Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Abbé Fulbert Youlou was a laicized Brazzaville-Congolese Roman Catholic priest, nationalist leader and politician, who became the first President of the Republic of the Congo on its independence. In August 1960, he led his country into independence. In December 1960 he organised an intercontinental conference in Brazzaville, in the course of which he praised the advantages of economic liberalism and condemned communism. Three years he left power. Youlou disappointed many from the North when he imposed a single party system and imprisoned union leaders in August 1963. Charles de Gaulle despised him and France refused to assist him, he resigned in the face of overwhelming opposition to his governance. Youlou, whose last name means "Grape" in Lari, was born on 9 June 1917 in Madibou in Pool. A younger child in a family of three boys, he was a Lari of the Kongo. At nine years old, he was received the Christian name Fulbert. In 1929 he entered the Petit Séminaire of Brazzaville. A bright student, he was sent to Akono in Cameroon to complete his secondary studies.
After this, he entered the Grand Séminaire of Yaoundé where he did well in philosophy. Here he met Barthélemy Boganda, the future nationalist leader of Oubangui-Chari and the first president of the Central African Republic but Andre-Marie Mbida, Cameroon's first head of state. Returning to the country, he taught at the Seminary in Mbamou before travelling to Libreville to complete his theological studies, he completed his final cycle of studies in Brazzaville. Fulbert Youlou was ordained as a priest on 9 June 1946 or in 1949, he was assigned to the parish of Saint-François de Brazzaville where he directed several youth organisations, sporting activities, Catholic groups. He covered the general hospital and the prison. Fulbert Youlou was interested in politics. Encouraged by his protector, Father Charles Lecomte, he offered his candidature for the African college in the territorial elections of 1947 in the district of Pool, but although Father Lecomte was elected without difficulty to the European college, Youlou suffered a bitter defeat.
He realised that if he were elected, he would no longer appear so supported by the administration or the missions. Although a man of the white church, thereafter he gave himself over to the African resistance; this attitude did not please his superiors, moreover in October 1953 a complaint was made to the diocese against the young Abbé, caught in the act of adultery. As a disciplinary measure, he was reassigned on 20 November 1954 to a mission in the forest at Mindouli where he was employed as the headmaster of a Catholic school. During his time at Saint-François, Youlou made an impression as a Lari orator. Many Lari were followers of Matswanisme, a messianic movement challenging colonialism, founded by a Téké, who died in prison in 1942; the young Abbé managed to position himself as an interlocutor for the Matswa, taking control of Amicale, the Lari self-help organization Matswa had founded, allowing him to exercise influence on his disciples. In addition, his focus on the association enabled him to attach himself to the Lari youth.
His punishment by the church confirmed him in his role as their leader because it made him appear the victim of the European-dominated Congoloese church. In October 1955, thanks to this revolutionary image, a Kongo council chose him as their representative for the upcoming legislative elections; when his candidature was announced, his bishop Mgr. Bernard attempted to dissuade him, he was banned from celebrating the Mass.. The Kongos supplied a monthly pension for him and a car with a driver to meet his needs. Youlou's supporters considered him the reincarnation of "Jesus-Matswa," an idea encouraged by the fact that he was a priest, he himself became a living symbol of colonial resistance. A story attached him to the Loufoulakari falls, where the great Kongo Boueta Mbongo was decapitated and thrown into the water by the colonisers, he took to bathing there in his cassock and calling upon the powerful ancestors. His clothes remained dry when he was immersed; this mysticism was carried over into the electoral campaign.
Acts of violence became the method of political action for the Bacongo militants. Thus on 12 December 1955, tracts by his supporters called for the Matswanists who had not joined Abbé to be "whipped". One of them, Victor Tamba-Tamba, saw his house burnt down and his entire family killed on 28 December; the agitation reached fever pitch on 10 October 1956, the day of the election: when the polls of Bacongo were opened, Lari youth took it upon themselves to kill voters whom they suspected of not voting for Youlou. The authorities had to send out security forces to protect the polling stations. Calm did not long return to Brazzaville. In the following two days, a number of houses were destroyed, four thousand people were killed and several thousands were wounded. Fulbert Youlou and one of his opponents, Jacques Opangault, called for calm by radio. A week the results were announced; the incumbent, Jean-Félix Tchicaya was re-elected as deputy for Central Congo with 45,976 votes, against 43,193 for Jacques Opangault and 41,084 for Youlou.
