click links in text for more info

Marilyn Bell

Marilyn Grace Bell Di Lascio is a Canadian retired long distance swimmer. She was the first person to swim across Lake Ontario and swam the English Channel and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Bell was born in Ontario to parents Sydney and Grace Bell; the family moved to North Bay, Ontario Halifax, Nova Scotia before returning to Toronto in 1946. After her swimming career, Marilyn moved to New Jersey, United States, they raised four children, Michael and Janet who were unaware of their mother's fame. Bell became an American citizen and was a teacher for over twenty years. Joe Di Lascio died in September 2007. Bell moved to New Paltz, New York. Due to a back injury and scoliosis, Bell gave up swimming in the early 2000s and used a motorized chair to get around, she was able to return to swimming in 2016 at her retirement home when swimming instructor Terry Laughlin helped her change her swimming style from a "classic 50s style" to one that did not put as much strain on her spine. Bell first took up swimming lessons in 1946 at Oakwood Pool, joining the Dolphinette Club coached by Alex Duff.

In 1947, Bell entered her first long-distance race: a one-mile swim at the Canadian National Exhibition in Lake Ontario. It was at that first race that Bell first met her future coach Gus Ryder, coach of the Lakeshore Swimming Club. Bell soon joined the Lakeshore Club and started practising at the indoor pool of Humberside Collegiate in Toronto. In July 1954, Bell swam in the Centennial Marathon at New Jersey. Bell finished first among the women's competitors, seventh-overall, winning US$1,150. Fellow Lakeshore Swimming Club members Tom Park and Cliff Lumsden finished second; the course was 26 miles around Absecon Island in the Atlantic Ocean. On September 8, 1954, at 11:07 pm, Bell started her swim across Lake Ontario from Youngstown, New York, at the same time as world-famous United States long-distance swimmer Florence Chadwick; the CNE had offered Chadwick CA$10,000 to swim the lake as a publicity effort for the annual exhibition. The offer to Chadwick had disappointed Canadian swimmers, Bell included, who had expected the CNE to hold a marathon race.

Because of the criticism, the CNE decided to allow other swimmers, at first as part of a relay race, but Bell decided to try the whole swim herself. According to Bell, she "did it for Canada." Bell took on the challenge without pay with the encouragement of Alexandrine Gibb, a Toronto Daily Star reporter. A third swimmer, Torontonian Winnie Roach, who had swum the English Channel decided to swim the lake. After several hours, Chadwick was forced to give up with vomiting at 6 am. Roach quit at about three-quarters distance, due to cramps. Bell swam for 20 hours and 59 minutes before she reached a breakwater near the Boulevard Club, west of the CNE grounds; the planned route straight across the lake was 51.5 kilometres, but she had to swim much further because of strong winds and the lack of modern navigation equipment. Waves that day were 5 metres high, water temperature was 21 °C and lamprey eels were attacking her legs and arms. Bell kept up her strength with Pablum, corn syrup, lemon juice with water, along with heroic encouragement from her boat crew, including fellow swimmer Joan Cooke and her coach, Gus Ryder.

Radio stations broadcast hourly reports of her progress and rival newspapers published "extra" editions throughout the day. At the start, Bell was accompanied by two boats, but a flotilla of boats gathered around her by mid-day; when she arrived at about 8:15 p.m. a crowd estimated at over 250,000 was gathered to see her arrive. CNE officials had hoped that Bell would arrive at the CNE waterfront, where a grandstand had been set up, but Ryder guided her to Sunnyside where the amusement park was brightly lit and she could navigate to, the waves were smaller. Bell was the first person to swim the 32 miles distance; the CNE decided to give Bell the $10,000 prize, she was given numerous gifts, including a car, television and furniture. Bell appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show. In an article, Bell thanked the Toronto community for the support Alexandrine Gibb, the Toronto Star reporter. Bell recounted that she did not hear the crowds cheering when she arrived at the waterfront. Bell heard the cheering for the first time when she heard a recording made by a radio station a few days later.

