Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini was an Italian opera composer, known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania". Many years in 1898, Giuseppe Verdi "praised the broad curves of Bellini's melody:'there are long melodies as no-one else had made before'."A large amount of what is known about Bellini's life and his activities comes from surviving letters—except for a short period—which were written over his lifetime to his friend Francesco Florimo, whom he had met as a fellow student in Naples and with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. Other sources of information come from correspondence saved by other friends and business acquaintances. Bellini was the quintessential composer of the Italian bel canto era of the early 19th century, his work has been summed up by the London critic Tim Ashley as:... hugely influential, as much admired by other composers as he was by the public. Verdi raved about his "long, long melodies..." Wagner, who liked anyone but himself, was spellbound by Bellini's uncanny ability to match music with text and psychology.
Liszt and Chopin professed themselves fans. Of the 19th-century giants, only Berlioz demurred; those musicologists who consider Bellini to be a melancholic tunesmith are now in the minority. In considering which of his operas can be seen to be his greatest successes over the two hundred years since his death, Il pirata laid much of the groundwork in 1827, achieving early recognition in comparison to Donizetti's having written thirty operas before his major 1830 triumph with Anna Bolena. Both I Capuleti ed i Montecchi at La Fenice in 1830 and La sonnambula in Milan in 1831 reached new triumphal heights, although Norma, given at La Scala in 1831 did not fare as well until performances elsewhere. "The genuine triumph" of I puritani in January 1835 in Paris capped a significant career. Il pirata, Capuleti, La sonnambula, I puritani are performed today. After his initial success in Naples, most of the rest of his short life was spent outside of both Sicily and Naples, those years being followed with his living and composing in Milan and Northern Italy, and—after a visit to London—then came his final masterpiece in Paris, I puritani.
Only nine months Bellini died in Puteaux, France at the age of 33. Born in Catania, at the time part of the Kingdom of Sicily, the eldest of seven children in the family, he became a child prodigy within a musical family, his grandfather, Vincenzo Tobia Bellini, had studied at the conservatory in Naples and, in Catania from 1767 forward, had been an organist and teacher, as had Vincenzo's father, Rosario. An anonymous twelve-page hand-written history, held in Catania's Museo Belliniano, states that he could sing an aria by Valentino Fioravanti at eighteen months, that he began studying music theory at two years of age and the piano at three. By the age of five, he could play "marvelously"; the document states that Bellini's first five pieces were composed when he was just six years old and "at seven he was taught Latin, modern languages and philosophy". Author Herbert Weinstock regards some of these accounts as no more than myths, not being supported from other, more reliable sources. Additionally, he makes the point in regard to Bellini's apparent knowledge of languages and philosophy: "Bellini never became a well-educated man".
One critic, Stellios Galatopoulos, deliberates the "facts" presented in the précis, but provides a reliable source for these compositions, Galatopoulos expresses some skepticism regarding the young Bellini's child prodigy status. After 1816, Bellini began living with his grandfather, from whom he received his first music lessons. Soon after, the young composer began to write compositions. Among them were the nine Versetti da cantarsi il Venerdi Santo, eight of which were based on texts by Metastasio. By 1818, Bellini had independently completed several additional orchestral pieces, he was ready for further study. For well-off students, this would include moving to Naples. While his family wasn't wealthy enough to support that lifestyle, Bellini's growing reputation could not be overlooked, his break came when Stefano Notabartolo, the duca di San Martino e Montalbo and his duchess, became the new intendente of the province of Catania. They encouraged the young man to petition the city fathers for a stipend to support his musical studies.