A collection was taken so that he could travel to Paris to attempt to buy weapons and start a war in the country against the newly elected Tchicaya. This voyage allowed him to make some new contacts. On 17 May 1956, Fulbert Youlou founded the Union démocratique de défense des intérêts africains, as a competitor to the Congolese Progressive Party of Tchicaya an
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa. In the same context, it is occasionally referred to as Portuguese West Africa. Ruling along the coast and engaging in military conflicts with the Kingdom of Kongo, in the 18th century Portugal managed to colonise the interior Highlands. However, full control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century, when agreements with other European powers during the Scramble for Africa fixed the colony's interior borders. In 1975, Portuguese Angola became the independent People's Republic of Angola; the history of Portuguese presence on the territory of contemporary Angola lasted from the arrival of the explorer Diogo Cão in 1484 until the decolonization of the territory in November 1975. During these five centuries, several different situations have to be distinguished; when Diogo Cão and other explorers reached the Kongo Kingdom at the end of the 15th century, Angola as such did not exist.
Its present territory comprised a number of separate peoples, some organized as kingdoms or tribal federations of varying sizes. The Portuguese were interested in trade, principally in slaves, they therefore maintained a peaceful and mutually profitable relationship with the rulers and nobles of the Kongo Kingdom, whom they Christianised and taught Portuguese, allowing them a share of the benefits from the slave trade. They established small trading posts on the lower Congo, in the area of the present Democratic Republic. A more important trading settlement on the Atlantic coast was erected at Soyo in the territory of the Kongo Kingdom, it is now Angola's northernmost town, apart from the Cabinda exclave. In 1575, the settlement of Luanda was established on the coast south of the Kongo Kingdom, in the 17th century the settlement of Benguela farther to the south. From 1580 to the 1820s, well over a million people from present-day Angola were exported as slaves to the so-called New World to Brazil, but to North America.
According to Oliver and Atmore, "for 200 years, the colony of Angola developed as a gigantic slave-trading enterprise". Kingdom of Portugal sailors, explorers and merchants had a long-standing policy of conquest and establishment of military and trading outposts in Africa with the conquest of Muslim-ruled Ceuta in 1415 and the establishment of bases in present-day Morocco and the Gulf of Guinea; the Portuguese had Catholic beliefs and their military expeditions included from the beginning the conversion of foreign peoples. In the 17th century, conflicting economic interests led to a military confrontation with the Kongo Kingdom. Portugal defeated the Kongo Kingdom in the Battle of Mbwila on October 29, 1665, but suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Kitombo when they tried to invade Kongo in 1670. Control of most of the central highlands was achieved in the 18th century. Further reaching attempts at conquering the interior were undertaken in the 19th century However, full Portuguese administrative control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1884, the United Kingdom, which up to that time refused to acknowledge that Portugal possessed territorial rights north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognising Portuguese sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo. However, the treaty, meeting with opposition there and in Germany, was not ratified. Agreements concluded with the Congo Free State, the German Empire and France in 1885–1886 fixed the limits of the province, except in the south-east, where the frontier between Barotseland and Angola was determined by an Anglo-Portuguese agreement of 1891 and the arbitration award of King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy in 1905. During the period of Portuguese colonial rule of Angola, cities and trading posts were founded, railways were opened, ports were built, a Westernised society was being developed, despite the deep traditional tribal heritage in Angola which the minority European rulers were neither willing nor interested in eradicating. Since the 1920s, Portugal's administration showed an increasing interest in developing Angola's economy and social infrastructure.
In 1951, the Portuguese Colony of Angola became an overseas province of Portugal. In the late 1950s the National Front for the Liberation of Angola and the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola began to organize strategies and action plans to fight Portuguese rule and the remunerated system which affected many of the native African people from the countryside, who were relocated from their homes and made to perform compulsory work always unskilled hard labour, in an environment of economic boom. Organised guerrilla warfare began in 1961, the same year that a law was passed to improve the working conditions of the unskilled native workforce, demanding more rights. In 1961, the Portuguese Government indeed abolished a number of basic legal provisions which discriminated against black people, like the Estatuto do Indigenato. However, the conflict, conversely known as the Colonial War or the War of Liberation, erupted in the North of the territory when UPA rebels based in Republic of the Congo massacred both white and black civilians in surprise attacks in the countryside.