Bell's swim was front-page news in Toronto. The Toronto Telegram, The Globe and Mail and the Toronto Daily Star all competed to get her interview; the Star had signed for an exclusive, providing boats to the swim team, but the Telegram tried to "scoop" the story by having a Telegram reporter pose as a nurse. Offered CA$15,000 by the Toronto Telegram newspaper to swim the English Channel, Bell made the crossing in 14 hours, 36 minutes on July 31, 1955, her crossing ended at Abbotscliff, between Dover and Folkstone. At 17 years of age, she was the youngest swimmer, she was guided by her coach Gus John Boswell. She did not beat the existing record for the crossing, hitting a strong current which took her past Dover Harbour. Bell returned to Toronto for a ticker tape parade along Bay Street to City Hall, attended by a crowd of 100,000 on August 19. On August 23, 1956, she swam the Strait of Juan de Fuca off the Pacific coast, swimming from Port Angeles, Washington, to Victoria, British Columbia, Lansing at Beacon Hill Park.

It was her second attempt, after giving up after eight kilometres on her first attempt. Bell retired from marathon swimming in 1956 after completing her personal'Triple Crown'. In 1954, Bell was na

Champagne Riots

The Champagne Riots of 1910 and 1911 resulted from a series of problems faced by grape growers in the Champagne area of France. These included four years of disastrous crop losses, the infestation of the phylloxera louse, low income and the belief that wine merchants were using grapes from outside the Champagne region; the precipitating event may have been the announcement in 1908 by the French government that it would delimit by decree the exact geographic area that would be granted economic advantage and protection by being awarded the Champagne appellation. This early development of Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée regulation benefitted the Marne and Aisne districts to the significant exclusion of the Aube district which included the town of Troyes—the historic capital of the Champagne region. In the Champagne region, the production of Champagne is in the hands of producers who purchase grapes from independent growers. While some growers today produce wines under their own labels, in the early 20th century the immense amount of capital needed to produce Champagne was beyond the reach of most growers.

Champagne houses were able to bear the large risk of losing a considerable amount of product from exploding bottles as well as the cost of maintaining storage facilities for the long, labor-intensive process of making Champagne. This dynamic created a system that favored the Champagne houses as the only source of revenue for the vineyard owners. If the Champagne houses did not buy their grapes, a grower had little recourse or opportunity for another stream of income; the discontent that led to the riots began during the 19th century. The early vintages of the 20th century were difficult, due to frost and rains reducing the crop yields; the phylloxera epidemic. The harvests between 1902 and 1909 were further troubled by mildew; the 1910 vintages was afflicted by hailstorms and flooding. Nearly 96% of the crop was lost. Champagne's growing popularity, as well as the lack of grape supply in Champagne, encouraged the Champagne houses to look outside the Champagne region for a cheaper supply of grapes.

Some producers began using grapes from Spain. The French railway system made it easy for large quantities of grapes from the Loire Valley or Languedoc to be transported to Champagne at prices nearly half of what the houses were paying Champenois vine growers for their grapes. Newspapers published rumors of some houses buying rhubarb from England to make wine from. With few laws in place to protect the vine grower or the consumer, Champagne houses held most of the power in the region to profit from these faux Champagnes; the Champenois vine growers were incensed at these practices, believing that using "foreign" grapes to make sparkling wine was not producing true Champagne. They petitioned the government for assistance and a law was based requiring that at least 51% of the grapes used to make Champagne needed to come from the Champagne region itself. Collusion was practised among various Champagne houses in order to drive down the prices of grapes to as a low as they would go, with the ever-present threat that if the houses could not get their grapes cheaply enough they will continue to source grapes from outside the region.

With vineyard owners vastly outnumbering the producers, the Champagne houses used this dynamic of excess supply vs limited demand to their advantage. They hired operatives, known as commissionaires; these commissionaires were paid according to how low of a price they could negotiate and many employed adverse tactics to achieve this. Some commissionaires sought bribes in the form of extra grapes, from vine growers to which they would sell themselves for profit; the prices they were able to negotiate covered the cost of farming and harvesting which left many Champenois vine growers in poverty. Champenois vineyard owners were being paid less for fewer grapes. Poverty was widespread. In January 1911, frustrations reached boiling point as riots erupted along the towns of Damery and Hautvilliers. Champenois vine growers intercepted trucks with grapes from the Loire Valley and pushed them into the Marne river, they descended upon the warehouses of producers known to produce these faux Champagne, tossing more wine and barrels into the Marne.

