Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Marie Louise was born in Windsor Great Park, her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, the third son of Duke Christian of Schleswig-Holstein and Countess Louise of Danneskjold-Samsøe. Her mother was Princess Helena, the fifth child and third daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, she was baptized on 18 September 1872. Her godparents were Queen Marie of Hanover, her parents resided in the United Kingdom, the Princess was considered a member of the British Royal Family. Under Royal Warrant of May 15 1867, the children of Prince and Princess Christian were to be styled "Highness". From her birth in 1872 therefore Princess Marie Louise was styled Her Highness Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein in the United Kingdom, she was known to her family as "Louie". She was a bridesmaid at the 1885 wedding of her maternal aunt Princess Beatrice, to Prince Henry of Battenberg.
On 6 July 1891, Princess Marie Louise married Prince Aribert of Anhalt at St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle. Prince Aribert was the third son of Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt, his wife, Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg; the bride's first cousin, the German Emperor Wilhelm II, had been instrumental in arranging the match. Though contemporary sources did not directly suggest it was a cause of his marriage dissolution, a number of contemporaries and subsequent historical accounts suggest Aribert was bisexual or homosexual, some have suggested an indiscretion with a male attendant was the catalyst for the dissolution and that the marriage had never been consummated; the marriage was annulled on 13 December 1900 by his father. Princess Marie Louise, on an official visit to Canada at the time returned to Britain. According to her memoirs, she regarded. After the annulment, Princess Marie Louise devoted herself to charitable organisations and patronage of the arts, she inspired the creation of Queen Mary's Dolls' House to showcase the work of British craftsmen.
She established the Girl's Club in Bermondsey that served as a hospital during World War I. She was active in the work of the Princess Christian Nursing Home at Windsor, she took part in all official occasions of the royal family, including coronations and funerals and processed as a princess of the blood royal at events such as the coronation of George VI and the carriage procession for princesses of the blood royal at the coronation of Elizabeth II. In 1919 the Wolf Cub pack from the 4th Streatham Scout Group, met Princess Marie Louise on her visit to Streatham, South London; the group provided her with a guard of honour for her visit to Streatham. She was so impressed with the group and their high standards, that she declared the group as her own, it has since been known as the 4th Streatham Sea Scout Group. In July 1917, when George V changed the name of the British Royal House from the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to House of Windsor, he ordered his numerous cousins and in-laws, who were British subjects, to discontinue the use of their German titles and surnames.
Never taking other titles or surnames, Princess Marie Louise and her unmarried sister, Princess Helena Victoria, became known as "HH Princess Marie Louise" and "HH Princess Helena Victoria", giving them the odd distinction of being princesses but not members of any particular royal family. This approach differed from the one accepted by George V's other relatives, who relinquished all princely titles, not just their German designations, in turn received British titles of nobility from the King, their titles of Princess were derived from their father, they were not princesses of the United Kingdom. However, their unmarried status and their right to be styled Highness dating from Queen Victoria's concession of 1867 rendered their situations awkward, so that it was easier to allow them to retain their status as princesses while avoiding the question of immediate family membership altogether. Princess Marie Louise attended four coronations in Westminster Abbey, those of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra in 1902.
In 1956, she published My Memories of Six Reigns. She died at her London home, 10 Fitzmaurice Place, Berkeley Square, a few months and is buried at the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore at Windsor Great Park. 1872–1891: Her Highness Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein 1891–1900: Her Highness Princess Aribert of Anhalt 1900–1917: Her Highness Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein 1917–1956: Her Highness Princess Marie Louise VA: Lady of the Order of Victoria and Albert CI: Lady of the Order of the Crown of India GCVO: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order GBE: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire RRC: Member of the Royal Red Cross Ronald Allison and Sarah Riddell, eds. The Royal Encyclopedia. Marlene A. Eilers, Queen Victoria's Descendants. Princess Marie Louise, My Memories of Six Reigns. "Obituary: Princess Marie Louise, Patron of Social Services," The Times 10 December 1956, p. 14
Princess Marie of Hanover
Princess Marie of Hanover was the younger daughter of King George V of Hanover and of his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Marie was born in the city of Hanover, she held the title of Princess with the style of Royal Highness in the Kingdom of Hanover. In the United Kingdom, she held the title of Princess with the style Her Highness as a male line great-granddaughter of King George III. In 1866 Marie's father was deposed as king of Hanover. Marie and her mother remained in Hanover for over a year, residing at Schloss Marienburg, until they went into exile in Austria in July 1867; the family settled at Gmunden. Marie visited England with her family in May 1876, again, after her father's death, in June 1878, her sister Frederica moved to England where she married, but Marie returned to Gmunden where she remained single and lived with her mother at Schloss Cumberland. An American newspaper suggests that Marie twice turned down an offer of marriage from Queen Victoria's third son the Duke of Connaught.
