries on five continents; the U. S. edition of the magazine was started by the Hearst Corporation, based in New York City, in 1994. Hearst has branch offices in France and several locations in the United States including Detroit, the West Coast, New England, the Midwest, the Southwest, the Southeast; the Esquire Network reality television series Running In Heels follows three interns working in the NYC office of the magazine.

The editor-in-chief from 2012 to 2020 was Anne Fulenwider. On 9 December 2019, Hearst Magazines announced that Fulenwider would be leaving her post at the end of the year. Aya Kanai chief fashion director of Hearst, was named the new editor of the women's magazine, started in January 2020. Marie Claire launched a UK print edition in 1988, with a website launched in 2006 featuring segments on daily news, catwalk shows and reports, fashion and beauty, buys of the day, daily horoscopes, competitions, its cover price was increased in February 2018 from £3.99 to £4.20, but this did not compensate for a decline in sales and advertising revenue, with print display advertising down 25% in 2018 and 30% in 2019. In September 2019, the magazine's current owners, TI Media, announced that the final print edition would be published in November and the brand would become digital only, under licence with Groupe Marie Claire; the UK website has two million monthly users. Combined print and digital circulation from July to December 2018 was 120,133 per issue – a third of which were free copies, 4,729 of which were for the digital edition.

This was down on the same period in 2017, when the average circulation was 157,412, with 4,012 digital edition readers. In Australia, Marie Claire magazine is part of Pacific Magazines, the magazine publishing arm of television network Seven. MarieClaire.com.au launched in 2016 after the digital rights were returned to Pacific Magazines from Yahoo and provides daily fashion and lifestyle news. In March 2019, Marie Claire partnered with Salesforce.com to survey Australian women to analyse how attitudes have changed in the workplace. The Japanese-language edition of Marie Claire, first published in 1982, was the first international edition published in a non-French speaking territory, as well as the first non-European edition, although it ceased publication after the 9 September issue went on sale in July 2009, due to the economic downturn. Following a relaunch, since 2012, Marie Claire has been published in Japan under the name Marie Claire Style; this new format is offered as a free supplement in the Yomiuri Shimbun and distributed in wealthier suburbs of Japan.

The magazine has now been made available at subway kiosks for a ¥200 cover price. Marie Claire has Arabic editions which are published in Dubai, the Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates. In 2010, an Indonesian edition was launched; the magazine started publishing in Argentina under Editorial Perfil in March 2019. International editions of Marie Claire have been discontinued in Estonia, India and Poland. List of women's magazines List of Marie Claire cover models Marie Claire FR Marie Claire UK Marie Claire Turkey Marie Claire US Marie Claire AR American Marie Claire – magazine profile at Fashion Model Directory

Precolonial Mauritania

Precolonial Mauritania, lying next to the Atlantic coast at the western edge of the Sahara Desert and assimilated into its complex society many waves of Saharan migrants and conquerors. Plinius wrote that the area north of the river Senegal was populated, during Augustus times, by the Pharusii and Perorsi Berbers moved south to Mauritania beginning in the 3rd century, followed by Arabs in the 8th century and assimilating Mauritania's original inhabitants. Islamization took place only much than in the Sahel, over the course of the 12th to the 17th centuries by the expansion of the Beni Hassan. From the 15th century, there was limited European trading activity in gum arabic; the tensions between the tribal Berber groups which had established themselves before the arrival of Islam, the Arabized and Muslim Beni Hassan came to a head in the Char Bouba war of 1644 to 1674. The resulting victory of the Beni Hassan sealed the fate of Mauritania as an Arabized Muslim territory, the last part of Africa to be acquired into the Muslim World before the Muslim expansion was checked by the European Scramble for Africa in the 19th century.

There was French presence at the Senegal River from the 17th century, by 1840, Senegal became a permanent French possession. The colonisation of Mauritania was an expansion of the area of French control over Senegal, beginning in the form of punitive expeditions against the Maures; the colonial period of Mauritania lasted for a mere two generations, from 1904 to 1960. The French authorities had difficulty in maintaining order in view of the numerous and complicated conflicts among the area's numerous factions and sub-factions, they attempted to abolish slavery in 1905, but with limited success. Mauritanian independence was granted in 1960, following a 1958 referendum under the French Fifth Republic. In the year 41 AD Suetonius Paullinus, afterwards Consul, was the first of the Romans who led an army across Mount Atlas. At the end of a ten days' march he reached the summit,—which in summer was covered with snow,—and from thence, after passing a desert of black sand and burnt rocks, he arrived at a river called Gerj...he penetrated into the country of the Canarii and Perorsi, the former of whom inhabited a woody region abounding in elephants and serpents, the latter were Ethiopians, not far distant from the Pharusii and the river Daras What is now Mauritania was a dry savanna area during classical antiquity, where independent tribes like the Pharusii and the Perorsi lived a semi-nomadic life facing the growing desertification of the Sahara.

