The Great Warrior Skanderbeg
The Great Warrior Skanderbeg is a 1953 Soviet-Albanian biopic directed by Sergei Yutkevich. It was entered into the 1954 Cannes Film Festival. Yutkevich earned the Special Mention award for his direction; the film is a biography of George Kastriot Skanderbeg known as Skanderbeg, a 15th-century Albanian lord who defended his land against the Ottoman Empire for more than two decades. In 2012, for the 100th anniversary of Albanian independence, the film was remastered for high definition with new voices and sound effects. Akaki Khorava as Gjergj Kastrioti, aka Skanderbeg - dubbed in Albanian by Lec Bushati Besa Imami as Donika Adivie Alibali as Mamica Semyon Sokolovsky as Hamza Veriko Andjaparidze as Dafina Georgi Chernovolenko as Marash Naim Frashëri as Pal Oleg Zhakov Aleksandr Vertinsky as Doge of Venice Sergo Zaqariadze Vladimir Belokurov Vahram Papazyan Marie Logoreci as Countess Boris Tenin The Great Warrior Skanderbeg on IMDb
Radio Televizioni Shqiptar
Radio Televizioni Shqiptar is the public broadcaster of Albania, founded in 1938 in Tirana. RTSH runs two analogue television stations RTSH 1 and RTSH 2, It runs 2 DVB-T2 multiplexers, one national with the RTSH channels and the second one for local channels. There are 12 TV channels in 5 radio channels. RTSH runs a Satellite Multiplexer with 6 channels, RTSH 1 is the flagship generalist channel. RTSH 2 is dedicated niche communities, including cultural and ethnic minorities, broadcasting news editions in Greek and Aromanian. RTSH 3 is dedicated to Albanians living abroad. RTSH has dedicated channels, for news, musics, etc. In addition, four regional radio and TV stations serve local areas in Gjirokastër, Korçë, Kukës, Shkodër; the international radio service broadcasts radio programmes in Albanian and seven other languages via Internet Radio, Radio on the Satellite and on OTT with an App for both iOS and Android. Medium wave and short wave broadcasts were switched off in 2017.. The international television service via satellite RTSH Sat was launched in 1993 and is aimed at Albanian-speaking communities in Kosovo, Macedonia and northern Greece, plus the Albanian diaspora in the rest of Europe.
Since 1999, RTSH has been a member of the European Broadcasting Union. RTSH Tani, a mobile app offers these channels and more. RTSH is the official organizer of the Albanian Song Festival Festivali i Kenges, the winner of which represents Albania in the Eurovision Song Contest. RTSH is funded by a combination of commercial advertising, an annual licence fee of US$12.00 and grant-in-aid from the Albanian government. The beginnings of RTSH date to the creation of Radio Tirana on 28 November 1938; the first Albanian radio station was launched by King Zog I and Queen Geraldine Apponyi in a ceremony at the former building of the Municipality of Tirana. A year earlier, a shortwave transmitter with a power of 3 kW at 40 meters was put in operation in Laprake and intended for communication, but was used to broadcast 3 hours of programmes per day; the first broadcast consisted of choral singing, where Jorgji Truja and Marije Kraja sang an introductory piece, followed by the unique timbre of Kaliopi Nushi's voice who pronounced the following phrase: "Mirëdita, kjo është Radio Tirana".
This marked the first broadcast of Radio Tirana. In 1987, 66 hours of programmes were broadcast in 20 foreign languages every day. In 1959, Radio Tirana's director by that time, Petro Kita, founded the first Experimental Television Center to provide the basis for the latter Albanian television, TVSH; the first test programme was held on 29 April 1960, at 6:00 pm and was introduced by the journalist Stoli Beli. The official launch was set for 1 May 1960. Children movies and adults’ programmes were broadcast, three times a week for about one hour. Television programs were launched by 1971. Color broadcasts started in 1981, became regular by 1982. In 2002 TVSH ranked second with an audience share of 17.1%. The second channel, TVSH 2, began experimental broadcasts in 2003. In 2012, several digital only channels were launched under the RTSH logo. Despite the country's tiny size and isolationist policies, Radio Tirana was a major international broadcaster during the Cold War, its programmes had a reputation for being little more than dull propaganda.