This was achieved in May 1819 with unanimous agreement for a four-year pension to allow him to study at the Real Collegio di Musica di San Sebastiano in Naples. Thus, he left Catania in July carrying letters of introduction to several powerful individuals, including Giovanni Carafa, the intendente of the Real Collegio as well as being in charge of the city's royal theatres; the young Bellini was to live in Naples for the following eight years. The Conservatorio di San Sebastiano had moved to more spacious facilities close to the church of Gesù Novo and the building occupied by the nuns of San Sabastiano, was run by the government and there, who wore a semi-military uniform, were obliged to live under a tight daily regimen of classes in principal subjects, in singing and instrumental coaching, plus basic education, their days were long, going from early morning mass at 5:15 am to ending by 10 pm. Although beyond the normal age for admission, Bellini had submitted ten pieces of music for consideration.
Beatrice di Tenda
Beatrice di Tenda is a tragic opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini, from a libretto by Felice Romani, after the play of the same name by Carlo Tedaldi Fores. A play by Alexandre Dumas was chosen as the subject for the opera, but Bellini had reservations about its suitability. After he and Giuditta Pasta had together seen the ballet based on the different play, Tedaldi-Fores' Beatrice Tenda, in Milan in October 1832, she became enthusiastic about the subject and the composer set about persuading Romani that this was a good idea. Romani, who had his own concerns, the principal one being the close parallels with the story told in Donizetti's Anna Bolena, an opera which had established that composer's success in 1830. Against his better judgment, he agreed, although he failed to provide verses for many months. Although unsuccessful at its premiere in Venice in 1833, Bellini felt that he had counteracted the horror of its story "by means of the music, colouring it now tremendously and now sadly".
After hearing of the opera's success in Palermo, Bellini wrote to his Neapolitan friend Francesco Florimo, stating that Beatrice "was not unworthy of her sisters". It was Pasta's performances in the title role that overcame the public's hostility to the piece; the opera was Bellini's penultimate work, coming between Norma and I puritani and it was the only one of his operas to be published in full score in his lifetime. With the leading role requiring a strong female character to be written for Pasta and librettist met to consider a subject. Much of the initial work fell upon Romani, who had to look at a number of possible sources, but by 6 October, a subject had been agreed upon: it would be Christina regina di Svenzia from a play by Alexandre Dumas which had appeared in Paris in 1830. However, within a month, Bellini had changed his mind and he was writing to Pasta stating that "the subject has been changed, we'll write Beatrice di Tenda. I had a hard time persuading Romani, but persuade him I did, with good reasons.
Knowing that the subject pleases you, as you told me the evening when you saw the ballet. He is a man of good will, I want him to show it in wanting to prepare at least the first act for me swiftly". Bellini's expectation that he would promptly receive the first act turned out to be a mistake, his librettist had vastly over-committed himself: by the time that Christina became Beatrice, he had made commitments to other composers for an October opera, for an opera for La Scala in February 1833, for a Parma production on 26 February, for La Scala on 10 March, for Florence on 17 March. In spite of Romani's contract deadlines, no progress towards the preparation of the libretto for Beatrice took place in November. Bellini announced that he would arrive in Venice in early December, but after the 10th, he became preoccupied with rehearsals for his stagings of Norma. However, the lack of any verses—for an opera, supposed to be given its premiere in the second half of February—caused him to have to take action against Romani.
He lodged a complaint with the governor of Venice who contacted the governor of Milan, who had his police contact Romani. The librettist arrived in Venice on 1 January 1833, he holed up to write Bellini's libretto, but, at the same time, Donizetti was incensed at delays in receiving a libretto from Romani for an opera, to be Parisina. When Norma opened on 26 December, it was a success but only because of Pasta; this caused Bellini to fear for. Writing to his friend Santocanale in Palermo on 12 January, the composer was in despair, complaining of the short time to write his opera: "whose fault is that? that of my usual and original poet, the God of Sloth!" Their relationship began to deteriorate: greetings including tu gave way to voi and they lived in different parts of Venice, unusual when they were working together outside their home city. However, by 14 February, Bellini was reporting that he had only "another three pieces of the opera to do", he still had the second act to set to music. On that date he notes to Ferlito that "I hope to go onstage here on 6 March if I am able to finish the opera and prepare it."As it turned out, Bellini was only able to prepare the opera for rehearsals by deleting sections of the libretto as well as some of the music for the finale, with the result that Beatrice's final aria had to be borrowed from Bianca e Fernando.