The owner of Achille Perrier found his house surrounded by an angry mob chanting "A bas les fraudeurs". He was able to escape harm by hiding in the home of his concierge; the height of the violence was experienced in the village of Aÿ, located 3 miles northeast of Épernay. The history of Aÿ has been intimately connected with the prestige of the Champagne region. In the 16th century, King Francis I was fond of calling himself the "Roi d' Aÿ et de Gonesse"—King of the lands where the country's greatest wines and flour were produced; such was the reputation of the wines of Aÿ that they were known as the vins de France, their quality representing the whole of the country rather than just a region. The name of Aÿ became a shorthand term to refer to all the wines of the Champagne region.. As the mob descended upon the city little was spared. Homes of private citizens as well as Champagne house producers were ransacked. Somewhere a fire was started that spread throughout the city; the regional governor sent an urgent telegraph to Paris requesting assistance stating "We are in a state of civil war!"

By sunrise the entire village of Aÿ was burning. To quell t

Steven Fein

Steven Fein is a professor of psychology in the Department of Psychology at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts. Fein has two daughters named Hannah, he attended Princeton and the University of Michigan, where he received his Ph. D. in social psychology. His primary research interests are stereotypes and prejudice and attribution theory, how the media affects both men and women’s views of women. One of Fein’s experiments and suspicion, examined the effects of pretrial publicity on prejudice in jurors. In the context of the OJ Simpson trial, mock jurors were exposed to PTP, after which they tended to vote “guilty.” However, when the PTP indicated that the defendant was African American, the jurors became suspicious of a racist motive within the publicity. Another study by Fein and Spencer argued, they found that participants whose self-image was reinforced were less to view a member of a stereotyped group as negative. On the other hand, when self-image was threatened, those participants tended to degrade the stereotyped member, which bolstered their self-image.

He has studied culture/ethnicity, media influences, interpersonal processes, self/identity, self-affirmation theory and social cognition. Fein conducted a series of experiments that demonstrated how people's perceptions of political candidates can be influenced by the reactions of others around them. For example, in one experiment, subjects watched a tape of a Presidential debate between Ronald Reagan and Walter Mondale. In one condition, there was no manipulation of the tape. In another condition, two brief, amusing "soundbites" by Reagan that got a positive audience reaction were edited out. In a third condition, the soundbites were left in. In the unedited condition, the large majority of subjects thought Reagan's debate performance was superior to Mondale's. In the condition in which the soundbites were cut out, the preference for Reagan was eliminated, showing how strong an effect a couple of jokes were to influence overall perceptions of a 90-minute-long debate, but the results were more dramatic for the third condition.

Here, with the soundbites left in, but the audience reaction cut out, the subjects overwhelmingly thought Mondale's overall debate performance was superior to Reagan's. This demonstrated that it wasn't what Reagan said that made the difference, but rather the perceptions of the audience's reaction to what he said that had the biggest impact. Without the validation of the audience's laughter and applause, Reagan's one-liners flopped rather than soared, viewers were affected by that; this work was cited during the 2008 presidential debates between Barack Obama and John McCain when CNN showed a graph reflecting the reactions of a group of undecided voters live during the debates. Other publications by Fein include research on the role of arousal in stereotype threat and the fundamental attribution error, a study testing whether measuring the personalities of new medical students could predict what area of medicine they would specialize in several years later, his two most cited papers are Steven Fein and Steven J. Spencer "Prejudice as Self-image Maintenance: Affirming the Self Through Derogating Others" in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1997 Vol. 73, No.