Marie died at Gmunden at the age of 54. Her funeral was the day after her death since two days her niece Princess Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland was scheduled to marry Grand Duke Friedrich Franz IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Marie is buried in the family mausoleum at Schloss Cumberland next to her mother who outlived her by three years. Photograph of Marie
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Royal Order of Victoria and Albert
The Royal Order of Victoria and Albert was a British Royal Family Order instituted on 10 February 1862 by Queen Victoria, enlarged on 10 October 1864, 15 November 1865, 15 March 1880. No awards were made after the death of Queen Victoria; the order had four classes and was only granted to female members of the British Royal Family and female courtiers. For the first three classes, the badge consisted of a medallion of Queen Victoria and Albert, The Prince Consort, differing in the width and jewelling of the border as the classes descend, whilst the fourth substitutes a jewelled cipher. All four were surmounted by a crown, attached to a bow of white silk moiré ribbon; the honour conferred no rank or title upon the recipient, but recipients were entitled to use the post-nominal letters "VA". The last holder of the Order, Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, died in 1981; the German Empress The Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein The Princess of Wales The Marchioness of Lorne The Princess Beatrice The Duchess of Edinburgh 1879: The Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn The Duchess of Albany 1885: Princess Louise of Wales Princess Victoria of Wales Princess Maud of Wales The Duchess of York Princess Patricia of Connaught The Queen of Denmark The Queen of Hanover 1878: The Queen of the Belgians Princess Louis of Battenberg The Queen Regent of Spain The Grand Duchess of Baden The German Empress The Queen of Romania 1896: The Empress of Russia 1898: The Queen of the Netherlands Princess Marie of Edinburgh Princess Victoria Melita of Edinburgh Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh Princess Beatrice of Edinburgh Princess Margaret of Connaught Princess Alice of Albany Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia Princess Charlotte, The Hereditary Princess of Saxe-Meinigen Princess Irene, Princess Henry of Prussia Princess Viktoria, Princess Adolphe of Schaumburg-Lippe Princess Marie Amelie, The Duchess of Hamilton, Princess of Baden Princess Marie Louise, Princess Aribert of Anhalt Princess Sophie, The Crown Princess of Greece Princess Margaret, Princess Frederick Charles of Hesse Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg The Countess of Mount Edgcumbe Jane Spencer, Baroness Churchill The Duchess of Sutherland The Dowager Duchess of Wellington Dowager Lady Churchill The Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe Lady Waterpark The Dowager Duchess of Atholl Viscountess Clifden The Dowager Countess of Mayo The Dowager Countess of Erroll Lady Abercromby Lady Portman The Countess of Mount Edgcumbe Countess of Gainsborough Dowager Lady Southampton The Dowager Duchess of Buccleuch Viscountess Jocelyn 1880: Albertha, Duchess of Marlborough The Dowager Duchess of Bedford 1881: The Dowager Duchess of Abercorn The Duchess of Roxburghe 1885: Countess Spencer The Duchess of Buccleuch & Queensberry Lady Ampthill 1889: The Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava Viscountess Downe The Countess of Antrim 1892: The Marchioness of Salisbury The Marchioness of Lansdowne The Countess of Lytton Frances, Viscountess Chewton Countess Cadogan Lady Hamilton-Gordon Edith Codrington, Lady Codrington Adelaide Biddulph, Baroness Biddulph Lady Elizabeth Phillipa Biddulph Flora C.