In order to create more time for Bellini to finish, the La Fenice impresario Lanari padded the programme with older works or revivals, but that allowed only eight days for Beatrice before the scheduled end of the season. Not the audience having waited so long for the new work, greeted the opening night on 16 March with little enthusiasm, their rejection demonstrated by cries of Norma! Upon hearing Pasta's first aria, Ma la sola, oimė! Son io, / che penar per lui si veda?, thinking that they heard echoes of the music from the earlier opera. Their indifference was magnified after reading Romani's plea for "the reader's full indulgence" which appeared in the libretto with the suggestion that its faults were not his, but at the following two performances there were large crowds. For Bellini, his opera "was not unworthy of her sisters". There began what Herbert Weinstock describes, in over twelve pages of text which include the long letters written by both sides in the dispute, "the journalistic storm over Beatrice di Tenda
Bradford is a city in McKean County, United States, close to the border with New York State and 78 miles south of Buffalo, New York. Bradford is the principal city in PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Settled in 1823, Bradford was chartered as a city in 1879 and emerged as a wild oil boomtown in the Pennsylvania oil rush in the late 19th century; the area's Pennsylvania Grade crude oil has superior qualities and is free of asphaltic constituents, contains only trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen, has excellent characteristics for refining into lubricants. The Bradford & Foster Brook Railway was built in 1876 as one of, if not the first, monorails in America, when Bradford was a booming oil town. World-famous Kendall racing oils were produced in Bradford. Bradford was the site of an important step in the development of personal aviation. In the 1930s, the Taylor Brothers Aircraft Corporation produced an airplane called the Taylor Cub in Bradford. After a fire at the factory, the company was bought by William T. Piper.
After relocating his factory to Lock Haven, Piper resumed production of a revised design of the airplane first produced in Bradford, which became the world-famous Piper Cub. The population peaked at 19,306 in 1930, but at the 2010 census had dropped to 8,770. Two adjoining townships, home to 9,000 people, make the population of Greater Bradford about 18,000. Famous Bradfordians include the opera singer Marilyn Horne, the Hall of Fame baseball player Rube Waddell and the five-time All-Star football player Stew Barber. A famous perpetual motion machine hoax was created in Bradford in 1897 by J. M. Aldrich; the Bradford Armory, Bradford Downtown Historic District, Bradford Old City Hall, Rufus Barrett Stone House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Bradford is the home of Zippo, a manufacturer of collectible pocket lighters, Case, owned by Zippo and makes hunting, folding pocketknives, collectibles. In February 2009, the two companies employed 1,117 people, but significant layoffs have taken place since then.
After Zippo and Case, the second largest employer is Bradford Regional Medical Center, which employed 759 in February 2009. BRMC underwent a significant campus expansion in 2006. Other major employers in February 2009 included Beacon Light, responsible for overseeing troubled youth. Bradford Area School District and Wal-Mart. FCI McKean nearby employed 301 at that time; the city is home to American Refining Group, their line of specialty products. Along with being Bradford's longest running active business, ARG is the oldest continuously operating refinery in the United States, it celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2006. Since ARG purchased the refinery in the mid-1990s, employment has doubled, to just under 300 in February 2009. Bradford has a four-year college, the University of Pittsburgh at Bradford, which in the fall term 2009 had 1,455 full-time students and 202 part-time students for a total enrollment of 1,657, with 217 full-time employees and 106 part-time employees. 900 students live on campus.