During Albania's alliance with China in the 1960s and 1970s, Radio Tirana had to walk a fine line between being anti-West whilst being anti-Soviet. As such, Radio Tirana kept close to the official policy of the People's Republic of China, both anti-West and anti-Soviet whilst still being socialist in tone. Following the break with China, programming still remained Marxist-Leninist in nature. Polish Communist Kazimierz Mijal broadcast his radical opinions in Polish 1966-1978. During the 1970s, the station broadcast to Europe on 1214 kHz, causing interference problems for the British BBC Radio One on the same frequency. During the 1980s and early 1990s the international service was broadcast on 1395 kHz and was received throughout Europe during the evening and through the night. Radio Tirana upset many amateur radio operators in Europe by operating transmitters in the 7 MHz amateur band. In 1985, it broadcast only 2.5 hours per day. It opened at 20:00 and closed at 22:30. In 1986, it broadcast each day for 4 hours, from 17:00 to 18:30 and 20:00 to 22:30.
Most of the programming during the communist era consisted of news programs. Political programming predominated during this period. Features included Marxism-Leninism – an Ever-Young and Scientific Doctrine and Socialism and the Youth; the feature Leafing Through the Marxist-Leninist Press reviewed the journals of foreign communist parties allied to the Albanian Party of Labour. Other programs included Introducing You To Albania, Leafing Through Our Listeners' Letters and Art in Socialist Albania and The Song of Our Life. Radio Tirana presented irregular programs of revolutionary music from around the world, while the programme What We Saw in Socialist Albania offered interviews with foreign visitors to Albania; the interval signal of Radio Tirana during this period was the first few bars of the Albanian revolutionary song With a Pickaxe in One Hand and a Rifle in the Other. This song served as the signature tune of Radio Tirana's foreign language broadcasts; the pickaxe and rifle were part of the logo of Albanian Radi
Shkodër or Shkodra known as Scutari or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania. It is the capital of the surrounding county of Shkodër, one of 12 constituent counties of the republic; the city is one of the most ancient cities in the Balkans and the fourth most populous city in the country and exerts strong influences in culture, religion and entertainment of northern Albania. Geographically, the city of Shkodër sprawls across the Mbishkodra plain between the freshwater marshlands of Lake Shkodër and the foothills of the Albanian Alps. Like most of the Dinaric Alps, the mountains are dominated by dolomite rocks; the lake, named after the city of Shkodër, is the largest lake in Southern Europe close to the Adriatic Sea. The city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west; the region that today corresponds to the city territory was founded in the 4th century BC by the ancient Illyrian tribes of the Ardiaei and Labeates. It is evidenced by the inscriptions that were discovered in the Rozafa Castle.
During that time the city was known under the name Scodra. The city has developed on a 130 metres hill, strategically located in the outflow of Lake Shkodër into the Buna; the Romans annexed the city after the third Illyrian War in 168 BC, when Gentius was defeated by the Roman force of Anicius Gallus. In the 3rd century AD, Shkodër became the capital of Praevalitana due to the administrative reform of the Roman emperor Diocletian. With the spread of Christianity in the 4th century, the Archdiocese of Scodra was founded and was assumed in 535 by Byzantine Justinian I. During many different epochs it has retained its status as a major city in the wider region, due to its strategic position close to the Adriatic Sea and the Italian port cities, but with land-routes to other important cities and towns in neighbouring regions; the etymology of the term Shkodër is a subject. The name was first attested in antiquity in the Latin form Scodra, the Ancient Greek Σκόδρα and the Ancient Greek genitive Σκοδρινῶν, discovered on coins from the 2nd century BC.
Although the ultimate origin of the term is uncertain. The further development of the name has been a subject of discussion among linguists over the linguistic provenance of the Albanian people and the Albanian language. While Eqrem Çabej and Shaban Demiraj treat the development from Skodra to modern Shkodra as evidence of regular development within the Albanian language, Matzinger argues that it fails to display certain known phonological changes that would have to have happened if the name had been continually in use in proto-Albanian since pre-Roman times. In modern times, the term was adapted to Italian as Scutari. In Serbo-Croatian, Shkodër is known as Skadar, in Turkish as İşkodra. Shkodër is the largest city in northern Albania, lying near latitude 42° 4' N, longitude 19 ° 31' E. Geologically, Shkodër extends strategically on the Mbishkodra Plain between the marshlands of Lake Shkodër and the foothills of the Albanian Alps, the southernmost continuation of the Dinaric Alps; the northeast is dominated by Mount Maranaj standing at 1,576 metres above the Adriatic.