I. Macdonald Hon Mrs. Ferguson Hon Horatia C. F. Stopford Hon Emily Sarah Cathcart Lady Cust Mrs Magdalen Wellesley Lady Ponsonby Ina Erskine McNeill 1889: Lady Geraldine Somerset Harriet Lepel Phipps Caroline Fanny Cavendish Mrs. Georgina Townshend Wilson Lady Cowell Hon. Mrs. Mallett Hon. Mrs. Grant Ethel H. M. Cadogan Mrs. John Haughton Whitaker's Almanack, 1893 British Imperial Calendar, 1900, 1902 The Times
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each being aided by various allies within the German Confederation. Prussia had allied with the Kingdom of Italy, linking this conflict to the Third Independence War of Italian unification; the Austro-Prussian War was part of the wider rivalry between Austria and Prussia, resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states. The major result of the war was a shift in power among the German states away from Austrian and towards Prussian hegemony, impetus towards the unification of all of the northern German states in a Kleindeutsches Reich that excluded the German Austria, it saw the abolition of the German Confederation and its partial replacement by a North German Confederation that excluded Austria and the other South German states. The war resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia. For several centuries, Central Europe was split into a few large- or medium-sized states and hundreds of tiny entities, which while ostensibly being within the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor, operated in a independent fashion.
When an existing Emperor died seven secular and ecclesiastical princes would elect a new Emperor. Over time the Empire became smaller and by 1789 came to consist of German peoples. Aside from five years, the Habsburg family, whose personal territory was Austria, controlled the Emperorship from 1440 to 1806, although it became ceremonial only as Austria found itself at war at certain times with other states within the Empire, such as Prussia, which in fact defeated Austria during the War of Austrian Succession to seize the state of Silesia in 1742. While Austria was traditionally considered the leader of the German states, Prussia became powerful and by the late 18th century was ranked as one of the great powers of Europe. Francis II's abolition of the office of Holy Roman Emperor in 1806 deprived him of his imperial authority over most of German-speaking Europe, though little true authority remained by that time. After 1815, the German states were once again reorganized into a loose confederation: the German Confederation, under Austrian leadership.
The pretext for the conflict was found in the dispute between Prussia and Austria over the administration of Schleswig-Holstein, which the two of them had conquered from Denmark and agreed to jointly occupy at the end of the Second Schleswig War in 1864. When Austria brought the dispute before the German Diet and decided to convene the Diet of Holstein, Prussia declared that the Gastein Convention had thereby been nullified and invaded Holstein; when the German Diet responded by voting for a partial mobilization against Prussia, Bismarck claimed that the German Confederation was ended. Crown Prince Frederick "was the only member of the Prussian Crown Council to uphold the rights of the Duke of Augustenburg and oppose the idea of a war with Austria which he described as fratricide". Although he supported unification and the restoration of the medieval empire, "Fritz could not accept that war was the right way to unite Germany." In reaction to the triumphant French nationalism of Napoleon I and as an organic feeling of commonality glorified during the Romantic era, German nationalism became a potent force during this period.
The ultimate aim of most German nationalists was the gathering of all Germans under one state, although most accepted that the German portions of Switzerland would remain in Switzerland. Two ideas of national unity came to the fore – one including and one excluding Austria; the New York Times summarized its views of German nationalism shortly after the outbreak of the war: There is, in political geography, no Germany proper to speak of. There are Kingdoms and Grand Duchies, Duchies and Principalities, inhabited by Germans, each separately ruled by an independent sovereign with all the machinery of State, yet there is a natural undercurrent tending to a national feeling and toward a union of the Germans into one great nation, ruled by one common head as a national unit. There are many interpretations of Otto von Bismarck's behaviour before the Austrian-Prussian war, which concentrate on whether he had a master plan that resulted in this war, the North German Confederation and the unification of Germany.