The Bradford Creative and Performing Arts Center season runs from September to March. The Bromeley Family Theater at The University of Pittsburgh at Bradford hosts many events in the University's Spectrum Series that brings authors, musicians and performance groups to campus with all events open to the public. Theater productions are staged by the theater departments at Pitt-Bradford and the high school and by the Bradford Little Theater, which celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2006. An annual community talent show, Kiwanis Kapers, occurs in the fall. In May 2017, the Marilyn Horne Museum and Exhibit Center opened in downtown Bradford. Part of the University of Pittsburgh at Bradford, the 3,400 square-foot exhibition space celebrates the life and career of American mezzo-soprano, Marilyn Horne; the museum highlights objects from Horne's personal archive, housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Annual festivals include Stinkfest, Summer Daze, Autumn Daze, the Italian Festival, the Zippo/Case International Swap Meet and the Crook Farm Country Fair.
In early August, the annual Big 30 Charity high school all star football game takes place at Parkway Field, where a million-dollar artificial playing surface was installed in 2008. In 2009, for the first time, National Night Out was a significant event in Bradford, coinciding with Taste of Bradford. A First Night celebration is held on New Year's Eve, complete with a ball drop of its own; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,175 people, 3,922 households, 2,247 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,659.7 people per square mile. There were 4,371 housing units at an average density of 1,267.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.74% White, 0.49% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.95% of the population. There are 3,922 households, out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18, 36.9% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.7% of households ware non-families.
36.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on a novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée; the opera was first performed by the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 3 March 1875, where its breaking of conventions shocked and scandalized its first audiences. Bizet died after the 33rd performance, unaware that the work would achieve international acclaim within the following ten years. Carmen has since become one of the most popular and performed operas in the classical canon; the opera is written in the genre of opéra comique with musical numbers separated by dialogue. It is set in southern Spain and tells the story of the downfall of Don José, a naïve soldier, seduced by the wiles of the fiery gypsy Carmen. José abandons his childhood sweetheart and deserts from his military duties, yet loses Carmen's love to the glamorous torero Escamillo, after which José kills her in a jealous rage; the depictions of proletarian life and lawlessness, the tragic death of the main character on stage, broke new ground in French opera and were controversial.
After the premiere, most reviews were critical, the French public was indifferent. Carmen gained its reputation through a series of productions outside France, was not revived in Paris until 1883. Thereafter, it acquired popularity at home and abroad. Commentators have asserted that Carmen forms the bridge between the tradition of opéra comique and the realism or verismo that characterised late 19th-century Italian opera; the music of Carmen has since been acclaimed for brilliance of melody, harmony and orchestration, for the skill with which Bizet musically represented the emotions and suffering of his characters. After the composer's death, the score was subject to significant amendment, including the introduction of recitative in place of the original dialogue; the opera has been recorded many times since the first acoustical recording in 1908, the story has been the subject of many screen and stage adaptations. In the Paris of the 1860s, despite being a Prix de Rome laureate, Bizet struggled to get his stage works performed.
The capital's two main state-funded opera houses—the Opéra and the Opéra-Comique—followed conservative repertoires that restricted opportunities for young native talent. Bizet's professional relationship with Léon Carvalho, manager of the independent Théâtre Lyrique company, enabled him to bring to the stage two full-scale operas, Les pêcheurs de perles and La jolie fille de Perth, but neither enjoyed much public success; when artistic life in Paris resumed after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Bizet found wider opportunities for the performance of his works. Although this failed and was withdrawn after 11 performances, it led to a further commission from the theatre, this time for a full-length opera for which Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy would provide the libretto. Halévy, who had written the text for Bizet's student opera Le docteur Miracle, was a cousin of Bizet's wife, Geneviève. Bizet was delighted with the Opéra-Comique commission, expressed to his friend Edmund Galabert his satisfaction in "the absolute certainty of having found my path".
The subject of the projected work was a matter of discussion between composer and the Opéra-Comique management. It was Bizet. Mérimée's story is a blend of travelogue and adventure yarn inspired by the writer's lengthy travels in Spain in 1830, had been published in 1845 in the journal Revue des deux Mondes, it may have been influenced in part by Alexander Pushkin's 1824 poem "The Gypsies", a work Mérimée had translated into French. Bizet may first have encountered the story during his Rome sojourn of 1858–60, since his journals record Mérimée as one of the writers whose works he absorbed in those years. Cast details are as provided by Mina Curtiss from vocal score; the stage designs are credited to Charles Ponchard. Place: Seville and surrounding hills Time: Around 1820 A square, in Seville. On the right, a door to the tobacco factory. At the back, a bridge. On the left, a guardhouse. A group of soldiers relaxes in the square, waiting for the changing of the guard and commenting on the passers-by.