1,31-44 and SJ Spencer, S Fein, CT Wolfe, C Fong "Automatic activation of stereotypes: The role of self-image threat" in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin November 1998 vol. 24 no. 11 1139-1152 In addition to the text Social Psychology, Fein co wrote other books including Readings in social psychology: The art and science of research with Saul Kassin and Motivated social perception: The Ontario symposium, with S. J. Spencer, M. Zanna, J. M. Olsen, he has represented the American Psychological Association as well as the committee of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology. Fein has co-hosted "Live From E Street Nation" with Dave Marsh on Sirius-XM's "E Street Channel" station on several occasions. One two of these occasions he has had the LA-based rock band, The Airborne Toxic Event, come on to the show for extensive interviews and live performances

Test Drive Unlimited

Test Drive Unlimited is an open world racing video game developed by Eden Games published by Atari for Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows. Atari Melbourne House developed PlayStation Portable versions; the game features over 125 licensed sports cars and motorcycles and a terrain is modeled after the Hawaiian island of Oʻahu that features some 1,000 miles of roads and highways. In the world of Test Drive Unlimited, the player is able to drive both on-road and off-road in free-roam mode, challenging any real life racers they encounter; the roads are modeled after satellite images of the island of Oʻahu. The terrain differs from rainforest and mountains to sandy beaches and Hawaiʻi's capital city, Honolulu, it is worth noting however. It is possible to drive on small islands outside of the main island; the Xbox 360 version has supported steering wheel controllers since launch. Following the third free update, Test Drive Unlimited supports force feedback wheel controllers such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 Wireless Racing Wheel.

Although advertising material for the game suggests it to be an exact depiction of the Hawaiian island, numerous government buildings, commercial buildings, notable landmarks are not present in the game. Many roads and highways are missing or placed far from their real-life counterparts; the ships docked in Pearl Harbor are in low detail and do not represent any active or retired USN vessel at all. The game begins by purchasing a house; the player is free to explore the island. These include car and bike dealerships, car rental agencies, tuning shops, paint shops, time challenges, vehicle transportation and more. Success in challenges is rewarded with in-game money, or in the Hitchhiker and Top Model challenges, coupons. Using these coupons, the player can buy clothing for their character at the many branded clothes shops on the island. Money earned may be spent on renting cars, upgrading cars and buying houses. Players can acquire sports cars from various manufacturers, including a Ferrari 575M Maranello, the AC Cobra 289, the Maserati 3500 GT and the Pontiac Firebird.

The megapack adds more than 45 more cars, including the Efijy Concept, the Ferrari 512 TR and the Nissan Skyline GT-R, an extra motorcycle. The PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable versions of Test Drive Unlimited are missing the following features: Manual transmission Avatar customization Certain vehicles such as Ferrari, Lexus, all motorcycles, some models of different makers Certain mission types Cockpit view NPCs in buildings Rear-view and side mirrors are not functional Some shops, like custom car paint USB steering wheel support Online Cruising Secret Island Eden "E" Teleporter Content and audio components were reduced due to hardware limitations. Master Points, a system where the player is awarded points for drifting, slipstreaming and driving around the island. Auto GPS, which automatically directs the player to the closest available race challenge. Car selection, as some cars that are only available in download packs for Xbox 360 and Windows are available from the start in the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable versions.

Radio stations in the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable versions feature several exclusive instrumental tracks in addition to the licensed music. Quick Race, a mode that allows players to create a limitless number of races to compete in, with a random car; some of the exclusive features of the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable versions were implemented in Test Drive Unlimited 2. The multiplayer component works as an extra layer on top of the single-player game: all activities available in single-player are available in multiplayer; the following challenges are available in multiplayer only: Race against other players Challenge players to complete tasks Attempt other player challengesRacing against other players works in freeride by using a custom geolocalized matchmaking system, added using Xbox Live Server Platform. Multiplayer races spots are handled by using the player match/ranked match system employed by Xbox Live; the Microsoft Windows version uses the GameSpy network for authentication.