Hydrologically, the city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west. Rising From Lake Shkodër, Buna flows into the Adriatic Sea; the river joins the Drin for 2 kilometres southwest of the city. In the east, Shkodër is bordered by Kir, which originates from the north flowing into the Drin, that surrounds Shkodër in the south; the location of Shkodër has been of great strategic importance in its history. It has helped the city to its wealth in its history or made it the subject of conflicts between foreign powers. Lake Shkodër forms the frontier of Albania and Montenegro; the lake became the symbol of the consistent economic and social divide of the city. Although, the lake is the largest lake in Southern Europe and an important habitat for various animal and plant species. Further, the Albanian section has been designated as a Nature Reserve. In 1996, it has been recognised as a wetland of international importance by designation under the Ramsar Convention.
River Buna connects the lake with the Adriatic Sea, while the Drin provides a link with Lake Ohrid in the southeast of Albania. It is a cryptodepression, filled by the river Morača and drained into the Adriatic by the 41 km long Buna. According to the Köppen climate classification, Shkodër experiences mediterranean climate, wet enough in July to be a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences; the average yearly temperature varies from 14.5 °C to 16.8 °C. Although, mean monthly temperature ranges between 1.4 °C to 9.8 °C in January and 19.3 °C to 32.4 °C in August. The average yearly precipitation is about 1,700 millimetres, which makes the area one of the wettest in Europe; the earliest signs of human activity in the lands of Shkodër can be traced back to the Bronze Age. The favorable conditions on the fertile plain, around the lake, have brought people here from early antiquity. Artefacts and inscriptions, discovered in the Rozafa Castle, are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans in the city.
Although, it was known under the name Scodra and was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei, which ruled over a large territory between modern Albania up to Croatia. Queen Teuta, King Agron, King Gentius, were among the mos
In William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Gertrude is Hamlet's mother and Queen of Denmark. Her relationship with Hamlet is somewhat turbulent, since he resents her marrying her husband's brother Claudius after he murdered the King. Gertrude reveals no guilt in her marriage with Claudius after the recent murder of her husband, Hamlet begins to show signs of jealousy towards Claudius. According to Hamlet, she scarcely mourned her husband's death before marrying Claudius, her name may derive from Gertrude of Bavaria, Queen Consort of Denmark 1182–1197. Gertrude is first seen in Act 1 Scene 2 as she tries to cheer Hamlet over the loss of his father, begging him to stay at home rather than going back to school in Wittenberg, her worry over him continues into the second act, as she sides with King Claudius in sending Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to raise the spirits of her son. Rather than ascribing Hamlet's sudden madness to Ophelia's rejection, she believes the cause to be his father, King Hamlet's death and her quick, subsequent marriage to Claudius: "I doubt it is no other but the main.
In Act three, she eagerly listens to the report of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern on their attempt to cheer him, supports the King and Polonius' plan to watch Hamlet from a hidden vantage point as he speaks with Ophelia, with the hope that her presence will heal him. In the next act, Gertrude tells Claudius of Polonius' murder, convinced that Hamlet is mad, she shows genuine compassion and affection as she watches along with others as Ophelia sings and acts in absolute madness. At Ophelia's burial, she expresses her former hope that the young woman might have married her son: "I hoped thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife." When Hamlet appears and grapples with Laertes, she asks him to stop and for someone to hold him back—saying that he may be in a fit of madness now, but that will alleviate soon. At the beginning of the play, Gertrude lies more with her husband than her son. In the final scene, Gertrude notices Hamlet is tired during the fight with Laertes, offers to wipe his brow, she drinks a cup of poison intended for Hamlet by the King, against the King's wishes, dies, shouting in agony as she falls: "No, no, the drink,—O my dear Hamlet—The drink, the drink!