Micaëla appears, seeking José. Moralès tells her that "José invites her to wait with them, she declines. José arrives with the new guard, greeted and imitated by a crowd of urchins; as the factory bell rings, the cigarette girls emerge and exchange banter with young men in the crowd. Carmen sings her provocative habanera on the untameable nature of love; the men plead with her to choose a lover, after some teasing she throws a flower to Don José, who thus far has been ignoring her but is now annoyed by her insolence. As the women go back to t
Bel canto —with several similar constructions —is a term with several meanings that relate to Italian singing. The phrase was not associated with a "school" of singing until the middle of the 19th century, when writers in the early 1860s used it nostalgically to describe a manner of singing that had begun to wane around 1830. Nonetheless, "neither musical nor general dictionaries saw fit to attempt definition until after 1900"; the term remains vague and ambiguous in the 21st century and is used to evoke a lost singing tradition. As understood today, the term bel canto refers to the Italian-originated vocal style that prevailed throughout most of Europe during the 18th century and early 19th centuries. Late 19th- and 20th-century sources "would lead us to believe that bel canto was restricted to beauty and evenness of tone, legato phrasing, skill in executing florid passages, but contemporary documents describe a multifaceted manner of performance far beyond these confines." The main features of the bel canto style were: prosodic singing matching register and tonal quality of the voice to the emotional content of the words a articulated manner of phrasing based on the insertion of grammatical and rhetorical pauses a delivery varied by several types of legato and staccato a liberal application of more than one type of portamento messa di voce as the principal source of expression frequent alteration of tempo through rhythmic rubato and the quickening and slowing of the overall time the introduction of a wide variety of graces and divisions into both arias and recitatives gesture as a powerful tool for enhancing the effect of the vocal delivery vibrato reserved for heightening the expression of certain words and for gracing longer notes.
The Harvard Dictionary of Music by Willi Apel says that bel canto denotes "the Italian vocal technique of the 18th century, with its emphasis on beauty of sound and brilliancy of performance rather than dramatic expression or romantic emotion. In spite of the repeated reactions against bel canto and the frequent exaggeration of its virtuoso element, it must be considered as a artistic technique and the only proper one for Italian opera and for Mozart, its early development is bound up with that of the Italian opera seria." Since the bel canto style flourished in the 18th and early 19th centuries, the music of Handel and his contemporaries, as well as that of Mozart and Rossini, benefits from an application of bel canto principles. Operas received the most dramatic use of the techniques, but the bel canto style applies to oratorio, though in a somewhat less flamboyant way; the da capo arias these works contained provided challenges for singers, as the repeat of the opening section prevented the story line from progressing.
Nonetheless, singers needed to keep the emotional drama moving forward, so they used the principles of bel canto to help them render the repeated material in a new emotional guise. They incorporated embellishments of all sorts, but not every singer was equipped to do this, some writers, notably Domenico Corri himself, suggesting that singing without ornamentation was an acceptable practice. Singers embellished both arias and recitatives, but did so by tailoring their embellishments to the prevailing sentiments of the piece. Two famous 18th-century teachers of the style were Antonio Bernacchi and Nicola Porpora, but many others existed. A number of these teachers were castrati. Singer/author John Potter declares in his book Tenor: History of a Voice that: For much of the 18th century castrati defined the art of singing. In another application, the term bel canto is sometimes attached to Italian operas written by Vincenzo Bellini and Gaetano Donizetti; these composers wrote bravura works for the stage during what musicologists sometimes call the "bel canto era".