After visiting the United Nations, rebel leader Holden Roberto returned to Kinshasa and organised Bakongo militants. Holden Roberto launched an incursion into Angola on March 15, 1961, leading 4,000 to 5,000 militants, his forces took farms, government outposts, trading centres, killing everyone they encountered. At least 1,000 whites and an unknown number of blacks were killed. Commenting
A paratrooper is a military parachutist—someone trained to parachute into an operation, functioning as part of an airborne force. Military parachutists and parachutes were first used on a large scale during World War II for troop distribution and transportation. Paratroopers are used in surprise attacks, to seize strategic objectives such as airfields or bridges. Paratroopers jump out of airplanes and use parachutes to land safely on the ground; this is one of the three types of "forced entry" strategic techniques for entering a theater of war. Their tactical advantage of entering the battlefield from the air is that they can attack areas not directly accessible by other transport; the ability of air assault to enter the battlefield from any location allows paratroopers to evade emplaced fortifications that guard from attack from a specific direction. The possible use of paratroopers forces defenders to spread out to protect other areas which would otherwise be safe. Another common use for paratroopers is to establish an airhead for landing other units, as at the Battle of Crete.
This doctrine was first applied to warfare by the Italians and the Soviets. The first operational military parachute jump was logged in the night of August 9/10 1918 by Italian assault troops, when Lt. Alessandro Tandura dropped behind Austro-Hungarian lines near Vittorio Veneto on a reconnaissance and sabotage mission, followed on nights by Lts. Ferruccio Nicoloso and Pier Arrigo Barnaba; the first extensive use of paratroopers was by the Germans during World War II. In the conflict paratroopers were used extensively by the Allied Forces. Cargo aircraft of the period being small, they if jumped in groups much larger than 20 from one aircraft. In English, this load of paratroopers is called a "stick", while any load of soldiers gathered for air movement is known as a "chalk"; the terms come from the common use of white chalk on the sides of aircraft and vehicles to mark and update numbers of personnel and equipment being emplaned. In World War II, paratroopers most used parachutes of a circular design.
These parachutes could be steered to a small degree by pulling on the risers and suspension lines which attach to the parachute canopy itself. German paratroopers, whose harnesses had only a single riser attached at the back, could not manipulate their parachutes in such a manner. Today, paratroopers still use round parachutes, or round parachutes modified so as to be more controlled with toggles; the parachutes are deployed by a static line. Mobility of the parachutes is deliberately limited to prevent scattering of the troops when a large number parachute together; some military exhibition units and special forces units use "ram-air" parachutes, which offer a high degree of maneuverability and are deployed manually from the desired altitude. Some use High-altitude military parachuting deploying manually. Many countries have one or several paratrooper units associated to the national Army or Air Force, but in some cases to the Navy. Argentina was the first country on the continent of South America to use Paratroopers.
The first paratroopers were issued jump helmets similar to that used by the British at the time, as the rest of the equipment based on the Fallschirmjäger. The 4th Parachute Brigade is a unit of the Argentine Army specialised in airborne assault operations, it is based in Córdoba Province. The Rapid Deployment Force is based on this unit; the members of the unit wear Boina Rojas of the paratroopers with unit badges. As of 2009 it consists of: 4th Paratroopers Brigade HQ 2nd Paratroopers Regiment "General Balcarce" 14th Paratroopers Regiment 4th Paratrooper Artillery Group 4th Paratrooper Cavalry Scout Squadron 4th Paratrooper Engineer Company 4th Paratrooper Signal Company 4th Paratrooper Support Company Logistic & Support Base "Córdoba" Airborne forces raised by Australia have included a small number of conventional and special forces units. During the Second World War the Australian Army formed the 1st Parachute Battalion. In the post-war period Australia's parachute capability was maintained by special forces units.