Romans did explorations toward this area and reached, with Suetonius Paulinus, the area of Adrar. There are evidences of Roman commerce in Akjoujt and Tamkartkart near TichitSome Berber tribes moved to Mauritania in the 3rd and 4th century, after the 8th century some Arabs entered the region as conquerors. From the 8th century through the 15th century, black kingdoms of the western Sudan, such as Ghana Empire, Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, brought their political culture from the south; the divisive tendencies of the various groups within Mauritanian society have always worked against the development of Mauritanian unity. Both the Sanhadja Confederation, at its height from the 8th century to the 10th century, the Almoravid Empire, from the 11th century to the 12th century, were weakened by internecine warfare, succumbed to further invasions from the Ghana Empire and the Almohad Empire, respectively; the first external influence that tended to unify the country was Islam. The Islamization of Mauritania was a gradual process.

Beginning through contacts with Berber and Arab merchants engaged in the important caravan trades and advancing through the Almoravid conquests, Islamization did not take firm hold until the arrival of Yemeni Arabs in the 12th and 13th centuries and was not complete until several centuries later. Gradual Islamization was accompanied by a process of Arabization as well, during which the Berber masters of Mauritania lost power and became vassals of their Arab conquerors. From the 15th century to the 19th century, European contact with Mauritania was dominated by the trade for gum arabic. Rivalries among European powers enabled the Arab-Berber population, the Maures, to maintain their independence and to exact annual payments from France, whose sovereignty over the Sénégal River and the Mauritanian coast was recognized by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Although penetration beyond the coast and the Senegal River began in earnest under Louis Faidherbe, governor of Senegal in the mid-19th century, European conquest or "pacification" of the entire country did not begin until 1900.

France created the boundaries of contemporary Mauritania and administered it until the independence in the 1960s. Because extensive European contact began so late in the country's history, the traditional social structure carried over into modern times with little change. French rule brought legal prohibitions against slavery, an end to interclan warfare. During the colonial period, the population remained nomadic, but many sedentary peoples, whose ancestors had been expelled centuries earlier, began to trickle back into Mauritania; as the country gained independence in 1960, the capital city Nouakchott was founded at the site of a small colonial village, the Ksar, while 90% of the population was still nomadic. The prehistory of the west Saharan region is not characterised. There are some written accounts by medieval Arab traders and explorers who reached the important caravan trading centers and Sudanic kingdoms of eastern Mauritania, but the major sources of pre-European history are oral hist

Drewry Communications

The Drewry Communications Group was a media company based in Lawton, wholly owned and operated by the Drewry family. The company was run by Robert Drewry, Bill Drewry, Larry Patton. Robert and Bill are the sons of late patriarch Ransom H. Drewry. Drewry Communications' broadcasting properties consisted of 13 radio and television stations in Oklahoma and Texas concentrated in western and central Texas. Ransom H. Drewry founded radio station KSWO in Lawton, Oklahoma in 1941. Six years in 1947, Drewry started his second radio station, KRHD in Duncan. Drewry entered television broadcasting in 1953, when he and a group that included J. R. Montgomery, T. R. Warkentin, Robert P. Scott, G. G. Downing founded KSWO-TV in Lawton as the city's ABC affiliate, which signed on the air on March 8 of that year. Over the years, the Drewry family acquired other stations in the northern half of Texas. Drewry, in partnership with Ray Herndon, acquired CBS affiliate KFDA-TV in Amarillo, Texas, in 1976 through their company, Amarillo Telecasters.

Sons Robert and Bill Drewry took over the company following the elder Drewry's death. The company expanded by acquiring, among other stations: KWES-TV in Midland and Big Spring satellite KWAB-TV. Drewry sold KSWO radio, as well as KRHD and KRHD-FM, to Anadarko, Oklahoma-based Monroe-Stephens Broadcasting in 1998; the company re-entered into radio in August 2002, when Drewry purchased Regional Mexican station KTXC in Lamesa, Texas. In 2014, the company purchased in KRGN in Amarillo from Family Life Radio, relaunched it as a Spanish-language adult hits station under the call letters KEYU-FM. On July 1, 2008, Drewry Communications announced its intention to sell its eleven television stations to Dallas-based London Broadcasting Company—a company founded by Terry E. London the previous year to acquire broadcast properties in small- to mid-sized markets within Texas —for $115 million. While the deal received approval by the Federal Communications Commission, London Broadcasting filed a notice of non-consummation to the FCC in January 2009, terminating the deal due to market uncertainties resulting from the Great Recession.

On July 31, 2009, Drewry Communications entered into a joint sales and shared services agreement with KAUZ-TV owner Hoak Media, in which KSWO-TV would provide advertising and promotional services for KAUZ. Although the two stations are jointly operated, KSWO-TV and KAUZ-TV each retained separate studio facilities and news operations at their respective facilities in Lawton and Wichita Falls. On August 10, 2015, Raycom Media announced that it would purchase Drewry Communications for $160 million; as part of the deal, American Spirit Media would purchase KAUZ-TV from Hoak Media. While KSWO and KAUZ remained jointly operated, the existing joint sales agreement between KSWO and KAUZ was terminated upon the sale's closure to comply with FCC rules; the sale was completed on December 1, 2015. Notes: – Indicates that station was built and signed on by Drewry. Other notes: 1 Owned by Hoak Media, Drewry operated KAUZ-TV via joint sales and shared services agreements. 2 Station was purchased by Drewry from Equity Media Holdings in 2009, but ceased operations in the fall of 2010