But the style of singing had started to change around 1830, Michael Balfe writing of the new method of teaching, required for the music of Bellini and Donizetti, so the operas of Bellini and Donizetti were the vehicles for a new era of singing. The last important opera role for a castrato was written in 1824 by Giacomo Meyerbeer; the phrase "bel canto" was not used until the latter part of the 19th century, when it was set in opposition to the development of a weightier, more powerful style of speech-inflected singing associated with German opera and, above all, Richard Wagner's revolutionary music dramas. Wagner decried the Italian singing model, alleging that it was concerned with "whether that G or A will come out roundly", he advocated a new, Germanic school of singing that would draw "the spiritually energetic and profoundly passionate into the orbit of its matchless Expression."French musicians and composers never embraced the more florid extremes of the 18th-century Italian bel canto style.
They disliked the castrato v
The word coloratura is from Italian meaning "coloring", derives from the Latin word colorare. When used in English, the term refers to elaborate melody in vocal music and in operatic singing of the 18th and 19th centuries, with runs, wide leaps, or similar virtuoso-like material, its instrumental equivalent is ornamentation. It is now used to refer to passages of such music, operatic roles in which such music plays a prominent part, singers of these roles; the term "coloratura" was first defined in several early non-Italian music dictionaries: Michael Praetorius's Syntagma musicum. In these early texts "the term is dealt with and always with reference to Italian usage". Christoph Bernhard defined "coloratura" in two ways: cadenza: "runs which are not so bound to the bar, but which extend two, three or more bars further should be made only at chief closes" diminution: "when an interval is altered through several shorter notes, so that, instead of one long note, a number of shorter ones rush to the next note through all kinds of progressions by step or leap" The term was never used in the most famous Italian texts on singing: Giulio Caccini's Le Nuove musiche.
The term "coloratura" is most applied to the elaborate and florid figuration or ornamentation in classical and romantic vocal music. However, early music of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, in particular, baroque music extending up to about 1750, includes a substantial body of music for which coloratura technique is required by vocalists and instrumentalists alike. In the modern musicological sense the term is therefore used to refer to florid music from all periods of music history, both vocal and instrumental. For example, in Germany the term "coloratura" has been applied to the stereotypical and formulaic ornamentation used in 16th‑century keyboard music written by a group of German organ composers referred to as the "colorists". Despite its derivation from Latin colorare, the term "coloratura" does not apply to the practice of "coloring" the voice, i.e. altering the quality or timbre of the voice for expressive purposes. The term is not restricted to describing any one range of voice.
All female and male voice types may achieve mastery of coloratura technique. There are coloratura parts for all voice types in different musical genres; the term "coloratura", when used without further qualification means soprano di coloratura. A coloratura soprano role, most famously typified by the Queen of the Night in Mozart's The Magic Flute, has a high range and requires the singer to execute with great facility elaborate ornamentation and embellishment, including running passages and trills. A coloratura soprano has the vocal ability to produce notes above high C and possesses a tessitura ranging from A4 to A5 or higher. Richard Miller names two types of soprano coloratura voices as well as a mezzo-soprano coloratura voice, although he does not mention the coloratura contralto, he includes mention of specific works requiring coloratura technique for the contralto voice. Examples of coloratura music for different voice ranges include: Mozart's Allelujah may be arranged for and sung by a properly trained contralto, mezzo-soprano or soprano.
The piece was written for soprano castrato. The aria Every valley shall be exalted from Handel's Messiah is an example of a coloratura piece for tenor; each singer of a major role in Rossini's operas must have a secure coloratura technique. Osmin, a character in Mozart's The Abduction from the Seraglio, is a coloratura role for a bass.'Agitata da due venti' a coloratura mezzo-soprano aria, from Antonio Vivaldi's opera Griselda. Bel canto Diatonic and chromatic § Medieval coloration Apel, Willi, ed.. Harvard Dictionary of Music, second edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-37501-7. Miller, Richard. Training soprano voices. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513018-8. Randel, Don Michael, ed.. New Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-61525-0. Sadie, Stanley, ed.. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-56159-228-9