In the 1970s and 1980s a parachute infantry capability was revived, while a Parachute Battalion Group based on the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment was established in 1983. However, following a reorganisation 3 RAR relinquished the parachute role in 2011, this capability is now maintained by units of Special Operations Command. Constant "Marin" Duclos was the first French soldier to execute a parachute jump on November 17, 1915, he performed 23 test and exhibition parachute drops without problems to publicise the system and overcome the prejudice aviators had for such life-saving equipment. In 1935, Captain Geille of the French Air Force created the Avignon-Pujaut Paratroopers Schools after he trained in Moscow at the Soviet Airborne Academy. From this, the French military created. Following the Battle of France, General Charles de Gaulle formed the 1re Compagnie d’Infanterie de l’Air in September 1940 from members of the Free French forces who had escaped to Britain, it was transformed into the Compagnie de Chasseurs Parachutistes in October 1941.
By June 1942, these units were fighting in Crete and Cyrenaica alongside the British 1st SAS Regiment. As part of the SAS Brigade, two independent French SAS units were a
Pointe-Noire is the second largest city in the Republic of the Congo, following the capital of Brazzaville, an autonomous department since 2004. Before this date it was the capital of the Kouilou region, it is situated on a headland between the Atlantic Ocean. Pointe-Noire is the main commercial centre of the country and has a population of 715,334, expanding to well over 1 million when the entire metropolitan area is taken into account. Pointe-Noire features a tropical savanna climate under the Köppen climate classification; the city features a wet season that spans from October through April, while the remaining 6 months form the dry season. Pointe-Noire receives 1,000 millimetres of precipitation annually. Temperatures are somewhat cooler during the dry season with average temperatures at 24 degrees Celsius. During the wet season, average temperatures hover around 28 degrees Celsius; the coat of arms of the city of Pointe-Noire is: "Gold at the point of sand accompanied by two silver oars, the handle gules, laid in chevron poured, the tip and oars moving from a sea of azure wavy three streams of silver" Pointe-Noire is a commune divided into six urban districts: Patrice Emery Lumumba district, the oldest area.
It is the commercial centre. Mvou-Mvou Tié-Tié Loandjili district Mongo-Pokou district Ngoyo district The name Pointe-Noire originated with Portuguese navigators who saw a block of black rocks on the headland in 1484. From on, Pointe-Noire, called Ponta Negra, became a maritime point of reference, a small fishing village starting in 1883, after the French signed a treaty with local people, the Loangos. In 1910, French Equatorial Africa was created, French companies were allowed to exploit the Middle Congo, it soon became necessary to build a railroad that would connect Brazzaville, the terminus of the river navigation on the Congo River and the Ubangui River, with the Atlantic coast. As rapids make it impossible to navigate on the Congo River past Brazzaville, the coastal railroad terminus site had to allow for the construction of a deep-sea port, authorities chose the site of Ponta Negra instead of Libreville as envisaged. Construction of the Congo-Ocean Railway began in 1921, led to the foundation of Pointe-Noire on 22 May 1922.
In 1927, drinking water became available in the city. The airport was built in 1932. In 1934, Governor Raphael Antonetti inaugurated the Congo-Ocean Railway; the first hospital was built in 1936. That same year, Bank of West Africa opened its first branch in the city. In 1942, the Pointe-Noire Harbour welcomed its first ship, made the city the AEF's seaport. In 1950, Pointe-Noire had 20,000 inhabitants, became the capital of the Middle Congo, while Brazzaville was the capital city of the AEF. In 1957, the Middle-Congo became the Republic of Congo. Incidents which occurred during 1958 legislative elections led the leaders of the Democratic Union for the Defence of African Interests to transfer the capital to Brazzaville, since Pointe-Noire was under the influence of the political opposition. Pointe-Noire continued growing, was the most modern city in 1960, when Congo gained independence; the oil discovery around 1980 re-attracted people and Elf-Aquitaine factories. The population doubled by 1982, reached 360,000 in 1994.