I am poison'd." Other characters' views of the Queen are negative. When the Ghost of her former husband appears to Hamlet, he describes her as a "seeming virtuous queen", but orders Hamlet not to confront her about it and leave her judgement to heaven. However, he expresses that his love for her was benevolent as he states that he would have held back the elements if they "visited her face too roughly". Hamlet sees her as an example of the weakness of women and hurt in his reflections of how she remarried. There have been numerous attempts to account for Gertrude's state of mind during the play, it could be argued that as she does not confess to any sins before she dies, she did not participate in her husband's murder. However, other considerations do point to Gertrude's complicity. After repeated erratic threats towards his mother to no response, Hamlet threatens to discover the true nature of Gertrude's character by setting up a mirror, at which point she projects a killer: In the 1919 essay "Hamlet and his problems" T. S. Eliot suggests that the main cause of Hamlet's internal dilemma is Gertrude's sinful behaviour.
He states, "Shakespeare's Hamlet... is a play dealing with the effect of a mother's guilt upon her son."In 1924, the social reformer Lillie Buffum Chace Wyman published a study, Gertrude of Denmark: An Interpretive Romance, an early attempt to give Gertrude's own perspective on her life and the events of the play. Wyman explicitly "interrogates the nineteenth-century cult of the self-sacrificing mother", critiquing the influence it had on interpretations of the play by both male critics and actresses playing Gertrude. In the 1940s, Ernest Jones—a psychoanalyst and Freud's biographer—developed Freud's ideas into a series of essays that culminated in his book Hamlet and Oedipus. Influenced by Jones's psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene", where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light. In this reading, Hamlet is disgusted by his mother's "incestuous" relationship with Claudius while fearful of killing him, as this would clear Hamlet's path to his mother's bed.
Carolyn Heilbrun's 1957 essay "Hamlet's Mother" defends Gertrude, arguing that the text never hints that Gertrude knew of Claudius poisoning King Hamlet. This analysis has been championed by many feminist critics. Heilbrun argued that men have for centuries misinterpreted Gertrude, believing what Hamlet said about her rather than the actual text of the play. By this account, no clear evidence suggests that Gertrude is an adulteress: she is adapting to the circumstances of her husband's death for the good of the kingdom. Women were exclusively banned from appearing as actresses on the stage until 1660 and in the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, troupes appeared that were composed of boy players. Indeed, they are famously mentioned in Hamlet, in which a group of travelling actors has left the city due to rivalry with a troupe of "little eyases". Eileen Herlie portrayed Gertrude in Laurence Olivier's 1948 Hamlet. Glenn Close played mother to Mel Gibson in the Franco Zeffirelli's 1990 Hamlet. Julie Christie appeared as Gertrude in Kenneth Branagh's 1996 Hamlet.
Despite her classical training as an actor, it was her first-ever
Naim Frashëri (actor)
Naim Frashëri was a 20th-century well-known Albanian actor. He was named a People's Artist of Albania. Frashëri pursued secondary studies in Tirana, Albania. Frashëri's love for theater had started in 1942, however he started his professional acting career at the beginning of 1945. Among his main roles are those of Tartuffe in Tartuffe, Smith in Russian Affair, Gjoni in Trimi i mirë me shokë shumë, The General in the General of the dead Army, Leka in Përkolgjinaj, Nikolla in The Enemies, Sasha Ribakov in the Kremlin hours, Luben in the Leipzig Trial, Ferdinand in Intrigue and Love, Howard in Deep roots, Hamlet in Hamlet, Jonuz Bruga in The Fisherman's Family; the role of Jonuz Braga was his last one. He has acted in 8 movies. Naim Frashëri has received many orders as one of the icons of the Albanian Theatre. In particular he is recipient of the Hero of Socialist Labour title and the People's Artist of Albania title. Gjurma -.... Doktor Artani Plagë të vjetra -.... Doktor Pëllumbi Ngadhnjim mbi vdekjen....