Bismarck maintained that he orchestrated the conflict in order to bring about the North German Confederation, the Franco-Prussian War and the eventual unification of Germany. However, historians such as A. J. P. Taylor dispute his interpretation and believe that Bismarck did not have a master plan, but rather was an opportunist who took advantage of the favourable situations that presented themselves. Taylor thinks Bismarck manipulated events into the most beneficial solution possible for Prussia. On 22 February 1866, Count Karolyi, Austrian ambassador in Berlin, sent a dispatch to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Alexander Mensdorff-Pouilly, he explained to him that Prussian public opinion had become sensitive about the Duchies issue and that he had no doubt that "this artificial exaggeration of the danger by public opinion formed an essential part of the calculations and actions of Count Bismarck the annexation of the Duchies... a matter of life and death for his political existence to make it appear such for Prussia too
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
Kingdom of Hanover
The Kingdom of Hanover was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815; the kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover; the personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 upon the accession of Queen Victoria because females could not inherit the Hanoverian throne, so her uncle became the ruler of Hanover. Hanover backed the losing side in the Austro-Prussian War and was conquered by Prussia in 1866, subsequently becoming a Prussian province. Along with the rest of Prussia, Hanover became part of the German Empire upon unification in January 1871.
Revived as the State of Hanover in 1946, the state was subsequently merged with some smaller states to form the current state of Lower Saxony in West Germany Germany. The territory of Hanover had earlier been a principality within the Holy Roman Empire before being elevated into an electorate in 1708, when Hanover was formed by union of the dynastic divisions of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, excepting the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After his accession in 1714, George Louis of the House of Hanover ascended the throne of Great Britain as George I, Hanover was joined in a personal union with Great Britain. Descendants of Hanoverians who fought alongside the British in the War of 1812 remain in Canada. In 1803, Hanover was conquered by the Prussian armies in the Napoleonic Wars; the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807 joined it to territories from Prussia and created the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Napoleon's youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte. French control lasted until October 1813.
The Battle of Leipzig shortly thereafter spelled the definitive end of the Napoleonic client states, the electorate was restored to the House of Hanover. The terms of the Congress of Vienna in 1814 not only restored Hanover, but elevated it to an independent kingdom with its Prince-Elector, George III of Great Britain, as King of Hanover; the new kingdom was greatly expanded, becoming the fourth-largest state in the German Confederation and the second-largest in north Germany. Under George III's six-year reign, he never visited the Kingdom. Having succumbed to dementia prior to the elevation of Hanover, it is unlikely he understood that he had gained an additional kingship nor did he take any role in its governance. Functional administration of Hanover was handled by a viceroy, which during the years of George III's reign and the reigns of kings George IV and William IV from 1816 to 1837, was Adolph Frederick, George III's youngest surviving son; when Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne in 1837, the 123-year personal union of Great Britain and Hanover ended.
Salic law operated in Hanover, excluding accession to the throne by a female while any male of the dynasty survived. During the Austro-Prussian War, Hanover attempted to maintain a neutral position, along with some other member states of the German Confederation. Hanover's vote in favor of the mobilisation of Confederation troops against Prussia on 14 June 1866 prompted Prussia to declare war; the outcome of the war led to the dissolution of Hanover as an independent kingdom and it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, becoming the Prussian Province of Hanover. Along with the rest of Prussia, it became part of the German Empire in 1871. After George V fled Hanover in 1866, he raised forces loyal to him in the Netherlands, called the Guelphic Legion, they were disbanded in 1870. George refused to accept the Prussian takeover of his realm and claimed he was still the legitimate king of Hanover, his only son, Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, inherited this claim upon George's death in 1878.
Ernest Augustus was first in line to the throne of the Duchy of Brunswick, whose rulers had been a junior branch of the House of Hanover. In 1884, that branch became extinct with the death of a distant cousin of Ernest Augustus. However, since Ernest Augustus refused to renounce his claim to annexed Hanover, the Bundesrat of the German Empire ruled that he would disturb the peace of the empire if he ascended the throne of Brunswick; as a result, Brunswick was ruled by a regency until 1913, when his son named Ernest Augustus, married the German Emperor's daughter, Princess Viktoria Luise and swore allegiance to the German Empire. The Duke renounced his claim to Brunswick in favor of his son, the Bundesrat allowed the younger Ernest Augustus to take possession of Brunswick as a kind of dowry compensation for Hanover; the German-Hanoverian Party, which at times supported secession from the Reich, demanded a separate status for the province in the Reichstag. The party existed. With Prussia in agony and on the verge of official dissolution, in 1946 Hanoverian politicians took advantage of the opportunity and advocated that the Control Commission for Germany - British Element revi