It is possible to create an immediate, ad hoc race against another player by flashing headlights at their vehicle. Players may join "clubs" which help organize player events. Vehicles may be traded between players through a central "clearing house"-style interface that lists the vehicles for sale along with class, mileage and price information, it is possible to play online with the addition of a network adapter to a PlayStation 2 and via Infrastructure Mode on the PlayStation Portable. The server structure consisted of 11 individual machines working in a distributed, scalable way; the X

UE Engordany

Unió Esportiva Engordany is an Andorran football and basketball club based in Escaldes-Engordany. The club football section plays in Primera Divisió; the club was founded on 2 October 1980 as Unió Esportiva Engordany Futbol Club in the main venue of Engordany by Manuel Puerta Martín, Manuel Varela Valés and Josep Rodríguez Sànchez. On 28 January 1981 the club was established and was renamed as UE Engordany. In 2001 the club was affiliated in the FAF and began competing in the Segona Divisió, being promoted to Primera Divisió in 2003; however the club was relegated the following year after one season playing in the Andorran top league. In the 2006–07 season they finished 3rd in the Andorran 2nd division; because FC Santa Coloma's B Team, who finished 2nd, was not eligible for the 1st division, they went into play-offs against 7th from the 1st division, Encamp. By winning 2–1 at home and drawing 3–3 in the away game, they were promoted to the premier Andorran league for the 2007–08 season; the club finished 7th facing the relegation play-offs against UE Extremenya.

After losing 2–3 at home the away game was won 3–0. Thereby the club remains in the premier Andorran league for the 2008–09 season. Although in the 2012–13 season UE Engordany suffer the relegation to the 2nd division after finishing 8th in the regular season; the club returned to the top flight after finishing 1st in the 2013–14 season of the 2nd division. During 2015 and 2016 the club had an agreement and collaboration with the Spanish Football Academy Alwaysoccer Barcelona for the sports development and training of both entities. At the end of the season the club achieved the Copa Constitució final for the first time in their history after defeating two biggest clubs of Andorra as Lusitans and Sant Julià but lost 3–0 against UE Santa Coloma. In 2018 the club achieved the 2nd position in the regular league season being able to compete the 2018–19 UEFA Europa League. UE Engordany maintains a healthy rivalry with Inter Club d'Escaldes being the two clubs of Escaldes-Engordany that have played more seasons in Primera Divisió.

Primera Divisió: Runners-up: 2017–18Copa Constitució: Winners: 2019 Runners-up: 2016Segona Divisió: Winners: 2002–03, 2013–14 Lliga Andorrana de Bàsquet: Winners: 2010–11, 2011–12, 2013–14, 2014–15 Copa LAB: Winners: 2012 As of 29 September 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. UE Engordany Official Web Club profile at UEFA Club profile on Weltfussball Club profile on Football-Lineups


A flaperon on an aircraft's wing is a type of control surface that combines the functions of both flaps and ailerons. Some smaller kitplanes have flaperons for reasons of simplicity of manufacture, while some large commercial aircraft may have a flaperon between the flaps and aileron. In addition to controlling the roll or bank of an aircraft, as do conventional ailerons, both flaperons can be lowered together to function to a set of flaps. On a plane with flaperons, the pilot still has the standard separate controls for ailerons and flaps, but the flap control varies the flaperon's range of movement. A mechanical device called. While the use of flaperons rather than ailerons and flaps might seem to be a simplification, some complexity remains through the intricacies of the mixer; some aircraft, such as the Denney Kitfox, suspend the flaperons below the wing to provide undisturbed airflow at high angles of attack or low airspeeds. When the flaperon surface is hinged below the trailing edge of a wing, they are sometimes named "Junker Flaperons", from the doppelflügel type of trailing edge surfaces used on a number of Junkers aircraft of the 1930s, such as the Junkers Ju 52 airliner, Junkers Ju 87 Stuka iconic World War II dive bomber.

Current research seeks to coordinate the functions of aircraft flight control surfaces so as to reduce weight, drag and thereby achieve improved control response, reduced complexity, reduced radar visibility for stealth purposes. Beneficiaries of such research might include the latest fighter aircraft; these research approaches include flexible wings and fluidics: In flexible wings, much or all of a wing surface can change shape in flight to deflect air flow. The X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing is a NASA effort; the Adaptive Compliant Wing is a commercial effort. This may be seen as a return to the wing warping patented by the Wright brothers. In fluidics, forces in vehicles occur via circulation control, in which larger, more complex mechanical parts are replaced by smaller simpler fluidic systems, where larger forces in fluids are diverted by smaller jets or flows of fluid intermittently, to change the direction of vehicles. In this use, fluidics promises lower mass and low inertia and response times, as well as simplicity.

Aileron Spoileron