Hans von Shtolc Furtuna Tana -.... Stefani Fëmijët e saj -.... Mësuesi Skënderbeu -...... Pali
Intrigue and Love
Intrigue and Love, sometimes Love and Intrigue and Politics or Luise Miller is a five-act play written by the German dramatist Friedrich Schiller. It was his third play, it shows how cabals and their intrigue destroy the love between Ferdinand von Walter, a nobleman's son, Luise Miller, daughter of a middle-class musician. President von Walter, at a German prince's court Ferdinand, the president's son, an army major Hofmarschall von Kalb Lady Milford, favourite of the prince Wurm, the president's private secretary Miller, town-musician or "Kunstpfeifer" Miller's wife Luise, Miller's daughter Sophie, maid to Lady Milford A valet to the prince Various minor characters Ferdinand is an army major and son of President von Walter, a high-ranking noble in a German duke's court, while Luise Miller is the daughter of a middle-class musician; the couple fall in love with each other. The president instead wants to expand his own influence by marrying off his son Ferdinand to Lady Milford, the duke's mistress.
However, Ferdinand rebels against his father tries to persuade Luise to elope with him. The president and his secretary Wurm concoct an insidious plot, arresting Luise's parents for no reason. Luise declares, in a love letter to the Hofmarschall von Kalb, that only by death can she obtain her parents' release. Luise is forced to swear an oath to God to state she wrote this letter of her own free will; this letter deliberately evokes jealousy and vengeful despair in him. Luise tries to get released from her oath by suicide, dying before Ferdinand and restoring their love's innocence, but her father puts a stop to this by putting massive moral and religious pressure on the couple; this means she has only the lie required by the oath to counter the charges against her. Luise is released from her secrecy by death, revealing the intrigue to Ferdinand and forgiving him, Ferdinand reaches out his hand to his father at the moment of his death, which the President interprets as his son's forgiveness. In a subplot, Lady Milford is shown in a position between the middle and upper classes, in love with Ferdinand.
She is confronted with Luise's simple love for Ferdinand. Despite Lady Milford's love for him, they are intent on marriage and withdrawing from the world of the court. In 1784 Schiller published his theoretical work The Theatre considered as a Moral Institution, whose central idea was to present tragedy as a means of theodicy, with theatre's mission being to show the restoration of divine justice onstage; this righteousness is visible in Intrigue and Love, since its final court of appeal is not secular justice but God himself. Schiller saw education as another function of theatre, to bring the audience to catharsis to complete their education and so make the theatre a "moral institution", he saw its most important function, however, as to mediate between freedom and necessity, showing an idealised version of the individual's struggle with and victory over social and religious constraints onstage. Intrigue and Love belongs to the era of Sturm und Drang and is categorised as a bourgeois tragedy, a genre attributable to Gotthold Ephraim Lessing – Lessing's own Emilia Galotti is a key influence on it.
Tragedy had been limited to the nobility, through the Ständeklausel or "estates clause", but Lessing's genre opened it to the world of the German middle classes. Intrigue and Love has as its dominant motif the conflict between the middle-classes and the nobility in middle-class pride and aristocratic snobbery, with universal humanity at its centre, charged with open political grievances. In it, individual interests, subjective feelings and the demand for freedom from a class-ridden society's constraints are powerful drivers for the characters and lead to disaster. Schiller was aware of the pain of love across the classes, through his love for Charlotte von Wolzogen. Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg had just arrested Schiller and banned his works, in punishment for his unauthorised departure to attend the premiere of his play The Robbers. Thus, in September 1782 Schiller fled the Duke's sphere of influence, moved to Mannheim and started work on Intrigue and Love as a response to this arbitrary injustice.
This can be seen in some of the play's themes: The extravagance at the ducal court – Although Württemberg was a poor country at the time of Schiller, Charles Eugene lived his life along the lines of the French royal court at the Palace of Versailles, financing expensive balls and festivals by exploiting his people and selling his population as mercenaries. Trade in soldiers – In Schiller's time one of Charles Eugene's ways of raising money was to'sell off' farmers', craftsmen's and labourers' sons to serve abroad as mercenaries, such as in the American Revolutionary War, sometimes by violence, drugging or abduction. Mistresses – For a long time Charles Eugene ran a system of mistresses, including Franziska von Leutrum. Intrigues – In Schiller's time the acting minister of the Württemberg court, count Samuel Monmartin, had brought about the downfall of his rivals via forged letters and gained the exclusive confidence of the Prince. Despotism – How justified Schiller's critique of the duke's rule was can be seen in the treatment of the journalist and poet Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart, who took offence at the appalling con