Civil wars in 1997 and 1999 caused an influx of refugees from the surrounding provinces towards Pointe-Noire, causing the population to climb to over 1 million inhabitants. The Government has proposed the development of a new bulk resource port to be constructed at Point Indienne, 30 kilometres to the north of the Port of Pointe-Noire. A meeting was held on 18 December 2012 with a collective of 10 Congo government ministries and invited mining companies to discuss future development opportunities. Pointe-Noire is the essential centre of the oil industry of the Republic of Congo, one of the main oil producers in Central Africa. Congolese oil has been exploited by the French company Elf Aquitaine since its discovery around 1980. Pointe-Noire is known for its fishing industry, at odds with the oil development. Pointe-Noire was home to a potash exploitation which led to the construction of a wharf closed to the public. Lycée Français Charlemagne, a French international school for primary and secondary school children, is in Pointe-Noire.
The city is home to the École Supérieure de Technologie du Littoral the École supérieure de commerce et de gestion, Institut UCAC-ICAM and the Centre d’éducation, de formation et d’apprentissage en mécanique auto. The Higher Institute of Technology of Central Africa has a campus in the city. There are several other institutions of higher education in the city. Pointe-Noire is home to Agostinho-Neto International Airport which as of May 2015 had direct flights to Abidjan, Addis Ababa, Casablanca, Douala, Kinshasa–N'Djili, Lomé, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Port-Gentil, Johannesburg–O. R. was second busiest airport in the country. Pointe-Noire is the terminus of the Congo-Ocean Railway, the railway station being a notable building; as of 2014 the railway was operating the La Gazelle train service every other day to Brazzaville and intermediate destinations. Thanks to its rapid growth, the city now includes Tié-Tié Railway Station and Ngondji Railway Station, the next rail
Republic of the Congo
The Republic of the Congo known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa. It is bordered by five countries: Gabon to its west; the region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes at least 3,000 years ago, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo was part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa; the Republic of the Congo was established on the 28th of November 1958 but gained independence from France in 1960. The sovereign state has had multi-party elections since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War, President Denis Sassou Nguesso, who first came to power in 1979, has ruled for 33 of the past 38 years; the Republic of the Congo has become the fourth-largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea, providing the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide.
Congo's economy is dependent on the oil sector, economic growth has slowed since the post-2015 drop in oil prices. Bantu-speaking peoples who founded tribes during the Bantu expansions displaced and absorbed the earliest inhabitants of the region, the Pygmy people, about 1500 BC; the Bakongo, a Bantu ethnic group that occupied parts of present-day Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those countries. Several Bantu kingdoms—notably those of the Kongo, the Loango, the Teke—built trade links leading into the Congo River basin; the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the mouth of the Congo in 1484. Commercial relationships grew between the inland Bantu kingdoms and European merchants who traded various commodities, manufactured goods, people captured from the hinterlands. After centuries as a major hub for transatlantic trade, direct European colonization of the Congo river delta began in the late 19th century, subsequently eroding the power of the Bantu societies in the region.
The area north of the Congo River came under French sovereignty in 1880 as a result of Pierre de Brazza's treaty with King Makoko of the Bateke. This Congo Colony became known first as French Congo as Middle Congo in 1903. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa, comprising Middle Congo, Gabon and Oubangui-Chari; the French designated Brazzaville as the federal capital. Economic development during the first 50 years of colonial rule in Congo centered on natural-resource extraction; the methods were brutal: construction of the Congo–Ocean Railroad following World War I has been estimated to have cost at least 14,000 lives. During the Nazi occupation of France during World War II, Brazzaville functioned as the symbolic capital of Free France between 1940 and 1943; the Brazzaville Conference of 1944 heralded a period of major reform in French colonial policy. Congo benefited from the postwar expansion of colonial administrative and infrastructure spending as a result of its central geographic location within AEF and the federal capital at Brazzaville.
It received a local legislature after the adoption of the 1946 constitution that established the Fourth Republic. Following the revision of the French constitution that established the Fifth Republic in 1958, the AEF dissolved into its constituent parts, each of which became an autonomous colony within the French Community. During these reforms, Middle Congo became known as the Republic of the Congo in 1958 and published its first constitution in 1959. Antagonism between the Mbochis and the Laris and Kongos resulted in a series of riots in Brazzaville in February 1959, which the French Army subdued. New elections took place in April 1959. By the time the Congo became independent in August 1960, the former opponent of Youlou, agreed to serve under him. Youlou became the first President of the Republic of the Congo. Since the political tension was so high in Pointe-Noire, Youlou moved the capital to Brazzaville; the Republic of the Congo received full independence from France on 15 August 1960. Youlou ruled as the country's first president until labour elements and rival political parties instigated a three-day uprising that ousted him.
The Congolese military took charge of the country, installed a civilian provisional government headed by Alphonse Massamba-Débat. Under the 1963 constitution, Massamba-Débat was elected President for a five-year term. During Massamba-Débat's term in office the regime adopted "scientific socialism" as the country's constitutional ideology. In 1965, Congo established relations with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, North Korea and North Vietnam. Massamba-Débat's regime invited several hundred Cuban army troops into the country to train his party's militia units and these troops helped his government survive a coup d'état in 1966 led by paratroopers loyal to future President Marien Ngouabi. Massamba-Débat was unable to reconcile various institutional and ideological factions within the country and his regime ended abruptly with a bloodless coup in September 1968. Ngouabi, who had participated in the coup, assumed the presidency on 31 December 1968. One year President Ngouabi proclaimed Congo Africa's first "people's republic"
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west; the CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres and had an estimated population of around 4.6 million as of 2016. The C. A. R. is the scene of a civil war, ongoing since 2012. Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin, while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows into Lake Chad. What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia. After gaining independence from France in 1960, the Central African Republic was ruled by a series of autocratic leaders, including an abortive attempt at a monarchy.
Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. The Central African Republic Bush War began in 2004 and, despite a peace treaty in 2007 and another in 2011, civil war resumed in 2012, still ongoing. Despite its significant mineral deposits and other resources, such as uranium reserves, crude oil, diamonds, cobalt and hydropower, as well as significant quantities of arable land, the Central African Republic is among the ten poorest countries in the world, with the lowest GDP per capita at purchasing power parity in the world as of 2017; as of 2015, according to the Human Development Index, the country had the lowest level of human development, ranking 188th out of 188 countries. It is estimated to be the unhealthiest country as well as the worst country in which to be young; the Central African Republic is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Non-Aligned Movement.
10,000 years ago, desertification forced hunter-gatherer societies south into the Sahel regions of northern Central Africa, where some groups settled. Farming began as part of the Neolithic Revolution. Initial farming of white yam progressed into millet and sorghum, before 3000 BC the domestication of African oil palm improved the groups' nutrition and allowed for expansion of the local populations; this Agricultural Revolution, combined with a "Fish-stew Revolution", in which fishing began to take place, the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Products were moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the region's inhabitants; the Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the late Neolithic Era. Ironworking arrived in the region around 1000 BC from both Bantu cultures in what is today Nigeria and from the Nile city of Meroë, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. During the Bantu Migrations from about 1000 BC to AD 1000, Ubangian-speaking people spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan, Bantu-speaking people settled in the southwestern regions of the CAR, Central Sudanic-speaking people settled along the Ubangi River in what is today Central and East CAR.
Bananas added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet. Production of copper, dried fish, textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region. During the 16th and 17th centuries slave traders began to raid the region as part of the expansion of the Saharan and Nile River slave routes, their captives were enslaved and shipped to the Mediterranean coast, Arabia, the Western Hemisphere, or to the slave ports and factories along the West and North Africa or South the Ubanqui and Congo rivers. In the mid 19th century, the Bobangi people became major slave traders and sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast. During the 18th century Bandia-Nzakara peoples established the Bangassou Kingdom along the Ubangi River. In 1875, the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day CAR; the European invasion of Central African territory began in the late 19th century during the Scramble for Africa. Europeans the French and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885.
France seized and colonized Ubangi-Shari territory in 1894. In 1911 at the Treaty of Fez, France ceded a nearly 300,000 km² portion of the Sangha and Lobaye basins to the German Empire which ceded a smaller area to France. After World War I France again annexed the territory. Modeled on King Leopold's Congo Free State, concessions were doled out to private companies that endeavored to strip the region's assets as and cheaply as possible before depositing a percentage of their profits into the French treasury; the concessionary companies forced local people to harvest rubber and other commodities without pay and held their families hostage until they met their quotas. Between 1890, a year after the French first arrived, 1940, the population declined by half due to diseases and exploitation by private companies. In 1920 French Equatorial Africa was established and Ubangi-Shari was